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Canadian National Identity and Canadian Hockey
The Canadian administrative system in place has endorsed the national identity of Canada with hockey. Back in 90s, when the then Prime Minister of Canada, Chretien, started trade diplomacy with other countries, he always declared every participant as part of the Canadian Team. In the tenure of the same Prime Minister, an ex-National Hockey League player and icon, Frank Mahovlich was chosen as a senator. Some years later, memorial postage stamp of the famous 1972 Canada/ussia hockey series was launched which has the winning goal by Paul Henderson in the depiction. Looking at more recent past (i.e. 2002), one finds "The Pond" at the backside of Canadian Five Dollar notes.
Though with the passage of time, these events seem to grow in number, they do have quite a few significant examples in history as well. Quite few decades ago, in the early 1940s and…
Allain, K.A. (2011). Kid Crosby or Golden Bow: Sidney Crosby, Canadian National Identity, and the Policing of Hockey Masculinity, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, .46: 9.
Bissoondath, N. (1994). Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada, (Toronto: Penguin Books, 1994), 4651.
CANOE-CNEWS. (2004). Father of medicare, greatest: Douglas tops CBC-s canuck debate," CANOE-CNEWS, accessed March 20th, 2012 from: http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Canada/Canadiana/2004/11/30/741515.html
Grant, G. (1965). Lament for a Nation, (Toronto: The Canadian Publishers), 2.
Canadian Foreign Policy
A brave new world - Canadian Foreign Policy in the New Millennium
According to Granatstein (2012) the world is really changing at a fast pace. Most of the Impact hinges on progressively on the strength of financial relations, despite the fact security matters, some of a new order, are continuing to give Canada a challenge. History in the Canadian foreign policy does show that the amount of our achievement in this world will be their aptitude as a society to efficiently put the emphasis on their new international efforts in a spirit of shared enterprise. Granatstein make the point that that is considered to be good sense, based as it is on a profound understanding of Canada's national interests, but at the same time he argues that it is a pity that most of other recent governments are choosing not to fall in line and follow after…
Granatstein, Jack. "The Foreign and Defence Poliies Canada Needs." 205-231. Canada, 2012.
Hart, Bill Dymond and Michael. "The Potemkin of Canadian Foreign Policy." Policy Options, 2003-2004: 39-45.
Lang, Eugene. "Making Afghanistan Policy -- Generals, Bureaucrats and Politicians." The Royal Canadian Military Institute 28, no. 2 (2008): 4-7.
Massie, Justin. "Hijacking a Policy? Assessing Quebec's "Undue" Influence on Canada's Aghan Policy." American Review of Canadian Studies 40, no. 2 (2010): 259-275.
Politics in all its varied forms and nuances across both the free and undemocratic world share a common feature. In all its forms, politics is complicated. This is perhaps especially so for political leaders and entities whose function has become either redundant or unclear over the centuries of their existence. In addition to the general pitfalls of corruption and ineffective leadership, some entities face becoming obsolete in the face of current needs and structures within their states. One such entity is the Canadian Senate.
Over the past decades, there have been increasing public and academic debates about the continued validity, or lack thereof, of the Canadian Senate. Indeed, if reports in recent news are to be taken at face value, there appears to have been a recent increase in the scandals and general embarrassment among members of the Canadian Senate, which have resulted in an increase in calls…
De Souza, M. (2013), Jul. 23). Abolish the senate because reform is 'never going to happen': Saskatchewan Premier Brad Wall. National Post. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/07/23/abolish-the-senate-because-reform-is-never-going-to-happen-saskatchewan-premier-brad-wall/
Macfarlane, E. (2013, Jul. 22). What do we really want to do with the Senate? Macleans. Retrieved from: http://www2.macleans.ca/2013/07/22/what-do-we-really-want-to-do-with-the-senate/
Thomas, G. (2013, Jul 29). If Canadians vote to abolish the Senate, politicians must listen. The Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2013/07/29/if_canadians_vote_to_abolish_the_senate_politicians_must_listen.html
Wherry, A. (2013, Mar. 8). Why the Senate should be abolished. Macleans. Retrieved from: http://www2.macleans.ca/2013/03/08/why-the-senate-should-be-abolished/
Canadian Wage Law and Employee elations
Incident 9-1 describes the mistakes made with the compensation administration with eynolds Plastic Products. With respect to the compensation administration, a variety of laws are being violated. For example, the Canadian Human ights Act describes how it is completely illegal to discriminate against employees based on sex, such as gaining or denying employment, or to limit the application of employment based on sex, as stated in sections seven and eight. However, the exact incident with regards to discrimination of sex at eynolds Plastics has to do with section 11 of the human rights act, which dictates, "11. (1) It is a discriminatory practice for an employer to establish or maintain differences in wages between male and female employees employed in the same establishment who are performing work of equal value" (canlii.org). This is clearly being violated in the case described at eynolds…
Canlii.org. (2012, December 15). Canadian Human Rights Act, RSC 1985, c H-6. Retrieved from Canlii.org: http://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-h-6/latest/rsc-1985-c-h-6.html
CBsnews.com. (2007, May 29). Implementing a Cafeteria-Style Benefits Plan. Retrieved from CBS News: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505125_162-51064280/implementing-a-cafeteria-style-benefits-plan/
Canadian Feminization Poverty
While society has experienced much progress in the recent decades, it continues to have problems when considering the influence that the traditional patriarchal model has on the world. Gender discrimination is present in a wide assortment of communities, ranging from developing countries (where it is a dominant concept) to first-world countries. Women in Canada experience great difficulty as they try to evolve as equal members of their community as a consequence of the fact that leadership figures in this country are focused on maintain conventional attitudes when concerning gender roles. Women generally have higher poverty rates in Canada and people in the country have come to consider that gender is a determinant factor influencing the concept of deficiency.
Women in Canada are vulnerable to poverty because of the government's position in regard to them. All social groups in Canada put across the concept regarding how it is…
Barile, M. "Disablement and Feminisation of Poverty." Retrieved November 29, 2011, from the Dawn Ontario Website: http://dawn.thot.net/mbarile1.html
Cristopher, K.; England, P.; McLanahan, S.; Ross, K.; Smeeding, T. "Gender Inequality in Poverty in Affluent Nations: The Role of Single Motherhood and the State," Retrieved November 29, 2011, from the Washington University in St. Louis Website: http://apps.olin.wustl.edu/macarthur/working%20papers/wp-genderinequality.pdf
Dooley, M.D. "Women, Children, and Poverty in Canada." Retrieved November 29, 2011, from the Canadian Economics Association Website: http://economics.ca/cgi/jab?journal=cpp&view=v20n4/CPPv20n4p430.pdf
Golberg, G. S & Kremen E. "The Feminization of poverty: only in America?." Greenwood Publishing Group, 1990.
That style helps make this article potent. Instead of narratively screaming "Unfair!" Or "Corrupt!" Or "Arrogant!" from the sidelines, the authors use a velvet hammer. To use Franklin D. Roosevelt's phrase, the authors are speaking softly but their message carries a big stick.
Throughout the article, the authors embrace the concept of "tools" -- as was foreshadowed in the article's headline -- and in every case, it is the federal government using tools like hammers to pound out its message of authority and control. There are too many "tool" allusions to mention in this paper, but two classic tools are presented on pages 77-78. The first mentioned is the tool of paperwork, basically of big brother's bureaucratic harassment: provinces will receive some monies but they may only spend federal funds in "certain broad envelopes" and must report on every dime spent in order to justify receiving the resources. The second…
Boismenu, Gerard, and Graefe, Peter. (2004). The New Federal Tool Belt: Attempts to Rebuild
Social Policy Leadership. Canadian Public Policy, XXX (1), 71-86.
In 2002/2003 alone, sale of Canadian red wine increased by more than 15% over previous years ("ineries in Canada" para. 2).
In the domestic Canadian market, Canadian consumers have been drawn to Canadian coolers, but domestic beer and wine have been losing ground to imports, with imported beer and wine products posting an average growth rate of 15.5% and 10.4%, respectively, over the last five years. Red wine has countered this trend to a great degree so that red wine shows a clear dominance over white wine, with 55% of the total volume of red and white wine being red wine. Between 1993 and 2000, red wine increased in sales volume more than did imports, but this trend slowed after that time. For the provinces, only Saskatchewan, Yukon, and Prince Edward Island show higher sales for domestic red wine than for imported brands, as can be seen in the following…
Alcoholic Drinks in Canada." the-infoship.com (2004). http://www.the -- 'infoshop.com/study/eo18029_alcoholic_drink_canada.html.
Australian Wine Sales in Canada Surge." Australasian Business Intelligence (31 July 2002). May 11, 2008. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-89901671.html .
Bennett, Peter D., Dictionary of Marketing Terms. Chicago:
American Marketing Association, 1988.
Largely, this sense of solidarity with the U.S. And a estern Bloc translated into practical reality in the Cold ar and has lasted into the present period of the ar on Terrorism. This has however not been without exception. During the Reagan years, Canadians were not as much onboard with the pro-U.S. line as leaders such as Britain's Margaret Thatcher.
However, doubts such as have been entertained above have had to weighed against the realization that now in the Nuclear Age Canada could be reached and hit from beyond its borders. Cooperation in the past and at present in NORAD as well as the ar on Terror has only heightened this perception. From Canadian participation in the Korean ar to its present commitment in Afghanistan, an open Canadian rift with the U.S. has been the rare exception (such as not joining the coalition in Iraq) and Canada has toed a…
Allen, Ralph. Ordeal by Fire. Toronto: Doubleday, 1961.
Darwin, J.G.. "The Chanak Crisis and the British Cabinet." History 65, no. 213
"GG agrees to suspend Parliament until January." Dec. 4,
Payers, and some doctors, will weigh the cost of a treatment against the expected outcomes to determine whether the treatment should be made available to a patient. For example: Rationing takes place when a treatment is denied by the Canadian government. Those rationing decisions are often made by weighing the cost of the treatment against the potential improvement in the patient's health.
Like other nations experiencing limitless demand, an ageing population, and the costly advance of medical technology, Canada has faced pressure to control health expenditures. It has done so through rationing. In Canada, rationing medical care and holding down health care spending was thought to help the health care system run more efficiently and lower wait times. (Irvine, Ferguson, & Cackett, 2005).
Health care reform. The Canadian government, in an effort to improve patient care and wait times has made other recommendations: Work with the provinces and territories to…
Clancy, J. (2007, Feb 9). An urgent message for Canada's health care ministers. Retrieved Apr 4, 2009, from National Union of Public and General Employees: http://www.nupge.ca/presidentscommentary/n09fe07d.htm
Health care system. (2008). Retrieved Apr 1, 2009, from Health Canada: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/index-eng.php
Health care system grudge match: Canada vs. U.S. (2007, Oct 2). Retrieved Apr 1, 2009, from Healthcare Economist: http://healthcare-economist.com/2007/10/02/health-care-system-grudge-match-canada-vs.-us/
Irvine, B., Ferguson, S., & Cackett, B. (2005). Background briefing: The Canadian health care system. Retrieved Apr 4, 2009, from www.civitas.org: http://www.civitas.org.uk/nhs/download/Canada.pdf
An Analysis as to Why Conscription Was Introduced in Canada during World War II and Why it Was Less Divisive than Conscription during World War I
Compulsory military service is certainly nothing new in human affairs, and the practice has almost always been met with widespread resistance by those who are most affected. History has shown time and again that those most who are most directly affected by compulsory military service have been the poor and disenfranchised members of a society, with many military conflicts being viewed by such individuals as a "rich man's war" where advantaged individuals are exempted from such obligatory service. It is this perception of the military conflict itself, though, which can have a profound effect on how well-received compulsory military service is viewed by those who will be compelled to fight in it. This was the clearly case with military conscription in Canada…
Bercuson, David J. 2005. "Canada in World War I." In Encyclopedia Britannica, p. 1120.
Black's Law Dictionary. 1990. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Hagan, John. 2000. "Narrowing the Gap by Wide the Conflict: Power Politics, Symbols of Sovereignty, and the American Vietnam War Resisters' Migration to Canada." Law &
Society Review 34(3):619.
Canadian Military and Leadership
Issues in Military Leadership
Situational Leadership Theory
Canadian Military and Situational Leadership
The military organizations have developed a culture that has set standards of increased productivity with declining resources as regards money, workforce and other resources (Towell, 1998). Despite the fact that there have been reductions in the expenditure of military yet there seen an increased in the expectations from military leaders to complete successfully the assigned tasks apart from of limited sources (Fogleman, 1995). These expectations of achieving goals completely with fewer resources have put a significant toll on military leaders (Towell, 1998).
The Canadian Force (CF) is currently undergoing a change and "have already begun a long-term transformation process," (Department of National Defense, 2005, p.2) which will lead Canada's military into the future. In 2005, the DND (Department of National Defense) published Canada's International Policy Statement. The policy statement outlines…
Blanchard, K. (1993). The Blanchard management report. Manage, 45(2), 25. Retrieved October 18, 2011 from the Academic Search Premier database.
Blanchard, K., & Nelson, B. (1996). Where do you fit in? Incentive, 170(10), 65-67. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from the Academic Search Premier database.
Blank, W., Weitzel, J.R., & Green, S.G. (1990). A test of the situational leadership theory. Personnel Psychology, 43(3), 579-597. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from the Academic Search Premier database.
Department of National Defense. (2005). Leadership in the Canadian Forces: Conceptual Foundations. Ottawa, Canada: Queen's Printers
Expression, Action, ebellion, eflection, & Attention:
The Power and the Problem of Canadian Feminist Media
How does use of the media inform and propel the feminist movement in Canada?
How is media used as part of the feminist agenda?
What is the history of the media in reference to feminist communication in Canada?
How can Canadian feminists utilize media to its full advantage to support and promote the feminist agenda?
How does the feminist movement in Canada reflect or distort the actual struggle of feminists in Canada?
To clearly define the role of the media in the feminist agenda
To use the media to spread the feminist agenda and promote positive representation of feminism in Canada
To express the life experience of women accurately and thoroughly
To utilize media to its fullest potential so as to support a positive feminist agenda
To ensure that feminist media representations are…
Bradley, M. 2006. Report: Reframing the Montreal Massacre: Strategies for Feminist Media Activism. Canadian Journal of Communication Corporation, 31, 929 -- 936.
Bullock, K.H., & Jafri, G.J. Media (Mis)Representations -- Muslim Women in the Canadian Nation. Canadian Women Studies/Les Cahiers de la Femme, 20(2), 35 -- 40.
Druick, Z. 2011. Sex Money Media: Time for five more feminist minutes. Global Media and Communication, 7(1), 69 -- 71.
Godard, Barbara. 1988. Feminist Critical Theory in English Canada and Quebec: Present State and Future Directions. Tessara, 11(2-3), Retrieved from http://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/tessera/issue/view/1452 . 2012 April 08.
but, the one thing Pammet and LeDuc note that given the analyses in their report, it is suggested that the decline in voter turnout is likely to continue for some time.
hen those that indicated that they hadn't voted were asked "hat was the main reason you did not cast a ballot?," Pammet and LeDuc received a variety of responses.
Some of the answers they received concerned a decrease interest in election and politics in general.
These types of responses raise more questions than they answer. Obviously declining interest in politics and elections would equate to a reduction in voter turnout, but then the question then becomes, why is interest declining? Pammet and LeDuc believe that there are several reasons for this declining interest, rather than one primary cause.
They also note that turnout for Canadian federal elections have been traditionally lower than voter turnout in other countries, especially in…
Heard, a. Historical Voter Turnout in Canadian Federal Elections & Referenda. No date. Simon Fraser University. 10 Mar. 2008 http://www.sfu.ca/~aheard/elections/historical-turnout.html .
Ivison, J. "PR means voters won't get off scot-free:[National Edition]. " National Post [Don Mills, Ont.] 16 Jun 2003,A15. Canadian Newsstand Core. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. 10 Mar. 2008 http://www.proquest.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ .
Knox, P. "Turnout reinforced reputation for apathy Republicans countered Democrats' voter drive. " the Globe and Mail 7 November 1984 P.10. Canadian Newsstand Core. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. 10 Mar. 2008
The substance had devastating effects on them, and, it assisted them into growing more detested by white people. Certain white people engaged in observing native behavior have even observed the aftermath that alcohol had brought upon the Indian society. Some white people have even triggered alarms relating to the fact that Indians were hurriedly becoming wiped out, just as several animal species in Canada.
The Native Americans in the U.S. did not receive a different treatment than the ones in Canada. Furthermore, they had gotten to the point when the government did not accept them as a minority and even condemned them if they tried to claim their rights as natives. Any resolutions made by the League of Indians in Canada were met with harsh rejections from the government, with the officials declaring that there had been no need for them to abolish perfectly normal amendments. The elder Indians had…
1. Buckley, Helen. (1993). From Wooden Ploughs to Welfare: Why Indian Policy Failed in the Prairie Provinces. McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP.
2. Dickason, Olive Patricia. (1992). "Canada's first nations: a history of founding peoples from earliest times." Editorial Galaxia.
3. Haycock, Graham Ronald. Laurier, Wilfrid. "The Image of the Indian: The Canadian Indian as a Subject and a Concept in a Sampling of the Popular National Magazines Read in Canada, 1900-1970." University Press, 1970.
4. Howlett, Michael. "Policy Paradigms and Policy Change: Lessons from the Old and New Canadian Policies towards Aboriginal Peoples." Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 22, 1994.
" (2003) the police force from this view was held as "ideal for exerting order across the vast territories of Canada, whose sheer scale made law enforcement, public administration and the assertion of sovereignty difficult." (Newburn, 2003) the police force in this area was known as the "North-West Mounted Police" whose influence extended early [in the] twentieth century...taking on security and counterespionage services during the First World War and, in 1919, helping to break the Winnipeg general strike."(Newburn, 2003)
In 1920 this force was renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and expanded throughout the 1930s. During the 1930s, this police system is described as "chaotic...replaced by one in which officers earned wages almost one third above the national average. (Royal Commission on the Police, 1960; as cited in Newburn, 2003) Following World War II changes occurred in ritish policing and the relationship between the police and local communities and…
Fogal, Connie (2006) Police State in U.S. And Canada: The Radio Frequency ID Card
Parent, Rick (2006) the Police Use of Deadly Force: International Comparisons. Vathek Publishing. 2006.
Randall, Kate (1998) Police Brutality in America. 27 Oct 1998. Part 2 in a series of articles on Amnesty International's Report of human rights abuses in the U.S. The International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI).
The Growth of Our Prisons (2006) Justice Watchdog. Online available at http://www.justicewatchdog.com/donations.html
A head of state could be chosen by indirect election by parliament, as one example. This is similar to the current process, however, in the new process, the Governor-General would be made by provincial or federal legislatures as opposed to being selected by the Prime Minister and then formally appointed by the Queen. Another way to go would be to have the head of state chosen by indirect election by a selection committee of political peers -- like judges, former or sitting federal or provincial politians, academics or other. "This model, a variation of which is practiced by Germany, offers some solace to those who think a president elected by parliament would somehow be indebted or subservient to it" (2010).
Direct election by voters is another way to choose the head of state. Candidates may be selected by provincial legislatures, culminating into a federal election. This kind of system is…
1. Appadurai, Samy. Canada: The Meat of the World Sandwich. Authorhouse, 2009.
2. Bridge, Carl., & Fedorawich, Kent. The British World: Diaspora, Culture & Identity.
3. Cannadine, David. Making History Now and then: Discoveries, Controversies and Explorations. Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.
A family making $60,000 or less has a higher standard of living in Canada than in the U.S., although individuals in the upper tiers of the tax brackets in Canada do pay more (Speirs 1999). There is also a national 'sales' or consumption tax, similar to Europe's VAT (value-added) tax in Canada, and higher estate taxes than the United States. Canada is also more willing to use public policy 'carrot' tax cuts to encourage good behavior, including a tax credit for using public transportation (About the tax credit for public transportation, 2009, Canadian government website).
Canada generally provides more financial support to students for education, again with an eye upon shaping social policy. For example it encourages apprenticeships and other educational initiatives for 'self-improvement,' in the belief that fostering education helps all of society. "The Apprenticeship Incentive Grant (AIG) is a taxable cash grant available to registered apprentices once they…
About the tax credit for public transit (2009). Canadian government website. Retrieved May 6,
2009 at http://www.transitpass.ca/about_e.asp
Apprenticeship grant. (2009). Canadian government website. Retrieved May 6, 2009 at http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/goc/apprenticeship.shtml
Education. (2009). Canadian government website. Retrieved May 6, 2009 at http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/subjects/education/index.shtml
External Reflection of the Internal: The Usage of the Canadian Landscape in as for Me and My House and Who has seen the Wind
A number of similarities exist between the novels of William Ormond Mitchell and Sinclair Ross, who wrote Who has seen the Wind, and As For Me And My House, respectively. oth works deal with theological issues of religion and faith, and contain a fair amount of skepticism for these concepts. The novels also mirror one another in their usage of the environment and the surrounding landscape as a tool with which to illustrate a variety of feelings experienced by their respective characters. The tendency to utilize the outer surroundings of the natural world to explicate the inner thought processes and emotions of human nature is one which is indicative in a fair amount of Canadian literature (ordessa 58). As such, both Mitchell and Ross…
Besner, Neil. "Who has seen the wind." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Dominion, 2011. Accessed April 14, 2011 at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008571
Bordessa, Ronald. "Moral frames for landscape in Canadian literature." A few acres of snow:
literary and artistic images of Canada. Edited by Paul Simpson-Housley & G.B. Norcliffe. Dundurn Press, 1992.
McLay, C. "Crocus, Saskatchewan: A country of the mind." The Journal of Popular Culture,
In this sense, there were changes that took place according to the system exported by the United States through the Canadian perspective. Thus, it "integrated itself into an emerging, common, North American discourse, that nationalists, opposed to 'American domination', aligned themselves with, or made common cause with, socialists, opposed to both national and international capitalist organization"
The important changes that took place however at the level of the economy represented the openness towards private investment and foreign assistance. Indeed, much of it was viewed by the nationalists as a means of controlling the economy by foreigners and in particular U.S. traders. Still, this shift in perspective was largely due to the new political leadership in power. More precisely, the fact that politically speaking there was a change in perspective, from an economic point-of-view the change was also felt. This is the connection most analysts try to make concerning the transformation…
Clement, Wallace, and Vosko Leah F. Changing Canada: Political Economy as Transformation. Montreal: McGill-Queen's. 2003.
Jackson J. Spielvogel, Western Civilization: A Brief History. Volume II. Pennsylvania State University. 2008.
Neill, Robin. A History of Canadian Economic Thought. London and New York: Routledge, 1991.
Seymour E. Harris, the New Economics: Keynes' Influence on Theory and Public Policy. Alfred a. Knopf: New York, 1947, 5
They always expect the court decisions to be consistent with the objectives on social and economic policies. However, in any given case, the Supreme Court is persistent as to the inherent uncertainty of any result. Although the public's opinion is correct, the Supreme Court has the right and duty to uphold its unbiased decision.
Another question that may arise is - "Is the Charter applicable only to Canadian citizens?" In reference to Quebec's Charter of Human Rights and Freedom, the Supreme Court implied that Section 7 is not limited to the citizens of Canada but is applicable to all persons who are physically present in the country. A person who is not a citizen of Canada may enjoy such protection of the law in a way that a Canadian citizen may benefit the same while on another country. This is because of the many treaties between countries regarding the governance…
Jean Batiste Day. Even poets added to this creation of a national hero in Jacques Cartier.
One thing we might note for Gordon's writing is that he used quite a lot of French quotation and commented on it, but never supplied the translation. Having read the French quotes I determined that they added meaning to the article, so I do not really understand why he did not translate them. The title mentions two nations, and this was, perhaps, one way of emphasizing their differences. However, one questions his "oversight."
The third writing is possibly the most telling in that it suggests that Canadians adopted the romanticization of the Northern Winter as a symbol of their national character. The severity of the weather was seen as responsible for producing a robust and courageous people in contrast to the weak and simpering southern neighbors in the warmer climate of the United States.…
Ramsay Cook, "1942 and All That: Making a Garden out of Wilderness"
Alan Gordon, "Heroes, History, and Two Nationalisms: Jacques Cartier"
Ken Coates and William Morrison, "Winter and the Shaping of Northern History: Reflections from the Canadian North."
