Canadian Politics and Labor Canadian essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

" (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)

The largest portion of the workforce in these advanced economies is employed either in the manufacturing or services sector and the result is "...the evolution of employment shares depends mainly on output and productivity trends in these two sectors." (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999) in the majority of advanced economies, there has been a generally faster growth of labor productivity than the growth in services with the output growth about the same in these two sectors. Therefore, due to the output trends being so similar in the two sectors, the productivity lagging in the services sectors has a result, which is the absorption of a rising share of total employment "while rapid productivity in growth in manufacturing leads to a shrinking employment share for this sector." (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)

The work of Sachs and Schatz (1994) as well as Wood (1994, 1995) and Saeger (1996) all agrees that importance should be "assigned to 'internal' factors in accounting for deindustrialization." (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999) it is however recognized in the work of all these individuals that "external factors such as the growth of north-south trade will, under these conditions reduce manufacturing employment in the north because of the number of low-skill jobs lost in the import-competing industries will greatly exceed the new jobs created in the skill-intensive export sector." (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)

Rowthorn and Ramaswamy (1999) state that among richer countries "gross imports from the south have eliminated manufacturing jobs equivalent in a number to 1.5-4% of total employment. Indications are "for the new manufacturing jobs created by exports to the south are 0.3% for the United States and 0.3% for the average country. Given that total employment in the countries of our sample is about 350 million, this suggests that about 7 million manufacturing jobs have been lost because of southern competition and about 1 million created by additional exports to the south. The net loss of 6 million jobs is less than one-fifth of manufacturing jobs lost because of deindustrialization since, 1970, but the impact on unskilled workers and those with nontransferable skills is greater than this figure suggests." (1999)

While deindustrialization is not only due to north-south trade, this trade has affected the demand for some types of labor. Rowthorn and Ramaswamy state that there are two primary channels that competition from low-wage producers can utilize and that affects employment in manufacturing in northern countries:

1) Via its impact on total manufacturing output in the north;

2) Through its impact on labor productivity. (1999)

Labor has responded in northern countries "not by abandoning manufacturing as Brown and Julius (1994) have claimed but by increasing labor productivity within the manufacturing sector." (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999) This is stated to have involved:

1) Increasing efficiency to produce more of the same kind of output per unit of labor; or 2) Switching to other types of manufactured goods where value-added per worker is higher. (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)

Rowthorn and Ramaswamy state that the primary conclusions drawn in their work are those as follows:

Deindustrialization is explained mainly by factors that are internal to the advanced a result of the interactions among changing preference patterns between manufacturers and services, the faster growth of productivity in manufacturing as compared to services, and the associated relative decline in the price of manufactures." (1999)

The north-south trade is stated to have contributed "on the average...less than 20% to the relative decline in manufacturing employment in the advanced economies;

Moreover, the impact of north-south trade on deindustrialization has been mainly through its effect in stimulating labor productivity in the manufacturing sector of the advanced economies; it has had little effect on manufacturing output in the advanced economies; and the decline in the ratio of investment to GDP in the advanced economies has also skewed demand away from manufacturing output. The decline in the investment ratio has caused almost one-sixth of total deindustrialization -- which is roughly similar to the effect of north-south trade on deindustrialization. (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)


Three categories of workers affected by industrialization include: (1) Those who are long-term unemployed; (2) Those who are employed after downsizing but re-employed in the long-term; and (3) the survivors who remain employed in industries that are undergoing restructuring at different intensities. (Ostrey, et al. 2001) the response of the workforce in Canada as well as in other advanced economies has been to become more productive and to produce goods at a lower or equal price to those produced in developing economies.

Findings in this study include the fact that deindustrialization is due to factors that are internal to advanced economies (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999) and are due to a combination of the interactions among shifts in the demand patters of services and manufacturers. North-south trade has contributed to deindustrialization through the stimulation of labor productivity in the advanced economies manufacturing sectors as the advanced economies in the north have responded to the competition of developing economies and their cheaper imports by using labor in a more efficient manner and by changing production and increasing higher valued items. (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)


Cairncross, a (1982) 'What is deindustrialization?' Pp. 5-17 in: Blackaby, F (Ed.) Deindustrialization, London: Pergamon

Goshen, Erica (2005) Commentary FRBNY Economic Policy Review August 2005.


Cite This Essay:

"Canadian Politics And Labor Canadian" (2008, July 14) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from

"Canadian Politics And Labor Canadian" 14 July 2008. Web.8 December. 2016. <>

"Canadian Politics And Labor Canadian", 14 July 2008, Accessed.8 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Canadian Politics Labour the Postwar Period

    In this sense, there were changes that took place according to the system exported by the United States through the Canadian perspective. Thus, it "integrated itself into an emerging, common, North American discourse, that nationalists, opposed to 'American domination', aligned themselves with, or made common cause with, socialists, opposed to both national and international capitalist organization" The important changes that took place however at the level of the economy represented

  • Canadian Nationalism & Margaret Atwood

    And "civilized" also means being corrupted by rampant economic temptations and in the process, ruining the land; and the narrator goes to great lengths to show that she "...wishes to not be human," which is a linking of "guilt and self-knowledge," according to Janice Fiamengo's essay (in The American Review of Canadian Studies). Essayist Fiamengo quotes Atwood from a 1972 interview (Surfacing was published in 1972) in which the author

  • Canadian Social Policy the Title

    That style helps make this article potent. Instead of narratively screaming "Unfair!" Or "Corrupt!" Or "Arrogant!" from the sidelines, the authors use a velvet hammer. To use Franklin D. Roosevelt's phrase, the authors are speaking softly but their message carries a big stick. Throughout the article, the authors embrace the concept of "tools" -- as was foreshadowed in the article's headline -- and in every case, it is the federal

  • Canadian Feminist Issue of Any Kind

    Canadian Feminism Expression, Action, Rebellion, Reflection, & Attention: The Power and the Problem of Canadian Feminist Media How does use of the media inform and propel the feminist movement in Canada? How is media used as part of the feminist agenda? What is the history of the media in reference to feminist communication in Canada? How can Canadian feminists utilize media to its full advantage to support and promote the feminist agenda? How does the feminist movement

  • Labor Discrimination Equal Pay

    Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace."

  • Canadian Labour in The Honest

    For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on

  • Canadian vs American Policing This

    " (2003) the police force from this view was held as "ideal for exerting order across the vast territories of Canada, whose sheer scale made law enforcement, public administration and the assertion of sovereignty difficult." (Newburn, 2003) the police force in this area was known as the "North-West Mounted Police" whose influence extended early [in the] twentieth century...taking on security and counterespionage services during the First World War and, in

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved