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During the late 19th century Asian-Americans, particularly those of Chinese decent went through one of the hardest, most discriminatory periods of their American history. The legal and political system restricted the freedom of Asian-Americans during the late 19th to early 20th century by implementing laws that limited their ability to freely immigrate to United States soil. One of the most severe, drastic, and discriminatory acts to come upon United States history was the Chinese Exclusion Act (Bodenner, 2006). After an influx in Chinese immigration to America during the California Gold ush of the 1800's, a law to try to control the number of Chinese immigrants entering the United States was implemented. This law gave way to the biggest reduction in a single ethnicity in American history, as it not only prevented the Chinese from coming to America, but it also threatened those who already had their lives in the…
Kanazawa, M. (2005). Immigration, Exclusion, and Taxation: Anti-Chinese Legislation Gold Rush in California. The Journal of Economic History. Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Economic History Association. 65 (3):779-805.
Sung, B.L. (1971). The Story of the Chinese in America.
Pfaelzer, J. (2007). The Forgotten War against Chinese-Americans.
Bodenner, Chris. Chinese Exclusion Act. Issues & Controversies in American -- . 20 Oct. 2006. Facts On File News Services. 15 Nov. 2011
He predicted that by the year 2000, their 3% of the total population will increase with at least one additional percent (akaki, 9).
hose Asians who came to the United States with the first immigration wave were mostly workers with no education drawn by the temptation of the Gold Rush on the West Coast, or by the shortage of labor forces the United States were confronted with at some point. Few of them were having higher education or even University degrees. Most of them struggled and worked hard to make a living and then to bring the rest of their families over to join them here (akaki, 12). In this respect, they were no different than the rest the immigrants who were flooding in from Europe by the second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. Yet, there were laws that were issued in order to stop…
Takaki, R. 1995. Democracy and Race: Asian-Americans and World War II. Chelsea House Publishers New York Philadelphia
1998. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Little, Brown
2008. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books/Little, Brown, and Co.
Unfortunately, the opinions of many white Americans during this time were of disapproval rather than acceptance of the "melting pot" that was America. Takaki's work is also surprising when the subject notes Asian-Americans had lived in the United States for well over "150 years" yet still their existed much in the way of prejudiced behaviors toward young and old Asian-American's alike.
Takaki providers a wonderful insight of Asian-American culture stating they were diverse in nature, and inclusive of many different people including the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Philippino, and Laotian people, that "filled the streets with color" (Takaki, 1998, 4). Typically however they worked in lower class jobs and in garment factories where the author notes, "Chinese and Korean women hunch over whirling sewing machines, with their babies sleeping nearby" (Takaki, 1998, 4). Such a thought in contemporary society is haunting, given the United States prides itself on diversity, liberty and…
Takaki, R. Strangers From a Different Shore: A history of Asian-Americans. New York:
Back Bay Books, 1998.
Kurashige, Lon and Murray, a.Y Major Problems in Asian-American History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.
Wang, Ping. Interview by author. Note taking. November, 2007.
This, obviously, is morally wrong, but as long as people continue to see the world through the lens of race, there are likely to be widespread injustices.
It seems to me that there is no easy solution to the problem of racism and lack of social representation of the racial minorities in this country. It would be almost contrary to human biology to suggest that people should be able to ignore their physical and cultural differences. Nevertheless, the one eradicable root cause of racism in the United States is misunderstanding -- this necessarily grows out of inexperience. As a result, we should be led to believe that the best way to tackle the issue of diversity in America is to grant racial minorities greater exposure in both the media and in politics.
One relatively easy way to accomplish this is to eliminate the two party political system. if, for example,…
Provided by Customer. Sept. 28, 2006.
Soon Ja Du was the Korean-American owner of a liquor store in South Central Los Angeles. As if by fate, African-American Latasha Harlins walked into Soon Ja Du's store a few weeks before the Rodney King beatings. Like King, Latasha Harlins became a victim of white hegemony.
Soon Ja Du shot and killed Latasha Harlins. Like the five police officers who were acquitted for their brutalizing Rodney King, the white judge in the case also gave Soon Ja Du a unjustly lenient sentence. The situation added fuel to an already robust fire over the Rodney King trial. The two issues brought to a head the conflicts that had been brewing under the surface in South-Central Los Angeles. In South-Central Los Angeles, about 30% of the liquor stores were owned by Korean-Americans. Many of those Korean-Americans like Soon Ja Du and her family did not actually live in the communities surrounding…
Kim, Elaine H. "Home is Where the Han Is."
Lee, Jennifer. "Striving for the American Dream." Chapter 10.
Lee, Spike. Do the Right Thing. Feature Film.
Stevenson, Brenda E. "Latasha Harlins, Soon Ja Du, and Joyce Karlin: A Case Study of Multicultural Female Violence and Justice on the Urban Frontier."
First, it masks society to the continued dearth of Asian-Americans in decision-making positions, both in government and in corporate America. It also stops people in authority from addressing the issue, because the problem is buried.
Towards this, the first step is to educate people regarding the folly of the model minority. If Asian-Americans realize that there is a systemic racism that still acts to block their efforts at career advancement, they would be able to take steps to be more proactive. They could learn to overcome cultural misperceptions that success depends only on finely honed technical skills. Instead, Asian-Americans should know to hone their leadership and communication skills as well, engaging in networking practices and speaking up instead of being deferential to superiors (Borja).
Additionally, members of the community should also successful Asian-Americans should also recognize that the absence of Asian-American leaders is also due to the lack of role…
Borja, Rhea. "Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Asian-American Workplace Issues." Washington Post. June 25, 2004: A1.
Fishman-Lapin, Julie. "Asians hit 'bamboo ceiling' in advancing to management." Knight Ridder Tribune Business Ways. April 29, 2005: 1.
Phu, Vu, Layren Emiko Hokoyama and JD Jokoyama. "Become Visible: Let Your Voice Be Heard." AAPI Nexus. 4:1 (2006).
Wu, Jeremy and Carson Eoyang. "Asian Pacific American Senior Executives in the Federal Government." AAPI Nexus. 4:1 (2006).
Asian-Americans With Diabetes: Assessing the Intervention
PICOT question: How do Asian-Americans with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes perceive barriers to implementing dietary and lifestyles changes to reduce A1C levels in the first 3 months after diagnosis?
Although Asian cuisines have traditionally been regarded as healthier than Westernized diets because of their high fiber and vegetable content, relatively low levels of sugar, and their emphasis on rice vs. highly sweetened starchy grains, this has been changing in recent years as Asian-Americans adapt increasingly Westernized eating habits (McNeely 2004). In fact, "Asian-Americans are almost twice as likely to develop diabetes as the general population in the United States, and of those who develop the disease, more than 95% are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes," which is strongly correlated with obesity and poor exercise and dietary habits ("Asian-Americans with Diabetes," 2015). Asian-Americans are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes…
Asian-Americans with Diabetes. (2015). Joslin Diabetes Center. Retrieved from:
McNeely, M. (2004). Type 2 diabetes prevalence in Asian-Americans. Diabetes Care, 27(11):
66-69. Retrieved from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/1/66.abstract
Persons who do not know about his traditional, middle class, hite bread upbringing in upstate New York call upon him to represent the 'Asian viewpoint' when he is asked, for instance, to be a talking head or commentator on a scandal relating to America's relationship with China. Liu has decided he is Asian-American, almost by default -- because he is seen as Asian in America, he is an Asian-American, whether he likes it or not.
This uncomfortable embrace of minority status and the terms that encompass their identity seems unique to the Asian-American experience. Unlike African-American's common experience of oppression and history of slavery, Asian-Americans often identify as such because of their immediate classification as 'other' in America, whether they see themselves as 'others' or not. This classification is not always chosen, and it seldom encompasses their national history. In facts, it blends many Asian national identities into one identity.…
Kim, Suki. The Interpreter. New York: Random House, 2003.
Liu, Eric. The Accidental Asian. Random House, 2003.
Okada, Jon. No Boy. Seattle: University of Washington, 1976.
Asian-American Studies I needed complete. This description project: Historical Connections Project
Chinese ideals of beauty seem so different from Western ones. When one looks to Chinese practices such as foot binding, it almost seems that some of these practices are barbaric. However, and this is what this paper proposes to argue, Chinese and Western aesthetics have a lot more in common than an outsider would initially believe. Suffering is also a norm in Western aesthetics, whether it means wearing high heels or choosing a smaller number for one's clothes.
This paper will first look into the Chinese practice of foot binding, including particularities such as how this practice originated and what its importance was in Chinese society throughout centuries. The paper will subsequently link foot binding to current Western practices, drawing conclusions on whether there can actually be a common denominator between these aesthetics norms.
The practice of foot binding…
They did not have hope for a better life, as the Chinese did, which made their introduction into the country even more difficult.
Both ethnic groups were treated horribly after their arrival. The Chinese (and other immigrants after them) experienced racism and misunderstanding. Two historians note, "Historically, the many diverse ethnic groups within the Asian-American community have experienced strikingly similar incidents of anti-Asian violence, including: the 1885 anti-Chinese riots in ock Springs, Wyoming; [and] the armed expulsion of South Asian laborers from Live Oak, California in 1908" (Alvarez & Kimura, 2001, p. 192). The Chinese were forced to live in separate areas in most cities and towns, and were even buried in separate cemeteries, which can still be seen in many areas of the west. Later, the Federal Government passed an anti-immigration law banning nearly all Asian immigration to the U.S. Even families of Asians already here could not enter…
Alvarez, A.N., & Kimura, E.F. (2001). Asian-Americans and racial identity: Dealing with racism and snowballs. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(3), 192.
Lien, P., Conway, M.M., & Wong, J. (2004). The politics of Asian-Americans: Diversity and community. New York: Routledge.
Palmer, C.A. (2000). Chapter 1, 1502-1619. In To make our world anew: A history of African-Americans, Kelley, R.D. & Lewis (Eds.) (pp. 3-52). New York: Oxford University Press.
Quarles, B. (1988). Black mosaic: Essays in Afro-American history and historiography. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Second World War (WWII) witnessed an outbreak of activism, a form of resistance, by Native Americans, African-Americans, Asian-Americans and Chicanos, as the campaign for civil rights inspired other racial minorities in America to demand total equality for themselves. The era from the 1950s to 1970s saw dramatic changes to United States (U.S.) society, especially for ethnic/racial minorities who rallied and protested against their subordination, demanding total political and civil rights. Minority advocates confronted belittling media stereotypes and misrepresentation within educational institutes, reclaiming ethnic/racial identities that had earlier been formulated as frequently futile bids to blend in with the central, white society. Every social movement employs numerous tactics and strategies for accomplishing goals. While some civil-rights campaign strategies, such as non-violent disobedience, were adopted as the movement's most enduring and iconic images, most strategies were derived from Gandhi's non-violent strategies or from earlier labor movements (Fitzgerald 176).
African-Americans constitute the most…
Davis, Angela Y, and Robin D.G. Kelley. The Meaning of Freedom., 2012. Print.
Fitzgerald, Kathleen. Recognizing Race and Ethnicity: Power, Privilege, and Inequality. New York: Westview Press, 2014. Internet resource.
Takaki Ronald. A Different Mirror. n.d. Internet resource.
The scourge of type II diabetes is impossible to miss when looking at the societies of countries like the United States. More commonly known as adult-onset diabetes, the disorder is commonly manifested upon adulthood (if not sooner) when the body of the patient is unable to regulate insulin and blood sugar like could and should normally be happening within said patient. Asian-Americans are commonly immune from the normal trends and patterns of type II diabetes. However, there are some Asian-Americans that absolutely deal with the disorder and they are very much at a disadvantage given their start minority status in the United States in general and within most corners and cities within the same. Sure, there are cities like New York and San Francisco. There are some school districts and neighborhoods that have high Asian populations. While the general treatments and interventions for type II diabetes are not completely different…
Islam, N. S., Kwon, S. C., Wyatt, L. C., Ruddock, C., Horowitz, C. R., Devia, C., & Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2015).
Disparities in Diabetes Management in Asian Americans in New York City Compared with Other
Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups. American Journal of Public Health, 105S443-S446.
Islam, N., Zanowiak, J., Wyatt, L., Chun, K., Lee, L., Kwon, S., & Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2013). A Randomized-Controlled,
Pilot Intervention on Diabetes Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles in the New York City Korean
Community. Journal of Community Health, 38(6), 1030-1041. doi:10.1007/s10900-013-9711-z
Stewart, S. S., Dang, J., & Chen, M. (2016). Diabetes Prevalence and Risk Factors in Four Asian American
Sociology / Panethnicity
Asian-American Panethnicity -- by Yen Le Espiritu
What issue is at stake and what is the author's point-of-view?
Before addressing the intellectual question that the author is pursuing in this book, there are some important preliminary concepts that are important to report about this book. There are positions the author takes, points-of-view he sets out to explain, in order to set up the main problems discussed in the book.
For example, the author makes clear on page 6 that "Panethnicity -- the generalization of solidarity among ethnic sub-groups -- is largely a product of categorization," and that the term "Asian-American" grew from "the racist discourse that constructs Asians as a homogeneous group," which they are certainly not.
When all Asians are "lumped together" (or categorized unfairly) into an "expanded 'ethnic' framework," Espirtu writes, subgroups boundaries -- such as Vietnamese, Laotians, Cambodians, or Chinese -- are largely ignored.…
Espiritu, Yen Le. Asian-American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.
Through the summer months, I traveled most of Southeast Asia, concentrating the bulk of my travels in China. It was here that I was able to see, first hand, my racial history. It did not strike a too-significant impression on me - I felt a bit like the "Outsider" here, as well. I did not speak the language, I did not dress like they did. I could hardly, at first, even order a spring roll, or use public transit. This experience added to my desire to understand, truly, what the Asian-American identity meant, and if it really should or could have any significance to me.
The most basic reason that I would like to major in Asian-American studies is a narcissistic one: I want to understand myself at a deeper level. Being "forced" to perceive myself as different has had its positive and negative impacts on me, but, more importantly,…
Social Support and Depression
Among Asian-American Adults
The elationship between Social Support and Depression among Asian-American Adults
There is evidence to suggest that Asian-Americans are less likely than European-Americans to seek social support for depression. As several studies suggest a direct link to perceived social support and depression recovery, it is important to address the reasons why Asian-Americans are reluctant to seek support. Specifically, the more social support perceived -- to include support from family, friends, and spiritual or religious beliefs -- the more likely a person is to recover from depression; however, there is also evidence to suggest that certain types of support can actually exacerbate depression in Asian-Americans.
For the purposes of this paper, I will present a literature review of five academic articles addressing the subject of social support and depression among Asian-Americans. The primary concerns of the articles include:
What cultural differences inform the reluctance to…
Barbour, A. (1994). Social Support & Depression.
Jang, Y., Chiriboga, D.A. & Okazaki, S. (2009). Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean-American adults. Aging & Mental Health, 13, 127 -- 134.
Kim, H.S., Sherman, D.K., & Taylor, S.E. (2008). Culture and Social Support. American Psychologist, 63 (6), 518-126.
Leong, T.L. & Lau, A.S.L. (2001). Barriers to Providing Effective Mental Health Services to Asian-Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3 (4), 202-214.
Some analysts find that Native American men area more oriented toward the past, but others find that these men have as much a high future Time Perspective as others. Thoms notes that "cultures such as Native American ones that honor their ancestors or have a cyclical conception of time may infer to outsiders that the culture is past oriented" (34). Thoms says that ideas about time orientation are based on cultural stereotypes more than on reality.
Based on the current examination, the time orientation of the Asian-American woman is high at 5.4, compared to my own at 3.8. The idea of an Asian orientation to the past is in keeping with these results. Also, the client's orientation is more toward the time taken for a process, while my own is more evenly divided and more attuned to taking the time necessary to achieve the goals. This could mean that the…
McCrone. J. (2007). Dichotomistic. Logic, retrieved August 9, 2008 from http://www.dichotomistic.com/.
Thoms, P. (2004). Driven by time: Time orientation and leadership. New York: Praeger.
PICOT Question for Management of Type 2 Diabetes of Asian-Americans
Diabetes is a lifestyle disease that affects the method the body handles glucose in the blood. Presently, more than 27 million people have been diagnosed of type 2 diabetes in the United States while more than 86 million people are suspected having pre-diabetes problem. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are blur vision, wounds that are unable to heal, always being thirsty, and feeling worn out. Poor diet is one of the major causes of type 2 diabetes, and people who eat too much of highly processed carbs, saturated fats, red meat, processed met, and sugary drink have high risks of having type 2 diabetes. One of the major strategies to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes is to eat right type of food by avoiding taking highly processed carbs, red meat, processed and saturated fats. It is also necessary…
Deng, F. Zhang, A. & Chan, C.B. (2013). Acculturation, Dietary Acceptability, and Diabetes Management among Chinese in North America. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 4: 108.
Faramarz, I. (2012). Glycemic Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The New England Journal of Medicine. 366(14): 1319-27.
Garr, R.G. Anne, D. Allison, V.A. et al.(2014). Nurse practitioner management of type 2 diabetes. The Permanente journal. 18( 2): e134 - e140
Marguerite, N.J. & Edward, J.B. (2004). Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Asian-Americans. Diabetes Care. 27(1): 66-9.
Child Abuse Case Studies
The 70-year-old Asian-American woman
The 70-year-old Asian-American woman has been having severe arguments with her daughter, and she reports that her daughter slapped her giving her a black eye. She does not want this information disclosed because she depends on her daughter for care and support and she fears it may make the situation worse. According to Henion and Cho (2012), the Asian community associates violence with a sense of fear and shame. Cultural barriers for the victims often include language barriers, unavailability of culturally sensitive services and feelings of isolation. It is imperative to take this into consideration when analyzing the situation in order to protect her from further harm. The 70-year-old lady is also unable to take care of herself, having to depend on the daughter for basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing. Therefore, just like a child, she also needs to…
California Department of Social Services (2003). The California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law: Issues and Answers for Mandated Reporters. Retrieved 21 June 2015 from http://www.dominican.edu/academics/resources/facultyresources/file/childabuselaw.pdf
Devlieger, P.J., Albrecht, G.L. & Hertz, M. (2007). The production of disability culture among young African-American men. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 22 June 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17363124
Henion, A. & Cho, H. (2012). Asians Reluctant to Seek Help for Domestic Violence. Michigan State University Library. Retrieved 23 June 2015 from http://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2012/asians-reluctant-to-seek-help-for-domestic-violence/
Asian-Americans with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes perceive barriers to implementing dietary and lifestyles changes to reduce A1C levels in the first 3 months after diagnosis"?
Method of obtaining necessary approval(s) and securing support from your organization's leadership and fellow staff.
One of the most difficult parts of effecting meaningful change in an organizational setting is obtaining the necessary approval from top management and then achieving "buy-in" from fellow staff members. Top management may be fearful of change because of the unknowns and potential additional costs and disruption to operations that may result while fellow staff members may be highly reluctant to willingly accept any changes in their day-to-day routines. In this regard, Kerber and Buono (2008) emphasize that, "Planned change, which has become an increasingly popular approach to change management, may arise from any level in the organization but ultimately is sponsored at the top" (p. 24).
Burnett, A. (2013, April). From our readers: ABC's of evidence-based practice. American Nurse Today, 8(4), 37-39.
Francisco, M.A. (2013, April 1). Instruments that measure nurses' knowledge about diabetes: An integrative review. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 21(1), 137-141.
Kerber, K. & Buono, A.F. (2008, Fall). Rethinking organizational change: Reframing the challenge of change management. Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 23-29.
May, B.J. (2009, Winter). Patient education: Past and present. Physical Therapy Education, 13(3), 3-9.
Sexuality and gender in Saving Face (2006) are represented in unique ways that are defined both by cultural and familial expectations and traditions. In the family of il and Gao, sexuality is viewed from a much more cultural and traditional standpoint, as GAO is literally kicked out of her home by her father for becoming pregnant out of wedlock. It is felt by Gao's father that this is a shameful condition to be in and is rooted in a conservative traditional view of sexuality (as in human sexuality is something that should be reserved for two partners who are married). Yet, at the same time, il represents a new, more modern view of sexuality and gender, as she responds to sexual feelings for another girl -- Viv -- and pursues a sexual relationship with her. At the same time, while il is under more pressure to closet her feelings (she…
Dhingra, Pawan; Rodriguez, Robyn. Asian America. UK: Polity Press, 2014. Print.
One only has to look at the technological advances Japan has provided the world to understand the importance the race as a whole places on advanced educational goals.
Throughout recent history the Asian cultures have been periodically stripped of their military abilities, however, their educational goals have always been supported. This provides a viable explanation why, today, several generations later, American Asian families place such importance on education which translates to the academic excellence their children display, which in turn leads to the reputation the culture has for academic excellence.
The American Jewish community is only three generations away from the horrors of the Holocaust and the concentration camps. This memory, still fresh, has spurred the parents to insist their children do well academically so that they can have careers and professions that are valued by society.
Cheo, oland. " Making the grade through class effort alone."
Cheo, Roland. " Making the grade through class effort alone."
Economic Society of Australia; (2003) June pp 46
Ho, Tamara. "Environmental, social, and psychological experiences of Asian-American undergraduates: examining issues of academic persistence." (Research).
Journal of Counseling and Development | (2003) January pp
Representation of Asian Women: American Television Sitcoms and Media
American Asian women exist within a culture that is at times resistant at providing a realistic portrait of what an Oriental woman is and how she expresses herself. This can be seen in personalities like Margaret Cho, whose sitcom, All-American Girl forced her to see the reality of how America perceived Asian American women and Oriental people in general. These negative images, stereotypes of Asian American women as 'demon women', 'hookers', and submissive, are translated not just in television sitcoms, but in movies like Ghost in the Shell and force cultivation of beliefs that stick to the minds of people long-term. It is through these shows and movies that people understand what is an Asian American and unfortunately, how badly they are depicted. This essay will shed some light on the potential origins of these negative stereotypes and why they…
From the onset, it would be prudent to point out that Asians, as Croucher, Nguyen, and Rahmani point out, happen to be America’s fastest growing population. However, the said population also happens to be one of the populations most susceptible to discrimination. This is a fact that has clearly revealed itself during the COVID-19 pandemic where there have been reports of increased discrimination against Asian Americans. This text will largely concern itself with anti-Asian American sentiment during the present pandemic. In so doing, it will not only track the nature of the said discrimination, but also chart its consequences. It will also highlight some of the solutions that have been suggested in an attempt to reign in the said discrimination. The present discussion also demonstrates that the pandemic appears to be just but an excuse to continue a well-established trend of discrimination against Asian Americans.
As Strochlic points out, from…
Balvaneda, Bryan, Lizabeth Roemer, Sarah Hayes-Skeleton, Amelia Yang, and Anna Ying. “Responding to Anti-Asian Racism During the COVID-19 Outbreak.” ADAA, https://adaa.org/learn-from-us/from-the-experts/blog-posts/consumer/responding-anti-asian-racism-during-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Croucher, Stephen M., Thao Nguyen, and Diyako Rahmani. “Prejudice Toward Asian Americans in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Effects of Social Media Use in the United States.” Frontiers in Communication, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00039/full . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Ho, Jennifer. “Anti-Asian racism and COVID-19.” University of Colorado, https://www.colorado.edu/asmagazine/2020/04/08/anti-asian-racism-and-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Kandil, Caitlin and Yam Kimmy. “Asian Americans face dual challenges: Surging unemployment and racism.” NBC, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/asian-americans-face-dual-challenges-surging-unemployment-racism-n1235356 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Strochlic, Nina. “America’s long history of scapegoating its Asian citizens.” National Geographic, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/09/asian-american-racism-covid/ . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Galvin (2020) reports that just because Asian Americans are not coming down with COVID-19 in the same numbers as other populations it does not mean they are not experiencing deteriorating health conditions. On the contrary, their mental health is failing for a third of their population. Why is this? Galvin (2020) speculates that it could be due to an uptick in anti-Asian sentiment; however, it could just as easily be that Asian-Americans see the lockdowns, the social distancing, the negation of the human personality caused by constant mask-wearing—they see all of it the same way many others do—as depressing and soul-crushing.
On the other hand, perhaps Asian Americans are being impacted by COVID and they are just not being tested, Galvin (2020) hypothesizes. This could also be the case, but the more intriguing component of the article is the question of why mental health is breaking down. The answer should…
Galvin, G. (2020). Asian Americans Are Less Likely Than Public Overall to Know Someone With COVID-19. Their Mental Health Has Suffered Just the Same. Retrieved from https://morningconsult.com/2020/11/23/asian-americans-covid-19-impact-polling/
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
American Ethnic Literature
Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature
America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.
As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What…
African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.
Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.
Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.
Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.
Asian cultures, in general, are more steeped in tradition than American culture. Even though the word "American" refers broadly to all persons of various ethnic backgrounds who live in the United States, there are some general but significant differences between Asian and American culture. A lot of these differences are sociological, like the role of family. I find it interesting how different family values are in America from my native Korea. Korean culture is also more unified than American culture, because there is less diversity there. For the most part, Korean families are tightly knit and parents tend to be quite strict. Many American families are also arranged this way, but it seems that most American families I know are more disjointed and children are not disciplined as much as in Korea. Even though I now live in America, my role within my family has not changed; I am still…
American Ethnic Culture
What is an American?
It is clear that Progressive era Americans from different backgrounds differentially defined precisely what being an American actually meant. Stephen Meyer wrote in the work entitled "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace 1914-1921 that Americanization
"…involved the social and cultural assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of American life…" but that the process was of the nature that was comprised of "a unique and distinctly American method for the resolution of a key industrial problem -- the problem of work-discipline and of the adjustment of new workers to the factory environment." (p.323)
The Americanization campaign is stated by Meyer to have been one that was "voluntary, benevolent and educational." (p.323) However, the programs emerged from within the factories and had negative connotations as well. It was not so much an issue of the diversity represented by the national or ethnic cultures but…
Gjerde, J. (1998) Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, 1998.
Takaki, R. (2008) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, 2008
Meyer, Stephen (nd) "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace, 1914-1921"
Gerstle, Gary (2000) American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the Promised Land. Social Compass 47(1), 2000, 63-76. Online available at: http://www.pineforge.com/healeystudy5/articles/Ch2/Americanfreedom , Americancoercion.pdf
American National Character (history)
The Ongoing Search for an "American National Character"
This assignment asks the following pertinent and challenging questions: Is it possible to find trends amongst so much diversity? What characteristics are distinctly American, regardless of class, race, and background? What is problematic about making these generalizations and inheriting the culture? What have we inherited exactly? What problems arise with our ideals - and are we being honest with ourselves? Discuss individualism and the "American Dream." Are these goals realized and are they realistic? This paper seeks solid answers to these often elusive questions.
The search for a national character should be never-ending, and the pivotal part of the search that should be enlightening and enriching for the seeker of that knowledge may just be the inspiration from the books and authors springing into the seeker's mind along the way to discovery.
Who is presently engaged in a…
Bellah, Robert. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life.
New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
Cochran, Thomas Childs. Challenges to American Values: Society, Business, and Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
Essentially, with Chin-Kee, Yang's saying that the immigrant should not be embarrassed of their heritage. Many immigrants to the United States have shown some degree of embarrassment in regards to their heritage, as in the case of Danny who seems to want to loose his ethnic heritage altogether and become more like the white majority around him.
Yet, the novel also has a darker side to this sojourner image. Not only does the immigrant sojourner desire to still hold ties with their traditional ethnic identity, they are often not even allowed to participate in the majority identity experience, making them even more of an isolated outsider and thus not a permanent resident of the environment. The Monkey King is a good example in Yang's novel. He is not allowed into the gates of heaven for a dinner party with the other deities. Rather, he is excluded because he looks like…
Yang, Gene Luen. American Born Chinese. Macmillan. 2005.
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Asian Indian Muslims in America
The current Muslim population in the United States is made of people from extraordinary social, economic, ethnic, linguistic, racial, and ideological groups. While the exact size of the Muslim-American population is relatively difficult to determine and estimate, Asian Indian Muslims account for a significant portion of this population. Actually, Indian-Americans are reportedly the second-largest single-race group from Asian ancestry in the United States. The huge size of Asian Indian Muslims in America is partly attributed to the fact that India is the most populous country in South Asia with a population of 900 million people of diverse language, ethnicity, and religion. It is estimated that 12% of India's population are Muslims since the country's Islamic presence took place around 8th Century AD.
Asian Indian Muslims in the United States originated from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. While this group migrated to America with higher academic levels…
Garcia, A., Ramsey, N. & Velez, R. (n.d.). Asian Indian Muslims in America.
"Muslims in America -- A Statistical Report." (n.d.). American Muslims. Retrieved from Embassy of the United States -- Baghdad, Iraq website: http://iraq.usembassy.gov/resources/information/current/american/statistical.html
ith this dramatic increase in population and the racial unrest that resulted in the destruction of Korean businesses during the Los Angeles civil unrest, Korean-Americans have emerged as one of the visible ethnic groups in the country. However, aside from the Los Angeles riots, most Americans continue to define people of Korean ethnicity with a bevy of stereotypes - kimchee, churches and grocery stores.
For many Korean-Americans, however, being "Korean," "Korean-American" or "Asian-American" remains a fluid category, with constantly shifting meanings. Some locate the definitions in the places where they were born or where they grew up. Others define the categories by the way they look.
Still others, like the Park family, define being Korean through language.
This paper uses a series of interviews to evaluate the Park family's perceptions of their ethnicity. It compares and contrasts how Father Park and Mother Park's definitions differ from the experiences of…
Hurh, Won Moo. "Majority Americans' perception of Koreans in the United States: Implications of Ethnic Images and Stereotypes." In Ho-Young Kwon, ed. Korean-Americans: Conflict and Harmony. Chicago: Covenant Publications, 1994.
Jenkins, Richard. Rethinking Ethnicity: Arguments and Explorations. London: SAGE Publications, 1997.
Jenkins, Richard. Social Identity. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.
Jo, Hye-Young. "Locating Ethnic Identity and Language Among Second Generation Korean-Americans." The Review of Korean Studies. 3(2), December 2000. available online at http://review.aks.ac.kr/review3_2.htm. March 26, 2003.
The idea of the culture wars is introduced here, and these culture wars begin to illustrate just how our continued dependence on the dominant Protestant Anglo-American culture has formed and influenced America's schools throughout out history. The chapter also introduces the concepts of racism and democracy, and demonstrates how these two opposite ideals often live together in our culture. The "culture wars" grew over the whites perceived "superiority" over other cultures in our country, and eventually, the dominant culture in America became the Protestant Anglo-American culture, and this dominance continues today.
The concept of education in colonial times is discussed in this chapter, along with early education's relationship to religion in the schools. It also shows the differing attitudes people of the times had about children, and how the idea that schools and educational theories could influence national thought was first introduced. The chapter also discusses the social…
Spring, Joel. The American School 1642-2000, 5th edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
According to Korean-American comedian Margaret Cho, her first appearance on American television was one of the most devastating experiences of her life, rather than something positive and uplifting. Her sitcom All-American Girl was the first sitcom ever to depict an Asian-American family on screen. But Cho was not permitted to be her funny, raunchy self and the scripts were fully of stereotypes of Asian American people “Critics panned the show for its bad jokes, stereotyped characters and banal storylines that endorsed, rather than shattered, ethnic myths” and Cho struggled with the constant criticism of her weight and appearance by the show’s producers, which they felt was inappropriate for an Asian American woman (Woo). Despite advances in understanding in the intersection of race and culture, representations of Asian women in American sitcoms still revolve largely around the stereotype of the demure yet hyper-sexualized geisha and the desexualized “nerdy” positive stereotype of…
The characters in the poem are enjoying an Indian movie with a simple plot that makes them cry and feel good among themselves although for as long as the film was running, they have returned to their Indian identity completely loosing their American features.
The two authors share the same revelation that came later in life and made them write the two respective literature pieces. but, while Divakaruni is writing in a manner that presents things in the light of a lightly self mockery, although the topic remains as serious as possible, Liu describes what appears to be a crisis. Despite of his life achievements, he places himself among those who needs to find the contact with reality by going back to his roots, but is not capable to do it anymore. The second generation Chinese-American boy cannot be both Chinese and American, but at the end of his writing,…
global society is made up of many different cultures, ethnicities, religions, and languages. All of these differences are makes our world so vastly unique, yet it is also these same differences which unite us into one nation. In order to properly understand and learn from one another, it is often important to note some of these differences and similarities amongst cultures. The United States of America, in particular, is known as a melting pot with immigrants from all of the over the world. In 2008, there were approximately 1.7 million Filipino immigrants in the U.S. (Terrazas and Batalova). This made them the second largest immigrant group in the U.S. after Mexican immigrants (Terrazas and Batalova). With such a large emigrant population, it is crucial to distinguish some of the cultural similarities and differences of these U.S. emigrants, especially Filipino's. Both cultures are similar with regards to the relationships they maintain…
Van Campen, K.S., and Russell, S.T. (2010). Cultural differences in parenting practices: What
Asian-American families can teach us (Frances McClelland Institute for Children,
Youth, and Families ResearchLink, Vol. 2, No. 1). Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona.
ASIAN-AmericanS & SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUES OF POVETY, ACCESS TO QUALITY HEALTHCAE SEVICES, FAMILY PLANNING AND CONTACEPTION PACTICES
The objective of this study is to examine the socioeconomic issues of poverty, access to quality health care services, family planning and contraception devices among Asian-Americans.
Today's health care environment in the United States is a setting with a great diversity of patients of many race, ethnic and cultural groups and today's practitioners must be knowledgeable about providing health care services that are effective and that assist their patients.
Family Planning Disparities
The work of Dehlendorf, odriguez, Levy, Borrero and Stinauer (2010) reports in regards to family planning disparities, "Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this…
Farrid H), Siddique SM, Bachmann G, Janevic T, Pichika A. (2013). Practice of and attitudes towards family planning among South Asian-American immigrants. Contraception. 2013 Oct;88(4):518-22. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2013.03.011.Epub 2013 Apr 1.
Mitchell JO Sr. (1974). Minority attitudes toward contraception. J Reprod Med. 1974 Dec;13(6):212-5.
Rodriguez MI1, Edelman A, Wallace N, Jensen JT. (2012) Denying postpartum sterilization to women with Emergency Medicaid does not reduce hospital charges. Contraception. 2008 Sep;78(3):232-6. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2008.04.006. Epub 2008 Jun 12.
Womens Health Issues. 2014 May-Jun;24(3):e281-9. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2014.02.003. Epub 2014 Apr 13.
The biggest challenge however over the long-tern is the lack of acceptance of foreign cards by Chinese merchants. There are an estimated 20 million businesses in China, and of these, 414,000 accept credit cards, and of those, 150,000 accept foreign credit cards (Worthington, 2003). At the infrastructure level this fact illustrates how pervasive the sociological factors that limit debt continue to influence the Chinese culture specifically and the Asian culture overall. As with every Asian culture, there is tremendous pride in not losing "face" or stature in ones' community. As a result, cash is king in the more conservative cities and regions of the country. The generation of 25 to 40-year-olds will change this, however it may take a generation or more to significantly increase American Express credit card use in Asia and China as a result.
Bayot, J (2004, March 30). American Express to Issue Cards in China.…
Bayot, J (2004, March 30). American Express to Issue Cards in China. New York Times,
Retrieved June 8, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/30/business/american-express-to-issue-cards-in-china.html
Owen Brown. (2004, December 9). China Banks Add Credit Cards With Help From AmEx and Visa. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. C.2.
David A Von Emloh, Emmanuel V Pitsilis, Jeffrey Wong. (2003). Credit cards come to China. The McKinsey Quarterly: Special Edition,20-23.
Why Did American Express succeed in the U.S.A. And Internationally?
It succeeded because the company established an outstanding reputation in its core businesses very early in its lifetime. It also took advantage of the competition during both World Wars to support its customers with financial assistance when they needed it. Its business decisions, all told, were solid. It divested itself of non-profitable segments when necessary, and put the emphasis always on its core businesses -- travelers' checks, its travel business, and credit cards. AmEx has maintained flexibility as well in adapting to consumer's demands and the needs of its business, such as issuing the revolving credit card when that segment might have failed.
oday it is one of Forbes Magazine's top 100 companies.
How is American Express surviving the 2008-2009 Economic Crisis?
Diversification of its business. he American Express credit card business in the U.S. dropped 96% from early 2007…
Though, because of the poor economic times, AmEx has had to sell a significant quantity of its stock in one of China's main banks, there is no discussion of its pulling back from China. The layoffs, budget cuts and gathering together of cash is just something most smart companies do in times like these, according to American Express management.
In March, 2009, American Express reaffirmed its intent to expand its business in China and the Asian continent, and to build an even stronger credit card presence in that region.
Only the length and depth of the current worldwide economic crisis will determine when (if) that will happen. It is American Express' desire and the Chinese financial institutions support the AmEx' efforts there. However, in the end, business is business, and the financial bottom line will determine the scope of the AmEx presence in the most populous continent in the world.
The development of the American automobile industry is one of the best examples of this interplay: "Unlike European manufacturers, who concentrated on expensive motorcars for the rich, American entrepreneurs early turned to economical vehicles that could be mass-produced," (Jackson 159). The fact that so many Americans then became capable of purchasing a car both fed the notion of the American dream, and also served to expand American cities and suburbs; people who could afford to commute were not forced to live in the stifling and often impoverished inner-city. This trend tended to make inner cities in America decreasingly desirable places to live. Yet, in places like New York, with the creation of central park, wealthy neighborhoods came to crowd around such desirable locations and push the impoverished sects of society away: "By the time the park's founding generation passed away, the political, aesthetic, and cultural unity they valued had already…
Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great West. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Kenneth M. Jackson. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier: The suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rosenzweig, Roy and Elizabeth Blackmar. 1992. The park and the people: A history of Central Park. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
Resulting from the devaluation of China's currency was an exacerbation of problems throughout Asia.
VII. 1995-96 -MINI-RECESSION, DET PROLEM, ACCUMULATION
In the summer of 1995, the reversal of the chronic weakness of the dollar resulted in the depreciation of the Japanese yen, which had been approaching an acute deflationary crisis with a steep fall in the stock market. (Makin, 2000; paraphrased)
VIII. 1996-97 - DET / FOREIGN EXCHANGE, RESERVE RATIONS DETERIORATE
The work of Williamson (1999) entitled: "Implications of the East Asian Crisis for Debt Management" relate that a countries debt can be viewed from four different external perspectives in terms of debt composition which include: (1) FDI; (2) Portfolio Equity; (3) Long-term loans; and (4) short-term loans. This is the ideal composition of a countries debts however the debt profile of countries in East Asia are known to profoundly differ from the foregoing profile in that they had too…
Banking System Developments in the Four Asian Tigers (1997) Economic Research and Data. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. 8 Aug 1997. Online FRBSF Economic Letter. Available at http://www.frbsf.org/econrsrch/wklyltr/el97-22.html
Barro, Robert J. (1998) the East Asian Tigers Have Plenty to Roar About. Economic Viewpoint Business Week 27 Apr 1998. Online available at http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/barro/files/bw98_04_27.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. 1999 February Online available at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/1999/wp2499.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. CSGR Working Paper No. 24/99. February 1999. Online available at
Also, certain light electronic products such as fans and lighting fixtures typically set off for export were diverted to the domestic market, which underwent a construction boom because of the economic stimulus package.
One engine for growth during the crisis was Vietnam's construction sector. Vietnam's government enacted a program of stimulus spending which emphasized public works and building projects. (the Economist, 2009, Sep 24). Vietnam's stimulus spending went a long way with regard to construction because of the cheap labor available in Vietnam. The stimulus program was successful because it provided valuable infrastructure while alleviating unemployment.