God has given unto man as his position, who can doubt that when it shall be cultivated it will be a land of promise?" I hardly need to explain why I think that sentence is so revealing of the European "nature," but I will. It forthrightly articulates the renaissance European's conviction that man was chosen by the Creator to possess and dominate the rest of creation.
Canadian Labor Law
Law and Human esources: Canadian Constructive Dismissal and Human esource Approach in Companies
This work examines constructive dismissal and human resource approach in Canadian companies. The relationship that exists between the employer and employee is reported as a "type of contract." Dismissal of non-unionized employees is stated to be subject to "labor law" as well as their collective agreements in contrast to the rules that exist in Ontario and Canadian employment law which may be a breach of the condition of the employment contract. (Ball, 2008, paraphrased)
Definition of Constructive Dismissal
Constructive dismissal is a term used to describe "…employment situations in which the employee has not been directly fired by the employer but instead the employer has failed to comply with the employment contract in some primary aspect resulting in unilateral change to the terms of employment. This includes a statement on the part of the…
Applasamy, Rajan A. (nd) The Doctrine of Constructive Dismissal. Retrieved from: http://www.unioncimb.org.my/home/news/TheDoctrineOfConstructiveDismissal.pdf
Ball, Stacey Reginald (2011) Canadian and Ontario Employment Law -- Legal Issues. Retrieved from: http://www.staceyball.com/employment_law.htm
Beware of Constructive Dismissal Risks (2011) HR Compliance Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.hrcomplianceinsider.com/newsletter/beware-of-%E2%80%98constructive-dismissal%E2%80%99-risks
Ceaser, R. Lance (2008) UNILATERAL CHANGES TO EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT WITH TWO YEARS' NOTICE FOUND TO CONSTITUTE WRONGFUL DISMISSAL Wronko v. Western Inventory Service Ltd.,  O.J. No. 1589 (C.A.). Retrieved from: http://www.filion.on.ca/uploads/File/pdf/caselaws/Wronko.pdf
" (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)
The largest portion of the workforce in these advanced economies is employed either in the manufacturing or services sector and the result is "...the evolution of employment shares depends mainly on output and productivity trends in these two sectors." (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999) in the majority of advanced economies, there has been a generally faster growth of labor productivity than the growth in services with the output growth about the same in these two sectors. Therefore, due to the output trends being so similar in the two sectors, the productivity lagging in the services sectors has a result, which is the absorption of a rising share of total employment "while rapid productivity in growth in manufacturing leads to a shrinking employment share for this sector." (Rowthorn and Ramaswamy, 1999)
The work of Sachs and Schatz (1994) as well as Wood (1994, 1995) and Saeger (1996)…
Cairncross, a (1982) 'What is deindustrialization?' Pp. 5-17 in: Blackaby, F (Ed.) Deindustrialization, London: Pergamon
Goshen, Erica (2005) Commentary FRBNY Economic Policy Review August 2005.
Lever, WF (1991) 'Deindustrialization and the Reality of the Post-industrial City' Urban Studies, Vol. 28, No. 6, Pp. 983-999
Ostrey, Aleck S. et al. (2001) Effects of De-Industrialization on Unemployment, Re-Employment and Work Conditions in a Manufacturing Workforce. BMC Public Health, 2001.
S. banking crisis despite the relations between the two markets has informed debate for quite a while. According to OECD, the recession in Canada was not as serious as it was in U.S. And government bank bailouts as a result of bank failures were largely unheard of (42). This 'unusual' scenario is what has motivated a number of economists to suggest a number of reasons as to why Canada remained relatively stable. To begin with, there have been suggestions that the cause of Canada's stability could have been the significant level of regulation as well as conservatism as compared to the U.S.
The Canadian banking system can be describes as being relatively robust by dint of the diversification as well as size of the financial institutions in the marketplace. The banking system in Canada is also highly regulated (OECD 42). However, when it comes to the U.S., the banking system…
Kolb, Robert. Lessons from the Financial Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Our Economic Future. John Willey and Sons, 2010.
OECD. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2010. OECD Publishing, 2010.
Canadian Business and the Law
Does Canada have too much business law?
This is paper is based on the Canadian business law and all the information so mentioned are related to the book titled "Canadian Business and the Law" which is written by authors Dorothy DuPlessis, Steven Enman, Sally Gunz and Shannon O'Byrne. This text forms the single source of reference for this study.
Two topics will be discussed based on what this paper is about, and they will include; the most important aspects of the Canadian legal system for businesses operating there and secondly the relationship between business ethics and the law in business in the Canadian context.
Important aspects of the Canadian legal system for business
It is always an important topic when discussing about doing business in Canada; the legal system has a very huge impact on commerce in the country and generally it influences on how…
DuPlessis D., Enman S., Gunz S., O'Byrne S., (2011), Canadian Business and the Law, Nelson Education Ltd., pp 5-110
For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on industrialization. Colonial power structures legitimized the social hierarchies that form the backbone of capitalist infrastructure.
The ways capitalism transformed traditional aboriginal society from being barter-based to being wage labour-based closely resemble the ways capitalism transformed traditional European skilled labour culture. As Kealey points out, the European artisan model of labour persisted until the Industrial evolution. Skilled labourers like coopers and smiths once apprenticed their work, entering into careers that offered a high degree of control over the means of production and…
DeLottinville, P. "Joe Beef of Montreal: Working-Class Culture and the Tavern, 1869-1889." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 190-214.
Kealey, G.S. "The Honest Workingman and Workers' Control: The experience of Toronto Skilled Workers, 1860-1892." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 112-142.
Lutz, J. "After the Fur Trade: The Aboriginal Labouring Class of British Columbia 1849-1890" in Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 235-259.
These climatic changes in turn impact negatively on the economy and the people within the region. There is need hence for the environmental protection for sustainable development. Though there have been significant measures like the formulation of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) which was geared towards protection of the marine environment especially tackling pollution and shipping safety laws to be in place (Justice Laws Website, 2013), there is still more that Canada can do to ensure a sustainable economic growth of this region.
Canada must therefore resort to ecosystem-based management system within the Artic region. There is need to ensure an approach that will take into account the co-management of the species in the Artic region that may cross the international borders like the polar bear and the Arctic birds. The collaborative approach to the ecosystem should also include the Arctic research and science ventures conducted in collaborative…
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, (2013). Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/arctic_policy-canada-politique_arctique.aspx?lang=eng
Geopolitics in the High North, (2013). Statement on Canada's Arctic policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=138:statement.
Justice Laws Website, (2013). Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-12). Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-12/
Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal Activities
Canadian Policies to Combat Crime and Terrorism
Problems being faced due to Cyber-Crime in Today's World
What is Identity Theft?
How and Why Cyber-Crime Occurs?
Why Cyber-Crime has become an Important Issue?
How elease of Personal Information makes an Individual vulnerable to Identity Theft?
Since time immemorial, crime and criminal activities have been found at an accelerated pace, however, with the penetration of the world into the twenty first century with numerous technological advancements and innovations, these acts have taken a new form. This evidently signifies that crime through cyberspace has become one of the widespread and prevailing activities of the today's fast paced world, where the entire human race is moving towards the industrial and hi-tech progressions at a constant speed. Moreover, the criminal and terrorist activities in a more sophisticated version have become a common aspect of mundane…
Balkin, J.M. (2007). Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment. Edited Version. New York, USA: NYU Press.
Brenner, S.W. (2010). Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace. USA: ABC-CLIO.
Burgess, A., Regehr C., & Roberts, A. (2011). Victimology: Theories and Applications: Theories and Applications. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Clough, J. (2010). Principles of Cybercrime. 1st Edition. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Canadian Current Events Magazine
Prduced by NAME
This article describes the grwing trend in the crprate wrld f eliminating perfrmance reviews, which many find t be ineffective and even cunterprductive. The article ntes that wrkers and managers alike ften feel that perfrmance reviews d nt measure what they are meant t measure, and that they fail t prvide
Cntinued n New Mining Activity in Alberta
Letters t the Editr
Interview with Financial Expert
Prjected Grwth in 2012
Signs f imprvement in the labr market in the United States cntinue as the rate f peple applying fr unemplyment benefits hit its lwest number since May f 2008, accrding t recent numbers released by the U.S.
Canada is a cuntry whse main exprts are hckey players and cld frnts. Our main imprts are baseball players and acid rain.…
other: 3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Freedom of conscience and religion
Freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression iii. Freedom of peaceful assembly
Freedom of association
The freedoms guaranteed by the Canadian Constitution are similar to those of the United States and other democratic nations. The basic principles of these freedoms are the privileges of the individual to believe, speak, and meet peacefully without fear of governmental repression.
Right to vote in an election of the House of Commons
Right to enter, remain in, and leave Canada iii. The right to live and work in any Canadian province
Right to life, liberty, and the security of the person and the right not to be deprived
Right to be secure against unlawful search and seizure
Right not to be arbitrarily imprisoned vii. Right upon arrest or detention to be informed of the reasons, retain and instruct counsel, have the validity of detention be determined…
To Thomas Sowell, another opponent of the universal health care, suggests that it is necessary to first study the consequences of having a universal health care before diverting into such system. Sowell doesn't believe in a government-run health care. To him, the universal health care doesn't reduce the real cost of health care but instead reduces the amount of money a patient has to pay for at the cost of reducing health care quality.
Taylor, H.M. Health Care in Canada: Pros and Cons.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from Online. Web site: http://www.arcadyholistic.ca/ah01n.htm
Williams, W. (2005). Why Canadians Purchase Private Health Insurance.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006 from Capitalism Magazine Online.
Web site: http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=4271
Sowell, T. (2003). Thomas Sowell: Universal Health Care.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006 from Online.
Web site: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/906366/posts
Sowell, T. (2004). The Problem with Price Controls.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from Heartland Institute…
Taylor, H.M. Health Care in Canada: Pros and Cons.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from Online. Web site: http://www.arcadyholistic.ca/ah01n.htm
Williams, W. (2005). Why Canadians Purchase Private Health Insurance.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006 from Capitalism Magazine Online.
Moreover, multiculturalism is alive and well in Canada today; to wit, foreign-born Canadian citizens are "over-represented in the fields of mathematics and physical science, the health professions, sciences and technologies," Thompson concludes, as well as in the fields of engineering and applied sciences.
Boyd, Monica. 1976. Immigration Policies and Trends: A Comparison of Canada and the United States. Demography 13 (1): 83-104.
Canadian Council for Refugees. 2001. A hundred years of immigration to Canada 1900-1999:
chronology focusing on refugees and discrimination. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.web.net/~ccr/history.html.
CIC Canada. 2001. The Role of Transportation in Canadian Immigration 1900-2000. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/transport/chap-3b.html.
Patrias, Carmela. 2000. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy
By Ninette Kelley; Michael Trebilcock. The American Historical Review 105 (2): 532-533.
The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2003. Immigration. Retrieved march 20, 2007 at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com.
Thompson, John Herd; & einfeld, Morton. 1995.…
Boyd, Monica. 1976. Immigration Policies and Trends: A Comparison of Canada and the United States. Demography 13 (1): 83-104.
Canadian Council for Refugees. 2001. A hundred years of immigration to Canada 1900-1999:
chronology focusing on refugees and discrimination. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.web.net/~ccr/history.html .
CIC Canada. 2001. The Role of Transportation in Canadian Immigration 1900-2000. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/transport/chap-3b.html .
For an Internet portal such as this directory, many 'threats' are evident, given that consumers have such a wide array of other potential choices use to find information. Perhaps the most obvious threat is Google itself -- consumers can simply Google businesses directly and cut out the 'middleperson.' Or they can look for portals specifically designed to direct users to movers, restaurants, etcetera. Many portals like 'Yelp' also include user reviews, which this website lacks.
Perhaps the most obvious competitor for the website, however, is the simplest -- the Canadian online Yellow Pages, which allows for easy searching -- the search function is on the website homepage. There are also multiple ways of searching the Yellow Pages, such as by name, business, and location -- or by filtering specifically through all of these functions. For example, a user could find a yoga studio in Ontario, rather than have to…
One of the failures of the current system is that it often does not account for cultural and resource differences between nations - instead a one-size fits all economic system is imposed universally. Over time, each society will find its own path. Some societies will fail to adapt and ultimately disappear. That is part of the evolutionary process. The key is that right now all societies are not given the same opportunity to succeed whereas the fundamental principles of capitalism suggest they should be.
As more people realize that happiness is more important than money, we will see profound shifts towards knowledge and culture, and the pursuit of wealth will be taken up by other cultures. As they too achieve the type of sustained comfort experienced today in many estern societies, they too will shift towards the pursuit of happiness over money. There will be a major obstacle to overcome…
Saul, John Ralston. (2000). LaFontane-Baldwin Symposium, Inaugural Lecture. Speech online. Accessed April 3, 2008 at http://www.operation-dialogue.com/lafontaine-baldwin/e/2000_speech.html
Saul, John Ralston.(2005). The Collapse of Globalism and the Re-Invention of the World. Toronto: Penguin Canada.
Saul, John Ralston (1995). The Unconscious Civilian. Toronto: Anansi, Massey College.
Sahtouris, Elisabet. Globalization as a Natural Evolutionary Process. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.pcdf.org/Living_Economies/Supporting_Essays/globalization.htm
One of the largest issues between the two nations is the issue of truck passage. In the past trucks carrying goods or cargo had enjoyed a cursory glance as they crossed into the other nation however, after the World Trade Towers came down border agents on both sides of the border began to investigate trucks with much more scrutiny than ever before.
Historic allies, Canada and the United States agreed following 9-11 to a plan for a "secure and smart border" both U.S. And Canadian officials said would protect against terrorist attacks while facilitating this vital stream of trade. Seventy percent of the trade with Canada is truck-borne, with a truck crossing the border every three seconds in a stream of 200,000 vehicles each day (Canada, 2002).
The essence of that agreement was that the United States and Canada would devise ways to identify regular, unthreatening traffic in people…
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Accessed 10-22-06)
Danna, Anthony and Oscar H. Gandy 2002 All that glitters is not gold: Digging beneath the surface of data mining. Journal of Business Ethics 40: 373-386.
Ericson, Richard V. And Kevin Haggerty 1997 Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
According to Longworth, "the reason (the bank) insist on keeping inflation in line is because this is the best contribution the bank can make to a healthy economy." In other words, keeping inflation low, stable and predictable is key to keeping the economy "on the smoothest possible track for long-lasting economic growth and job creation," says Longworth. By doing this, the Canadian public and private monetary policy is able to avoid an inflationary "boom-and-bust" cycle is one of the leading causes to recessions and increased rates of unemployment. "To put it another way, the Bank's focus on inflation means that the gap between the potential and actual performance of the economy can be kept as narrow as possible."
III. The Negative Side of the Canadian Economy
On the flip side of the careful monetary policy planning is the government's fiscal policy planning, or, according to some, lack of planning. According…
Central Intelligence Agency. (2005): CIA World Factbook: Canada. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing.
Fortin, Pierre. (1995). The Canadian Fiscal Problem: The Macroeconomic Connection. Atlantic Economic Journal.
Howlett, Michael and M. Ramesh. (1992). Political Economy of Canada: An Introduction. Toronto: McClelland and Steward.
Longworth, David. (2007). Canadian Monetary Policy.
Canadian Society: Global Perspectives
This book comprises of a collection of literary works selected by Timothy McCauley and Janice Hill and is especially targeted to provide scholarly insight and understanding for students taking courses on sociology. Imperatively, the book lays emphasis on sociological points of view that take into account aspects such as diversity, ethnicity, identity, race, gender, family, as well as socialization. In this regard, the authors assimilate these sociological issues in the context of Canada and the manner in which it is linked to international patterns and processes. For instance, the authors delineate that different aspects such as the recent downward spiral of the global economy that impacted regions and nations across the world are a reminder that were are all existent in a global system. An additional example employed by the authors is the Highway of Heroes Living Tribute, which is a tribute to both the mean…
9 million subscribers (38.5% share); and Telus has 6.1 million subscribers (29.7%).
The cell phone industry's wireless providers partner with cellular phone and wireless device manufacturers in order to provide devices to consumers. In the third quarter of 2008, an estimated 3,000,000 devices were shipped, indicating strong device turnover nationwide. The market leader in devices is Samsung, with a 27.8% share (Samsung/IDC, 2008). The market is still growing, despite the economic downturn, with a growth rate of 4% expected for 2009 (IDC, 2009).