Vietnam's greatest liability in the eyes of investors, its lack of full integration with the global economy, served as its greatest protection against the effects of the global financial crisis. (the Economist, 2008, Jun. 19). With an aggressive economic stimulus program and a healthy consumer base, Vietnam was able to keep…
Economist Intelligence Unit (2010). Vietnam Country Forecast. The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.viet-studies.info/kinhte/EIU-VN-Country-Forecast-2010-02.pdf
Nguyen, T.C. (2009). -- Opportunities and Challenges for Vietnam in the Global Financial Crisis. Retrieved from http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/resources/seminars/Urbanization_Seminar/HCMC_Workshop/Papers_and_Presentations/FinancialCrisisPaper_NguyenThiCanh.pdf
Konishi, a. (2008).The Global Financial Crisis: Viet Nam's prospects in 2009 and Beyond [PowerPoint Slides] Retrieved from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2008/AmCham-Economic-Prospect/AmCham.pdf
The Economist (2009, Sep 24). V not yet for victory an impressive recovery may create problems of its own. The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/14506580
The homeless children Dower describes in Embracing Defeat experience a type of structural inequality both similar to and different from the types of inequality addressed in Consuming Kids. In both case, the children are systematically disenfranchised before they have an input into the course of their lives. The structural inequalities faced by the disenfranchised victims of World War Two in Japan included dire straits, homelessness, and poverty. These are certainly realities in the United States, too. In the United States, Japanese children had been portrayed with rank racism, in a systematic propaganda campaign. The same types of propaganda campaigns are used by marketing professionals, in their quest to lure young minds and change children's behaviors.
Structural inequity can be traced to manipulation. Manipulation is a key theme in both Embracing Defeat and Consuming Kids. In Japan and in the United States, political power is wielded from a variety…
Deglamorizing American Street Gangs
Social researcher and author Deborah Lamm eisel (2002) says that the glamorized image of the American street gang as drug dealers is not the image that is consistent with historical research (Lamm eisel 75).
The drug gang} is certainly not a typical street gang... They didn't even grow out of a street gang. These kids started out to make money by pedaling crack and that is a very different phenomenon than street gangs (Knox 66) (Lamm eisel 75)."
Lamm eisel has gone back to the essence of the historical gangs that go back to the earliest immigrants who carved out sections of neighborhoods for themselves using coercion and violence to maintain territorial boundaries. However, it is easy to disagree with Knox, because for decades now street gangs have been associated with the violence and trafficking of illegal drugs.
In a journal article by John M. Hagedorn…
Contemporary Gangs: An Organizational Analysis. New York: LFB Scholoarly Publishing, 2002. Questia. 14 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111541620 .
Coppola, Francis Ford (dir). The Godfather, motion picture. Paramount Pictures (1972), USA.
He also observes the poignant problem of racism that arises here, which is also his reason for calling the new cult "white" Buddhism: in spite of the fact that the hite Buddhists may adopt all the traditional Asian customs- from their name to the food they eat or to the rituals as such, they will still be part of the "mainstream of the white culture." (Allitt 1999, 459). That is to say, the racial differences, still linger no matter what, and are emphasized by the American racism, which is the dark side of American culture.
Finally, Eldin Villafane analyzes the way in which the Catholicism of Spain was imposed to the Native Americans in Mexico, emphasizing the great religiosity of the Hispanic people. The author discusses the differences between Christendom and Christianity, the first being the powerful and complete assimilation of all life-matters into the religious frame.
Thus, all these…
Allitt, Patrick. Major Problems in American Religious History: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999
Moore, Laurence R. Touchstone Jesus. The Mixing of Sacred and Secular in American History. Westminster: John Knox, 2003
The underside of affluence
The period is in the early years of the twentieth century. America is now experiencing economic and political expansion as it became the model of an imperial superpower for all nations, both in the Western and Eastern regions. Economic growth spurred as a result of the industrial revolution, while political structures strengthened due to the numerous successful conquests of the Americans to colonize nations in the Asian and southern American regions.
However, despite the affluence that American society had experienced during this period, a considerable half of the American population is suffering from poverty. With the rise of urbanization, many people flocked to the cities in search of a high-paying job and steady source of income as factory workers. However, the rapid incidence of migration to the cities made them crowded with people, hence, living conditions began to deteriorate, which includes the lack of…
Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world
After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…
Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.
David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.
weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui
" Every town now has Thai, Japanese, and Indian restaurants to complement the Chinese and Italian fare. Consider the supermarket shelves that carry multicultural products such as Campbell Hispanic-style Fiesta soup, sushi platters, wasabi and seven different taco salsas. Burger King and McDonald's sell their millions of burritos to somebody!
EXAMPLE OF NEW MAKETING TENDS
In July 2001, Campbell's Soup Company announced a program to recreate the company and restore its growth track. In practice this included introduction of new ethnic product lines. Campbell's new Select Harvest () Mexican-Style Chicken Tortilla Soup was the principal new introduction that followed this reinvention.
It was a smart move. Select Harvest () soups were ranked the top new food and beverage product of 2009, according to a report released by Information esources Inc. (II). II's annual New Product Pacesetters (TM) report showcases the most innovative and successful new products of the year in…
Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2006. U.S.
Census Bureau Web site. www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/histpov/hstpov2.html. Accessed March 26, 2010.
Toosi M. Labor force projections to 2016: more workers in their golden years. Mon Labor Rev.
To this day we see population clusters in major Northeast cities, which almost invariably will have a Little Italy or Little China. These Old orld cooking traditions survived and impacted American cuisine.
Similarly, the Midwest and est, both rich agricultural areas, developed their cuisine around what was available. There were abundant crops and cattle, so we see a strong influence of beef, poultry and vegetables in Midwest cuisine (Gugino, 2006). In short, a meat-and-potatoes culture developed with a heavy presence of steak and chicken dishes. and, really, this is not a tremendous departure from Native American cuisine, as these earlier inhabitants of the Plains consumed diets rich in meats and vegetables.
Culture and geography also play key roles in Southern cuisine. The Creole and Cajun people of the south are descendents of Spanish, French and Portugese colonists and the foods of these nationalities are rich in spice and flavor, as…
Gugino, Sam. The World of Food. Wine Spectator, Sept. 2006. Vol. 31. No. 8.
Olver, Lynne. Food Timeline: International Cuisine. 2000. Retrieved September 7, 2006 at http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodfaq6.html .
Stradley, Linda. American Recipes & History by Region. 2004. Retrieved September 7, 2006 at http://whatscookingamerica.net/AmericanRegionalFoods/RegionalAmericanIndex.htm .
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
My father's parents first operated a Laundromat, then a small general store. My father is now a civil engineer.
School was always a priority in my household. I did not have to work in a family business like my parents, but it was always expected that I would get high marks and devote my attention to keeping at the top of my class and pursuing extracurricular activities that were valuable and enriching, including soccer and music. However, this did not mean there I had no fun as a child. I have many happy memories of my family watching my sports games and concerts and preparing traditional foods with my grandmothers.