One strong segment in the industry is the advanced smartphone industry (Blackberry, iPhone). This segment now accounts for 21% of the market, driven by an under-30 demographic (Persaud, 2009). These devices are marketed through the usual providers. Blackberry has deals with all three providers; the iPhone is marketed exclusively through Rogers. The other main segment is the general wireless (regular cell phone) market.
The government plays a…
No author. (2007). Ottawa opens up wireless industry to more competition. CBC News. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2007/11/28/auction.html?ref=rss
Lasalle, Luann. (2008). Competition in Canada's Cell Phone Industry. Canadian Press. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://northcentralcomm.wordpress.com/2008/07/01/competition-in-canadas-cell-phone-industry-2/
No author. (2007). Canadian Telecom Industry. Swedish Trade Council. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.swedishtrade.se/PageFiles/137357/Canadian%20Telecom%20Industry.pdf
No author. (2008). Samsung leads Canada's wireless wars. Samsung/IDC. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.cellphones.ca/news/post004644/
God is wherever humans are, which can lead to the belief that where the human soul or heart is, then God will be there too. Heaven is the City of God, according to St. Augustine, but we can have access to God here on Earth through his Son, Jesus Christ. One must be meek and be thankful for Christ's sacrifice if God is to live within them and if they are to go on to the City of God after their death.
4. Don't let it end like this. Tell them I said something.
Descartes said, "I think, therefore I am." If one is no longer thinking, it means that they are no longer here. Man has always been and forever will be afraid of not being anymore, afraid of not being able to think and exist and he once was able. Pancho Villa said, "Don't let it end like…
Canada is one of the largest countries in Northern America, covering more than 9 million square metres. It has a population of over 31 million people. Even though the country is ethnically diverse, two main languages the people use are English and French. The Canadians use these two official languages. This makes it a bilingual country. People whose ancestry is British make the largest percentage of the people who live in Canada. Economically, Canada is one of the largest economies in the world, with an average per capita income of over twenty thousand dollars (Kalman & Bobbie, p. 4).
Values that the Canadians uphold
The Canadians uphold several values. These values include coexisting peacefully, equality and freedom, respecting the cultural differences that exist between them and keeping the law among other values. Keeping peace is one of the metiers that the Canadians cherish. Canada has been very active in…
Conrad, John D. Scarce Heard Amid the Guns: An Inside Look at Canadian Peacekeeping.
Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2011. Internet resource.
De, la T.M. Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies. Los Angeles: Getty
Conservation Institute, 2005. Print.
Canadian Forces, small group military relationships
Within the Canadian Forces, how are small group military relationships on operational deployments in Kabul, Afghanistan?
A group is mostly defined to be two or more people interacting together so they can achieve a common specific goal. The main purpose of the group would be towards a shared and desired outcome. With this in mind, Military groupings are formed to achieve a common interest like defeating a common foe, or lobbying for a specific cause. The group will have some form of leadership structure to ensure it is not mistaken for a crowd. The leadership for military groups is formal. Military groups report to one leader, and follow the orders or instructions given by their leader. For the effectiveness of the military groups, the group members should work together. Working closely together, and for long periods, the group members will form certain bonds, and…
Cox, D.R., & Snell, E.J. (1974). The Choice of Variables in Observational Studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), 23(1), 51-59.
Jiroutek, M.R., Muller, K.E., Kupper, L.L., & Stewart, P.W. (2003). A New Method for Choosing Sample Size for Confidence Interval-Based Inferences. Biometrics, 59(3), 580-590.
Johnson, B.A., & Tsiatis, A.A. (2004). Estimating Mean Response as a Function of Treatment Duration in an Observational Study, Where Duration May Be Informatively Censored. Biometrics, 60(2), 315-323.
Morgan, D.L. (1996). Focus Groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 1996 / Copyright © 1996 Annual Reviews), 129-152.
Canadian is to be British
Between 1867 and 1914, it was said that "to be Canadian is to be British." That was both a strength and a weakness for Canada. It affected how the people in that country felt about themselves. It also affected how the rest of the world thought about Canadians. One of the reasons people believed that Canadians were British was imperialism. Canada wanted to be a successful nation. Many people who lived there thought the only way to do that was through being tied to British imperialism.
Other people disagreed, and said that Canada had to break away and be on its own.
Those people did not think Canada's ideals and beliefs were compatible with the British way of doing things. For more than 30 years, the two groups would argue back and forth about how Canada should be ruled.
Then the First World War broke…
Berger, C. (2006). "Imperialism and nationalism, 1884 to 1914: A conflict in Canadian thought." In R.D. Francis & D.B. Smith, eds. Readings in Canadian history: Post-confederation, (7th. ed.). Canada: Nelson-Thomson Learning.
Brown, C. (2006). "The nationalism of the national policy." In R.D. Francis & D.B. Smith, eds. Readings in Canadian history: Post-confederation, (7th. ed.). Canada: Nelson-Thomson Learning.
Lee, D. (2006). "The Metis militant rebels of 1885." In R.D. Francis & D.B. Smith, eds. Readings in Canadian history: Post-confederation, (7th. ed.). Canada: Nelson-Thomson Learning.
Levitt, J. (2006). "Henri Bourassa on imperialism and biculturalism, 1900-1918." In R.D. Francis & D.B. Smith, eds. Readings in Canadian history: Post-confederation, (7th. ed.). Canada: Nelson-Thomson Learning.
Canadian criminal justice system corrections
The Canadian justice system
Since the last decade, there's been a huge hue and cry pertaining unjust convictions and its disastrous consequences. As in the case of Canada, there have been numerous high profile cases which concluded with unjust verdicts, putting the Canadian justice system and its judicial process in question. Even though, the media's attention has increased on this matter, academic literature on the issue is razor-thin in case of Canada (Denov & Campbell, 2005). The media's coverage of crimes and criminal justice is now excessively given coverage during the last decade, since it's a form of entertainment and news. Criminal justice and crime have emerged as a viable form of entertainment across the media spectrum. In case of TV shows, depictions of criminal justice and crime are observed in courtroom TV seasons as well as daily talk's shows.
Popular culture and criminal courts…
Blatchford, C. (2015, Febuary 27). News. Retrieved from National Post: http://news.nationalpost.com/2015/02/27/christie-blatchford-canadians-seem-to-imagine-that-slow-justice-is-better-justice-but-thats-not-the-case/
Denov, M., & Campbell, K. (2005). Understanding the Causes, Effects, and Responses to Wrongful Conviction in Canada. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice.
Entmann, R., & Gross, K. (2008). Race to judgment: stereotyping media and criminal defendants. 93-133. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1495&context=lcp
Gallant, J. (2015, Febuary 23). Crime. Retrieved from The Star: http://www.thestar.com/news/crime/2015/02/23/ontario-courts-slow-to-speak-up-about-hush-orders.html
24). If what Lightbody states is the case, then it appears that those opposed to the integration have no say so in how the government is run. Since the country is not a democracy, but yet a constitutional monarchy these types of decisions and actions can be expected.
Lightbody argues that restructuring process in Canada is often quick and not without drama. This may seem like an unlikely approach given that there is usually so much opposition to change within the municipalities, but he states that the opposition usually adapts very quickly to these changes because they begin to see them as improvements upon the old system (p. 25). One of the reasons for opposition is that many people naturally resist change because they are comfortable with the status quo. Those individuals who think outside of the box can take a step back and see what is working and what…
Lightbody, M. (2009). Defining a Canadian approach to municipal consolidation in major city-regions. Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance, Issue 3, 8-30.
She has memories of "sad poverty" she wants to escape, and even though she has roots in this town, she would sever those roots and become something else.
Rose is central to the stories in this book in every way. Her point-of-view is always the one that takes control. She views herself as an outsider in Hanratty, though clearly she is not. The fact is she wants to be an outsider, and she also believes that being an outsider makes it both more possible and more acceptable for her to comment on the people she finds there, as if w=she were an anthropologist and they were only subject for study. Her role as an outsider is ironic in many ways, and while it is an assumed role, it also symbolizes the real plight of women in society, for women are always outsiders. Rose is seen to be an outsider in…
Denham, Philip. "Narrative Technique in Sinclair Ross's
As for Me and My House. Studies in Canadian Literature (2008). July 23, 2008. http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/SCL/bin/get.cgi?directory=vol5_1/&filename=denham.htm .
Mcgill, Robert. "Where Do You Think You Are? Alice Munro's Open Houses." Mosaic, Vol. 35 (2002). July 31, 2008. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000644745#top .
Munro, Alice. Who Do You Think You Are?
public policy cycle. Public policy is defined as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem," (Pal, 2013, p. 3). The first step of making a given problem known is through public opinion, public interest, and related issues like values and norms. However, as Pal (2013) points out, a more idealistic motivation for bringing policy issues to the attention of policymakers is actually public interest itself in terms of core needs like public safety. There are multiple avenues by which an issue may be made known to the Canadian government. One is via the research route, including university and "think tank" methods of analyzing problems empirically and presenting reports to stakeholder organizations or policymakers. A second is from ministers themselves, through close attention being paid to their constituents and the prevailing interests of the people. Legal restrictions might constrain the ways a potential…
Atkinson, M. M. (1993). Public policy and the new institutionalism. Governing Canada: Institutions and public policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Canada Inc.
Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
Let such programs fund themselves through private charitable contributions. If they're justified they'll survive.
Laws and policies should be reformed so they protect all the rights and due process for both men and women equally.
In concluding, justice and fairness can only be attained and preserved where we rely on the judgment of people as jurors. hen we subtly suggest that they defer to expertise in human behavior for a judgment we're in for trouble.
A great deal of propaganda can be created these days to force people to think in a way they normally - and healthfully -- wouldn't. The abuse syndrome defense has gone beyond fairness. It's acceptance has triggered an enormous amount of unfairness in society -- aside from what the propanganda would have you know.
Bartholomew, K., Regan, K.V., Oram, D., & hite, M.A. (2008). Correlates of Partner Abuse in Male Same-sex Relationships. Violence…
Bartholomew, K., Regan, K.V., Oram, D., & White, M.A. (2008). Correlates of Partner Abuse in Male Same-sex Relationships. Violence and Victims, 23(3), 344+. Retrieved April 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035306243
Brady, B.M. (2000). America in Crisis: Mind Control/ritual Trauma/battered Woman Syndrome and Family Violence. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 92(5), 17+. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035443839
Goldberg, K. (1993, Winter). Battered Women Syndrome: the Imperfect Defense. Herizons, 6, 7+. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036658951
Schuller, R.A., Wells, E., Rzepa, S., & Klippenstine, M.A. (2004). Rethinking Battered Woman Syndrome Evidence: the Impact of Alternative Forms of Expert Testimony on Mock Jurors' Decisions. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 36(2), 127+. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035492407
Criminal Justice in Canada
The Conservative Canadian Government and its "tough on crime" approach
The Conservative Government in Canada has emphasized its attitudes toward crimes by implementing a system that both deters and harshly punishes criminals in an attempt to make the country a safer place. Criminals such as child sex offenders are currently less likely to 'escape' with mild sentences and the authorities have generally been instructed to do everything in their power with the purpose to prevent serious crimes from taking place. This means that penalties have become more significant and the masses are encouraged to play a more active role in protecting the community.
The Conditional Sentencing Reform Bill is among the first principal "tough on crime" reforms that the Conservative Government has adopted since it came to power. "Proposed in 2006, the bill's objective was to restrict the availability of conditional releases (day and full parole…
Alvi, S. "Youth Criminal Justice Policy in Canada: A Critical Introduction." (Springer Science & Business Media, 2 Feb 2012)
Goff, C.H. "Criminal Justice in Canada." (Nelson Education Limited, 2007)
Kury, H., & Shea, E. "Punitivity: International Developments, Volume 3." (Brockmeyer Verlag, 2011)
Public policy development is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders and institutions. Moreover, the nature of public policy development varies depending on whether the policies are foreign or domestic. Holloway (2006) points out the three key influences on foreign policy in Canada, including information coming from foreign embassies with direct access to international issues and affairs. Other influences on foreign policy include formal analysis, which often takes place domestically. Finally, bureaucratic machines regulate messages incoming to government offices (Holloway, 2006). Yet the influences on Canadian domestic policy include ancillary issues ranging from shifts in social norms and values to recent judicial action. For example, Pal (2013) points out the role of both the courts and public opinion on the legalization of same-sex marriage. The three most important influences on Canadian public policy in general include public opinion (expressed in terms of values and norms), the courts (expressed through judicial action),…
Holloway, S.K. (2006). Canadian Foreign Policy. Peterborough: Broadview.
Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
Canadian Women and the Struggle for Equality, Marsden (2012) focuses on how far women have come in the past 150 years towards gaining equality with men in terms of law, work, marriage and society. Her own position in the movement towards equality serves as the point-of-view of this socio-historical account, which covers a great many years but always with the purpose being to show that change and progress towards equal rights for women has certainly been made. The strength of the book is that it proves this time and time again, showing continuously how (though there is still some distance to cover) women of today now have more opportunities than they did a century and a half ago in Canada. One of the weaknesses of the book, however, is that it fails to reflect some of the more radical feminist action over the decades in favor of a more moderate…
Marsden, L. (2012). Canadian Women and the Struggle for Equality. UK: Oxford
This company has an extensive network that extends into Mexico and beyond to the Panama Canal. This acquisition would therefore give CNR control over rail trade in much of North America. Trade with Latin America is growing, and NAFTA has meant in influx of trade with Mexico. A rail corridor between Mexico and Canada would allow for an increase in trade between the two nations. The current southern extent of CNR's track network runs into central llinois and both meet in St. Louis. There may be only minimal work needed to link the two networks.
Kansas City Southern is affordable for CNR. KSU trades on the New York Stock Exchange and has a market cap of $4.96 billion (MSN Moneycentral, 2010), compared with the $30.77 billion market cap of CNR. Thus, an equity-based purchase can be made. Although CNR does not have an unusual amount of debt for a railroad,…
It is recommended that CNR attempt to merge with or otherwise acquire Kansas City Southern Railway Co. This company has an extensive network that extends into Mexico and beyond to the Panama Canal. This acquisition would therefore give CNR control over rail trade in much of North America. Trade with Latin America is growing, and NAFTA has meant in influx of trade with Mexico. A rail corridor between Mexico and Canada would allow for an increase in trade between the two nations. The current southern extent of CNR's track network runs into central Illinois and both meet in St. Louis. There may be only minimal work needed to link the two networks.
Kansas City Southern is affordable for CNR. KSU trades on the New York Stock Exchange and has a market cap of $4.96 billion (MSN Moneycentral, 2010), compared with the $30.77 billion market cap of CNR. Thus, an equity-based purchase can be made. Although CNR does not have an unusual amount of debt for a railroad, it may wish to mix a heavy portion of equity into the purchase price. For its part, KSU is relatively healthy financially, although it is facing declining earnings and income.
CNR should stay in the freight railway business when it looks for a merger or acquisition. Although there are a number of small railways it could add to its portfolio, it is recommended that the company seek a railway that would allow it to expand its presence in North American trade significantly. KSU allows that, linking Canada with Mexico, and expanding the carriers networks into Texas as well. There are existing links or near links in both the St. Louis area and in Louisiana between the two company's existing networks, which makes the purchase logistically feasible. The market cap of KSU is within the range that CNR can afford with a stock purchase as well. All of these considerations taken into account lead to the conclusion that Kansas City Southern is an ideal purchase for Canadian National Railways.
CDN Honey Industry
The Canadian honey industry is widely fragmented and largely undifferentiated. There are approximately 7000 beekeepers and 600,000 colonies in Canada, according to the Canadian Honey Council (2010). Canadian honey is widely exported, to over 30 countries. Annual production is around 28,000 tonnes of honey, of which 16,000 is exported, the export value being $37 million. In recent years, honey production has slipped, but the reputation of Canadian honey abroad remains high (Agriculture Canada, 2008).
This paper will examine the Canadian honey industry, providing not only an overview of the industry and its trends, but also an examination of the industry's key success factors. A complete competitive analysis will be provided, including a Five Forces Analysis and a Value Chain Analysis. There will also be a key success factor (KSF) analysis included in this essay. The paper is intended as an overview of the industry and therefore will…
Agriculture Canada (2008). Canada's honey industry. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/supply/3308_e.htm
Canadian Honey Council. (2009). Production and value of honey and maple products. Canadian Honey Council. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.honeycouncil.ca/documents/Honey%20and%20maple%20production%202009.pdf
Canadian Honey Council website, various pages. (2010). Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.honeycouncil.ca/index.php/honey_industry
QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
The cost to its economy is greater than just lost opportunity as it extends to further damage the credibility of a relationship which the public views as suspect, in accordance with Campbell's estimation.
The oversight of international regulation is undertaken by the orld Trade Organization, which brings the globe's free trade partners together to broker affairs of economic cooperation or contract. However, this has proved to be an agency with too diluted a focus to effectively maintain balance between such partners as Canada and the U.S. Campbell addresses most of the regulatory differences between the two nations as being historical and incidental in some ways, indicating that perhaps the inconsistencies are simply in need of concentrated attention. This notion accounts for the 2005 launch of a Trilateral Regulatory Commission, partnering Canada, the U.S. And Mexico in an agreement to acknowledge a central forum for regulation of trade discrepancies. Though its…
AFX. (2006). WTO Rules Against Canada in Lumber Dispute with U.S.
Forbes. Online at http://www.forbes.com/markets/feeds/afx/2006/04/03/afx2644053.html
Anderson, a.D.M. (1995). Seeking Common Ground Canada-U.S. Trade Dispute Settlement Policies in the Nineties. San Francisco: Westview Press.
Campbell, B. (2006). Canada-U.S. Relations: Paul Martin's Dilemma. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
Americans and Canadians Differ in their Online Spending Habits?
It is no secret that the economies of most industrialized nations have been sluggish over the first part of the 21st century. However, consumer confidence in North America may be on the rise. For instance, according to a March 2012 euter report consumer confidence for Americans and Canadians remained stable as 26% of Americans (the highest level in over a year) and 28% of Canadians believed that their economies would improve over the next year. These figures are taken from the BC U.S. Consumer Outlook Index and the BC Canadian Consumer Outlook (BC COI and BC CCO respectively; euter, 2012). Of course this is really not as optimistic as the researchers depict it, because 26 or 28% does not represent a majority. Therefore, the real news is that the majority of citizens in these countries DO NOT believe there economy will…
Miller, G.E. (July 5, 2011). U.S. Vs. Canada consumer spending: Who is more budget savvy? In 20 Something Finance. Retrieved April 18, 2012, from http://20somethingfinance.com/u - s-vs.-canada-consumer-spending/.
Reuters (March 22, 2012). Canadians and Americans share more than a border - we have similar concerns about economy, employment: RBC. In Reuters. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/22/idUS81116+22-Mar-2012+PRN20120322 .
Canadian farmers defend the government's protectionist policies for its corn and dairy farmers because of the agricultural heavy subsidies in the U.S. For these products. However, many Canadian citizens claim that this policy is, in effect, a lump sum or regressive tax with an unduly burdensome effect upon their wallets: by making corn or dairy products more expensive through artificially inflated prices, they must pay more at the cash registers for food. Poor people traditionally pay a larger proportion of their income in food, hence the extremely regressive nature of the de facto tax through subsidization.
These subsidies do not function technically as an excise tax, which usually taxes cheaper imported goods, but they can be just as damaging to the consumer. hile the U.S. may have not treated Canada entirely fairly, regarding its recent policies, Buy Canadian protectionism has not shown a demonstrable improvement for Canadian firms and has…
Fritsch, Peter & Corey Boles. "How 'Buy American' can hurt U.S. firms." September 17, 2009.
The Wall Street Journal. November 21, 2009.
Perkel, Colin. "Buy Canadian policy better than fighting Buy American rules, think-tank argues." The Canadian Press. November 9, 2009. November 21, 2009.
(Vander Ploeg, 2003)
Key findings stated in the report of Vander Ploeg include the following:
Unlike the overall indications of municipal infrastructure needs, which identify water and wastewater infrastructure as having the greatest investment needs, western cities biggest needs exist in the transportation sector. In each of the cities except Vancouver, roads, bridges, interchanges, sidewalks and public transit make up at least half of the annual infrastructure deficit;
This may be related to the relative youth of western Canadian cities with respect to their eastern counterparts, and suggests that maintenance and repair of existing systems should remain a priority in order to prolong the useful lifespan of water delivery systems and sewers;
Also, environmental services in most western cities are self-financed through user fees, which makes it much easier to finance infrastructure improvements to municipal utilities as opposed to general infrastructure which relies on the tax base for funding. Western…
AMO Welcomes Joint Review of Municipal Fiscal and Service Delivery in Ontario (2006) Association of Municipalities of Ontario. 14 Aug 2006.
Mirza, Saeed M. & Haider, Murtaza (2003) the State of Infrastructure in Canada: Implications for Infrastructure Planning and Policy," a study prepared for Infrastructure Canada, 2003
TD Bank Financial Group (2003) a Choice Between Investing in Canada's Cities and Disinvesting in Canada's Future April 2002.
L'union des Municipalites du Quebec and the Conference Board of Canada (2003) La situation fiscale des municipalities du Quebec," May 2003.
Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)
Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms…
Creese, G. (1988) "Exclusion or solidarity? Vancouver Workers confront the 'Oriental Problem." BC Studies, University of British Columbia Press.
Heron, C. (1984) '"Laborism and the Canadian Working Class." Labor / Le Travail. Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Marks, L. (1991) "The Knights of Labor and the Salvation Army: religion and working-class culture in Ontario, 1882-1890." Labor / Le Travail, 28, 89-127.
Phelan, C. (2000) Grand Master Workman: Terence Powderly and the Knights of Labor. Westport: Greenwood Press.
The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is one of the "Big Five" Canadian banks. It was founded in 1961 by the merger of the Canadian Bank of Commerce (founded 1867) and the Imperial Bank of Canada (founded 1875). Today, the CIBC is the fifth-largest of these by total revenue, earning $12.09 billion in FY2010 (PC, 2011). This report will evaluate the CIBC in terms of a number of different factors in order make a judgment about the merits of investing in the bank's stock. The analysis will comprise of an industry analysis, a company analysis, and a valuation analysis.
According to the company's 2011 Annual Report, the CIBC earned total revenue of $12.249 billion in FY2011. This was split between interest income (51.8%) and non-interest income (48.2%). From this, the bank earned a net income of $3.079 billion. The recession years of 2008 and 2009 saw a sharp…
Alexander, D. (2010). CIBC may have C$211 million debt writedown in third quarter, Mihelic says. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-22/cibc-may-have-c-211-million-debt-writedown-in-third-quarter-mihelic-says.html
CIBC 2011 Annual Report. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from https://www.cibc.com /ca/pdf/about/ar11-en.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Women in 20th Century Canadian Society: Social Conventions and Change
20th century society placed Canadian women within restrictive conventions and norms. There was a very pronounced domestic expectation placed upon women that they would have jobs or careers, but only until they married. Once married, the expectation was that they would abandon their careers to be housewives, working within the domestic sphere of the home, cooking and cleaning and tending to the general needs of the family. During this period, the expectation was that the husband and father was the man of the house and the sole financial provider or “breadwinner” for the family. Given the narrowness of existence for these women, and how limited their choices were, their reactions to this type of domestic captivity were all very diverse. Some women responded to the limiting social conventions by conforming to the expectations placed upon them, while others made great…
Thus, the market structure could be called competitive, but of limited and monopolistic competition.
Despite the presence of government regulation, there are huge anomalies across the country, as the price of gas in Vancouver, for instance, is prohibitively high. The "oil companies claim price swings are market driven" but this cannot be fully the case, " considering that the prices move in unison with six big corporations separately involved in determining the price. Also, when one compares the price of crude oil in dollars per barrel with the United States, the trend upward is virtually the same, all other things being equal, "until the beginning of July" when the price of gas in some areas of Canada, such as Vancouver, grows much higher, and the prices in the United States and other areas of Canada do not experience the same percentage increase. "Had the trend continued from July to August…
Guy Cramer (25 August 2004) "Evidence of Price Fixing by Oil Companies?" Retrieved on 29 October 2004 at Gas Buddy http://www.yfiles.com/gasprices2.html