Sometimes the pressure I felt was quite intense. My parents had succeeded against all the odds and were determined that I would succeed as well. However, I felt that I needed to pursue a different path. ather than going to…
Korean-American History. (2010). Curriculum guide: Unit 1. Retrieved August 6, 2010 at http://apa.si.edu/Curriculum%20Guide-Final/unit1.htm
Rusling, Matt. (2006, April 21). Comics stoke Japanese-Korean tensions. Asian Times Online.
Retrieved August 6, 2010 at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Japan/HD21Dh01.html
Boston Asian community began in the 1870s when Chinese laborers were originally hired to break a strike at the shoe factory located in North Adams. Chinese workers were also contracted to build the Pearl Street Telephone Exchange, in the South Station are, during this same time frame. Despite their being an Asian community in the area since that time, the population of this community was relatively small until the 1960s, when immigration laws were loosened (Watanabe, Liu & Lo, 2005). As such, the Asian community in Boston has grown by leaps and bounds over the last four decades, yet this group has been under and misrepresented, and as such public policy fails to meet their needs.
Boston Asian Community
The Boston Asian community began in the 1870s when Chinese laborers were originally hired to break a strike at the shoe factory located in North Adams. Chinese workers were also contracted…
Watanabe, P., Liu, M. & Lo, S. (Fall 2004/Winter 2005). A portrait of Asian-Americans in Metro Boston. New England Journal of Public Policy, 20(1). Retrieved March 26, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
MEDIA (MIS) EPSENTATIONS OF CHINESE-AmericanS
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
In the west, representations of people who are outside of the standard or norm, (white, middle & upper class, male) are not represented with accuracy. Chinese-Americans are one such group that doese not often receive an accurate or dynamically real representation of the spectrum of the culture or the people within it. Media representations in the west of Chinese-Americans are limited to a few stereotypes, generally. Some of those stereotypes include that all Chinese people practice and have mastered martial arts, and that all Chinese have exceptional intelligence in mathematics, sciences, and technology. Another media stereotype of the Chinese is that they are all short of stature, particularly poking fun at short men. Chinese men are often stereotypically represented as geeks or nerds -- exceptionally "book smart," but lacking in coolness and social skills.…
Cheng, J., Hsieh, C., Talgo, S. (2012). Media Representations of Asians. University of Michigan, Web, Available from: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/psy457_tizzle/home . 2013 March 04.
Kwak, A. (2004). Asian-Americans in the Television Media: Creating Incentive for Change. Boston College Third World Journal, 24(2), 395 -- 420.
Wo, E. (2012). Beyond the Color Line: Asian-American Representations in the Media. Claremont Colleges Scripps Senior Thesis, Paper 114, Available from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/114 . 2013 March 06.
" (Liu, 90)
As the author notes, his feeling of coming to Chinatown was that of a merely curious tourist, not that of a native who links himself to his past or origins. Like other writers on the subject of Asian-Americans, Liu also noted that they seem to be a special case, the "new Jews," that is a minority that is neither black nor white. Racism is usually seen as bipolar, and this is why the Asian-Americans seem even excluded from this categorization:
The question is multilayered. Is yellow black or white? is a question of Asian-American identity. Is yellow black or white? is a question of Third orld identity, or the relationships among people of color. Is yellow black or white? is a question of American identity, or the nature of America's racial formation. Implicit within the question is a construct of American society that defines race relations as…
Liu, Eric. The Accidental Asian. New York: Vintage Books, 1999
Okihiro, Gary Y. Margins and Mainstreams: Asians in American History and Culture. Washington: University of Washington Press, 1994
Chinese-American Studies: Wen Ho Lee Case
United States of America is a melting pot of various communities who have been residing in the country for generations. They feel assimilated into the American culture where many of them have been born and brought up in the U.S. And hence have remote connections with the country of their ancestors. As a result, they feel very much a part of this country and believe they have the rights of a citizen. This is why they feel that they do not deserve to be discriminated against on the grounds of their origins. Therefore such communities protest if situations arise, where they feel they have been discriminated against in some or the other. Though United States confers all rights of citizenry to its nationals, there have been cases in the past where the U.S. government has discriminated against a person or a group on the…
Indictment of Wen Ho Lee.
For Asian-Americans, Lee Case a stark Signal. http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2000/08/30/fp1s2-csm.shtml
Mainichi, Hokubei. Full Pardon for Wen Ho Lee Sought. Jan 2, 2002. www.news.mconline.com/news/view-article.html
I. Thesis -- the convention that the husband fulfills the dominant male provider role while his wife supports him in all of his endeavors, particularly domestic ones, is at the heart of the cultural value of Asian marriages.
A. Asian society, as well as that of Asians in the westernized world, is male dominated.
1. There are numerous films that depict males and husbands in roles in which they are the material provider and principle decision maker in a marriage.
B. In conventional Asian marriages, women are usually relegated to domesticated roles in which they support the efforts of their husbands in conventional manners such as preparing food, cleaning the home, as well as taking care of the children.
1. In a number of movies depicting Asian women and wives, they function as the stereotypical 'princess', providing a need to be rescued or the advice of wise counsel to assist…
The Warring States. Dir. Chen Jin. Perf. Sun Honglei, Francis Ng. China Lion Film Distribution, 2011.
The Joy Luck Club. Dir. Wayne Wang. Perf. Ming-Na, Rosalind Chao. Hollywood Pictures, 1993.
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Dir. Ang Lee. Perf. Chow Yun Fat, Michelle Yeoh. Sony Pictures Classics, 2000.
The Beautiful Country. Dir. Hans Molland. Perf. Damien Nguyen, Bai Ling. Sony Pictures Classics, 2004.
Americanization of Foods:
Food is traditionally considered as a simple means of subsistence but has developed to become filled with cultural, psychological, religious, and emotional significance. Consequently, food is currently used as a means of defining shared identities and symbolizes religious and group customs. In the early 17th and 18th centuries, this mere means of subsistence was considered as a class maker but developed to become a symbol of national identity in the 19th centuries. In the United States, food has been influenced by various cultures such as Native American, Latin America, and Asian cultures. Consequently, Americans have constantly Americanized the foods of different cultures to become American foods. The process on how Americans have Americanized different cultures' foods and reasons for the Americanization is an important topic of discussion.
As previously mentioned, food was traditionally considered as a mere means of subsistence, especially in the 17th and…
"America's Take on Ethnic Food." Ai InSite - Culinary. The Art Institutes, 2 Mar. 2012. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. .
Ikerd, John. "The New American Food Culture." Agricultural Economics. University of Missouri, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. .
Jevgenijs. "Americanization." Transatlantic MA Program in East-Central European Studies. West Virginia University, 30 Jan. 20143. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. .
Kikomr. "Food and Globalization!" Food Communication. James Madison University, 4 June 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. .
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .