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Uvin and McFaul make sound arguments using political comparison as
the key to their studies. Uvin uses evidence of all aspect of political
life in his three case study countries, such as elections, the population,
and the role of the military. He then takes his case studies, compares
them, and finds the pattern that links them all to each other. Once the
pattern is identified, he illustrates how this pattern can be looked at in
much broader light as a way in which democracy can become a reality in
countries stuck in the rut of authoritarianism. Like McFaul, Uvin also
takes countries and studies the political evidence of their past. Using a
most historic approach, as he accounts of a larger scope of Rwanda and
Burundi's history to have an effect on the present day, Uvin finds
differences where it appears there would be mainly similarities. In this
McFaul, Michael. "Transitions from Postcommunism." Journal of Democracy,
Vol. 16 (2005):
Uvin, Peter. "Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different Paths to
Comparative Politics, Vol. 31 (1999): 253-271.
Although it is not perfect, the presidential system of government, as typified by the United States (U.S.) is the best system of government ever conceived. y creating a system where the public can remove administrations, without changing the legal basis for government, democracy aims at reducing political uncertainty and instability, and assuring citizens that however much they may disagree with present policies, they will be given a regular chance to change those who are in power, or change policies with which they disagree. This is preferable to a system where political change takes place through violence. Democracies are also more peaceful. Democratic nations do not aggressively attack their neighbors; they seek to resolve differences peacefully. The market forces become the overriding concern in a democratic state. "Immanuel Kant, the original proponent of the democratic peace, contended that in democracies, those who pay for wars -- that is, the public…
Cohen, Carl.. Democracy. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1971.
Corry, J.A., and Henry J. Abraham.. Elements of Democratic Government. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1958.
De Grazia, Alfred.. The Elements of Political Science. New York:: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.
Notions of Modern Democracy
Is Democracy just a simple definition of 'majority rules?' In reality, it's a much more complicated concept.
Democracy' is a word that is often bandied about as a world with an inherently positive meaning in the public political discourse of America as well as other Western (as well as some non-Western) nations. But what constitutes a democratic political system, much less democratic political values often varies from country to country, almost as much as the definition of democracy has varied from political epoch to epoch. In the introductory chapter of his edited volume, Comparative Democracy and Democratization, Howard J. Wiardad puts for the idea that rather than forming a singular and universal schema of values, democracy is in fact very particular and based on very different local, regional, and cultural traditions and institutions.
Technically, of course neither America nor any modern nation-state is truly a…
In the last decade or so, a sequence of regional changes has created a window of opportunity for inclusively for the Middle East peacemaking. The regional balance of power usually has shifted in the last ten or fifteen years in Israel's favor. The fact is that Israel has become more powerful and has given rise to a new Israeli that showed his eagerness to negotiate and to concede in negotiations with its Arab neighbors.
The Security Council interrogation of the envoys of both Israeli and Palestinian as both the governments failed to apply the council resolutions that demanded an immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of Israeli forces from Palestinian cities. However, upon having a meeting between the two parties, it concluded to have an Arab request for a crisis open meeting on the Middle East rising conflict. The Palestinians hoped to have a council approval of a…
From the perspective offered by such a theoretical background, further research is easier to achieve, without having to redo the research with data already available.
Another advantage for using typologies is the fact that they are a useful background for analysis not in the sense of being used as tools, as mentioned before, but as actual sources of practical information. For instance, the term democracy is used by Plato in a particular sense, while by Aristotle in a different way. However, such differences represent a basis for analysis and information. They were useful for studies in the medieval world and for the development of analysis in the next centuries.
The major disadvantage is the limited perspective typologies offer for research. They are not extensible from the point-of-view of their author. In this sense, the democracy as described by Plato is a reference point in the study of democracy in general,…
Goodin, Robert E., Hans-Dieter Klingeman. "Political Science: The Discipline" in Robert E. Goodin, Hans-Dieter Klingemann (Eds.). A New Handbook of Political Science. London: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Politics - Country Case Study - Brazil
Brazil's success during its early years is primarily owed to the fact that colonists were attracted by its potential and New orld settlement promises meant to influence individuals into leaving their home in favor of a rich and fertile territory. In spite of the fact that the majority of Brazilians during the late nineteenth century consisted of African-Americans, the country's public rapidly diversified as European immigrants started to flow into the area. ith Portugal's royal family being strongly connected to its South American colony, Brazil became more important and locals started to express their need for independence. The country went through several political crises until 1985, when influential people there installed a democratic government.
Even with the turmoil that dominated most of the twentieth century, Brazil's international role was established during the early nineteenth century, when it became independent. Emperor Pedro II's influence…
Arsenault, Phillip, "Which Way? The Politics of Decentralization in Brazil," Retrieved July 24, 2011, from the Academia Website: http://rutgers.academia.edu/PhilipArsenault/Papers/134400/Which_Way_The_Politics_of_Decentralization_in_Brazil
Darlene J. Sadlier, Brazil Imagined: 1500 To the Present (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2008)
Kauneckis, Derek & Andersson Krister, "Making Decentralization Work: A Cross-National Examination of Local Governments and Natural Resource Governance in Latin America," Retrieved July 24, 2011, from the University of Colorado Website: http://sobek.colorado.edu/~anderssk/06_Making%20Decentralization%20Work_Kauneckis_Andersson_v5.pdf
Oatis, Taylor, "Decentralizing Centralized States: Electoral Incentives Generating Decentralization in Bolivia, Mexico, and Brazil, with a Twist," Retrieved July 24, 2011, from the Carleton College Website: http://people.carleton.edu/~amontero/Taylor%20Oatis.pdf
Lipset believe that education was conducive for democracy
Lipset's appreciation and believes delegating the importance of education for attainment of democracy in a nation follows from the arguments below. With education, the masses embrace diverse occupational specialization. These specializations will shift of the nation's workforce from dependents on state created positions to economically determined specialization. The nation's workforce will inherently move away from being controlled by the state thereby, reducing a state's control and autonomy over productive resource (Lipset, 1959, p. 78).
Education increases an individual's ability to review and have an articulate measure on the events in their surrounding environment. This equips one with ability to independently organize their preferred actions and communications relying on their understanding. Ideally, education promotes and individual's skill in determining their best course of action. Educated individuals have autonomy upon what direction they wish to take as opposed to following leadership traits that seem…
Lipset, S.M. (1959). "Some Social Requisites of Democracy." Economic Development and Political Legitimacy. American Political Science Review, 53, 69-105.
new leaders of Iraq have just read Lijphart's Patterns of Democracy and have decided to adopt a majoritarian form of government. hat are the advantages of this form of government? Are there any drawbacks? ould you advise them to adopt the majoritarian form? Note 1: You should mention basic details about Iraq's situation, but this question is not testing your knowledge of Iraqi politics. Note 2: Don't spend too much time on describing individual institutions and their effects. This is a big picture question.
In his text, Patterns of Democracy Arend Lijphart states that consensual as opposed to majoritarian democracies ultimately create more responsive and democratic governmental institutions, even though consensual democracies are not run on a strictly 'majority rules' system of decision-making. Lijphart believes that consensual democracies are better able to address such concerns as the need for social welfare, environmental destruction caused by unethical practices such as over-drilling…
Diamond, Larry & Marc F. Plattner. The Global Resurgence of Democracy, by The Global Resurgence of Democracy. Baltimore: U. Of Johns Hopkins, 1993.
Horowitz, Donald L. "The Challenge of Ethnic Conflict." 2001.
Lijphart, Arend. Patterns of Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press 1999.
Putnam, Robert D. "Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital." In Diamond and Plattner, Editors. The Global Resurgence of Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1996: 290-303.
S. And Mexico as this political issue binds them on common ground, creating the synchronic relationship between them. Mexico must do more to create jobs and economic growth to keep her young people at home, because the implications of emigration on both countries are staggering. Hispanics are now the fastest growing minority in the country, and most of them have come from Mexico. These emigrants are taxing the social systems of the country, especially in order States like California and Texas, and Mexico is losing an entire generation of young men, which can only cripple the country in the long run. Mexico is a land of poor people, and the government must work to create better living conditions, better jobs, and a vibrant economy to turn the country and the people around.
Author not Available. (2005). Zapatista Delegates. Retrieved from the Zapatistas.net Web site: http://zapatistas.net/comandantes/22 July 2005.
Author not Available. (2005). Zapatista Delegates. Retrieved from the Zapatistas.net Web site: http://zapatistas.net/comandantes/22 July 2005.
Mahler, Gregory S. (2003). Comparative Politics: An Institutional and Cross-National Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
ecause the Republic was weak, it was open to failure, and open to a takeover by a powerful group such as Hitler's Nazis. asically, the failure of the Republic allowed Hitler to take control of the government, which ultimately led to World War II, the persecution of the Jews, the Holocaust, and millions of deaths. Thus, the fall of the Weimar Republic was extremely significant to world history, and it was because it was created as a weak Republic that it could fall so quickly and have so many weaknesses that Hitler and his party capitalized on. This shows a very diachronic relationship between the Army, the legislative branches, and the Chancellor, because they could not work together harmoniously, and so, they created friction that led to the failure of the Republic. A more synchronic relationship may have created more strength in the Republic, and led to a much different…
Author not Available. (2005). The French National Assembly. Retrieved from the French National Assembly Web site: www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8al.asp22 July 2005.
Mahler, Gregory S. (2003). Comparative Politics: An Institutional and Cross-National Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rempel, Gerhard. (2000). The Weimar Republic I: Economic and Political Problems. Retrieved from the Western New England College Web site: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/germany/lectures/23weimar_collapse.html22 July 2005.
politics is and what it is not. Some definitions of politics are examined. The applications of politics in society are explored. The paper also looks at some of the things that are not politics, and examines why these things are not politics. The role of politics is distinguished from the role of government, and the reasons for this are looked at more closely.
This is a paper written in Harvard style that is actually three five page essays in one. These three essays all answer specific questions about politics, particularly the theories of elitism and pluralism.
What is Politics?
Many people believe that politics is simply the workings of the government, the ins and outs of the daily process of making, enforcing, and interpreting the laws. This is certainly one aspect of politics. However, politics encompasses so much more than just this. Politics also takes into account the structures of…
Dahl, R., "Pluralism revisited," Comparative Politics, 10, (1978)
Dunleavy, Patrick and O'Leary, Brendan, Theories of the State, (London, Macmillan, 1987). Chapters 2 and 6.
Schwarzmantel, J., The State in Contemporary Society (Harvester, 1994). Chapter 3
Neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has a profound appeal only for such displaced Muslim ethnic groups, as is also evidenced in Palestinian radical mobilization in such groups as Hamas.
But for Algerian Muslims living happily in Algiers, in comparison, this is not often the case. In fact, the author points to the behavior of the Algerians during their last election, noting that many nationals were openly calling for greater democratization in the street. They did not see this as incompatible with an Islamic state, necessarily, because they were more secure in their fused national and Islamic identity, and did not need neo-fundamentalist Islam to be the main source of their status and identity. The more secure, nationalistic, and unified the Islamic populace, the less appeal neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has, while "deterritorialism" has produced the transformation of Islamic conservatism into terrorist, radical Islam united across borders, as migrant and alienated Islamic ethnicities strive…
They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.
oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.
The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…
1. The Fog of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_fog_of_war
2. Lord of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_war
3. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower
4. Military-industrial complex. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/military_industrial_complex
As was expected, the epublicans took the House and Senate in the 2014 mid-term elections, shifting the balance of power in the United States government. The election was viewed by many as a referendum on President Obama's policies. The President said it (Martosko, 2014), conservative talking heads said it (Krauthammer, 2014), and voters in exit polls said as much, too (aedle, 2014). This argument makes for fine political rhetoric, this ignores the fact that Obama ran for re-election in 2012. The ACA had been passed but nobody had seen its benefits yet, only heard the fearmongering. The economy was going nowhere fast in 2012, versus two strong quarters in 2014, and the unemployment rate has been declining for four straight years. If there was a time when a referendum on Obama's policies was going to cost him, it would have been in 2012, not the 2014 midterms. Unless of…
Edsall, T. (2014). Election 2014: What do the midterms tell us about 2016? New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/04/opinion/what-does-2014-tell-us-about-2016.html
Judis, J. (2014). Here's why Democrats got crushed -- and why 2016 won't be a cakewalk. The New Republic. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/120138/2014-election-results-heres-why-democrats-lost-senate-gop
Krauthammer, C. (2014). U.S. midterms represent a referendum on White House competence. National Post. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://fullcomment.nationalpost.com/2014/10/31/charles-krauthammer-u-s-midterms-represent-a-referendum-on-white-house-competence/
Martosko, D. (2014). Obama says midterm election is a referendum on the economy. The Daily Mail. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2777470/Obama-speak-economy-Northwestern-U.html
Politics, literature and the arts -- Transformation, Totalitarianism, and Modern Capitalist life in Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis," Fritz Lang's "Metropolis," and Albert Camus' Caligula
At first, the towering heights of the German director Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" may seem to have little to do with the cramped world of the Czech author Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis." Fritz Lang portrayed a humanity whereby seemingly sleek human beings were dwarfed by towering and modernist structures, where one class of thinking humans were drunk on pleasure while others suffered in pain so that the upper classes or regions of Metropolitan society might prosper. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.
In Kafka, the transformed Gregor Samsa becomes…
Camus, Albert. "Caligula." 1936.
Kafka, Franz. "Metamorphosis." Translated by Ian Johnston. Released October 2003. http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm
'Metropolis." Directed by Fritz Lang. 1926.
The question of who rules whom in the aster-slave relationships is fairly straightforward. In the case of a natural master and a natural slave (neither of which Aristotle sufficiently explains, presumably assuming that birth or subsequent circumstance rightly assigned these roles), it is the master that rules unequivocally over the slave, though ostensibly to their mutual benefit. The same is true of the man over his wife and children, though with a greater desire for their good than his own. Political rule requires a larger group in order to refrain from despotism; though it comes with many complications, Aristotle insists, "the principle that the multitude ought to be supreme rather than the few best is one that is maintained" (III.11).
The master-slave relationship as described by Aristotle has given modern scholars the most trouble, for there is very little basis for it in Aristotle's logic. He seems to assume that…
" (Prince: 61)
The second important thing to focus on is the military strength of that person. Does the ruler possess greater military might than the displaced ruler? If yes, then there is no point in rejecting him as the new ruler. This is because with his military weapons, he is likely to prove valuable to the country in the long run. Michaela's views on the art of war and possession of arms make it clear that a well-armed ruler deserves our respect because he can be relied on in difficult times
Liberty is an important concept in this connection. Liberty is the collection of various rights, which must be safeguarded at all costs, or else the public will reject the new ruler. It is thus important to remember that even when the people of a country give up their freedom because of fear of the new ruler, the ruler…
Thomas Hobbes (author) a.R. Waller (editor) Leviathan: Or, the Matter, Forme & Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiasticall and Civill. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, England. 1904
Niccolo Machiavelli (author) Peter Bondanella (Editor) the Prince. Oxford University, Oxford 1998
Politics of age: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics" by Dan T. Carter and "I've Got the Light of Freedom" by Charles Payne. Specifically, it will contain a comparative book review on the two books. These books reflect a specific time in our society when struggle and oppression were at their height, and both present different viewpoints on the same political time. Together, they are an intimate portrayal of a man, politics, and the power of a movement vs. The power of a man.
Both books cover southern politics in the 1960s and beyond, but from quite different perspectives. "The Politics of age" is an unauthorized biography of southern governor and presidential hopeful George C. Wallace, one of the most outspoken bigots and controversial politicians in our time. "He was the most influential loser in twentieth-century American politics" (Carter 468) and this…
Carter, Dan T. The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.
Payne, Charles. I've Got the Light of Freedom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Politics Trumps Policy
How would you respond? Would you just capitulate and end some or all of these programs?
Explain your answer.
A written response would be provided to the new governor that would include an outline of all current programs supplemented with reasoning and statistical effectiveness of each. A break even analysis for each program will also be provided where the actual program outcome statistics with the inclusion of the 30% reduction in recidivism over two years and the cost savings of such a rate reduction in both the short- and long-term to the state and the community. The programs themselves were thoroughly researched and required significant defense for development and implementation, some of the material used to allow support for implementation will clearly need to be used to demonstrate to the new governor the importance and potential of these programs. To respond to the concerns associated with the…
Azzolino, S., Johnson, C., Thornton, T., & Turley, A. (2004, December). Jail drug and alcohol treatment program reduces recidivism in nonviolent offenders: A longitudinal study of Monroe County, New York's, jail treatment drug and alcohol program. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 48(6), 721-728.
Carter, F.C. (2008). Offender employment is the key. Corrections Today, 70(4), 108.
Jensen, E.L., & Reed, G.E. (2006). Adult correctional education programs: an update on current status based on recent studies. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44(1), 81-89.
Rion, J. (2009)Professional development: the key to retention. Corrections Today 71 (2), 8-12.
.....female agency in Wang Anyi's "Granny" and Eileen Chang's "Shame Amah"
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast the work of Eileen Chang's with reference to her theme "Shame Amah" and the work of Wang Anyi focusing on her theme "Granny". The study uses their works of the two writers to analyze their differences and similarities in the writing styles focusing on the themes Shame of Amah and Granny. Remarkably, Zhang was in her early twenties when she had been identified as a discriminating and precious writer. She benefited from both classical Western and Chinese literature making her being one of the most renown Chinese writers in the literary world.
Similarly, Eileen Chang is one of the most talented Chinese writers born in 1921 and has published several collections of English stories as well publishing two English novels. Eileen Chang was born in Shanghai and attended the…
Altruism or Egoism
The dating website has become an online phenomenon where people across the world find relationships, love and intimacy. The hottest trend in the online dating is that people who have been single for several years have finally found their true love. The theories of relationship, love, intimacy, social comparison, self-categorization, and social identity reveal that individuals develop a social relationship to boost their social esteem, and people are likely to cooperate with a group who belong to their social identity. Frisen, & Wangqvist, (2010) argue that people have been dating one another in Sweden without going through informal rules. The authors maintain that people continue to indulge in love relationship despite their social identity. Williams, & Russell (2013) argue that adolescent and younger adults quest for love, and increasing number of girls believe in intimacy relationship while boys adore sexual intercourse. Additionally, Finn, (2012) think that emotional…
But the real world was a whole and perfect entity." (Philosophy Is a Way of Life)
The theory of dualism and its implications in term ethics and politics can be derived from the following concise but insightful analysis.
A dualistic view of reality understands there to be two (thus dualism) levels of existence. The top level... is ultimate reality, and consists of ideas, such as truth, beauty, goodness, justice, perfection. In other words, the ultimate reality is non-corporeal, or non-physical. It is the level of spirit and deity. The lower level is the physical world which in which we live. It is the opposite of ultimate reality, thus it is not real in the sense that it is not ultimate. It contains the imperfect physical manifestations of the ideas that exist in the perfect plane, so by definition it is characterized by falsehood, ugliness, evil, injustice, imperfection.
Allen DG. (2006) Whiteness and difference in nursing. Nurs Philos. 7(2):65-78. Bratcher D. Body and Soul. Greek and Hebraic Tensions in Scripture: Thoughts on the Di-/Trichotomous Debate. Retrieved July 19, 2008, at http://www.cresourcei.org/bodysoul.html
Chadwick, Henry. (1984) Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition:
Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Engebretson, Joan.(2002) Hands-on: The persistent metaphor in nursing.
However, she concludes that the effect of PMCs, as a whole, cannot be determined by this one example. Supply in the current PMC market has a tendency to self-perpetuate. As more PMCs enter the market, new threats are developed that the firms provide protection against. "Moreover, demand does not penalize firms that service 'illegitimate;' clients in general. Consequently, the number of actors who can wield control over the use of force is limited mainly by their ability to pay." (605). This results in a draining of current security institutions resources. Their security coverage is worsened. By increasing the availability of military force, more actors are involved in conflict and less reason is needed to contest existing institutions, destabilizing nations.
Herz (1957) was correct in his understanding that the territorial states of yesteryear are forever changed. Sovereignty in today's world is tenuous at best. International law has been created to…
Arquilla, J. & Ronfeldt, D. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative Stategy. 12.2. (Spring 1993): 141-165.
Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.
Homer-Dixon, T. "The Rise of Complex Terrorism." Foreign Policy. 128. (Jan-Feb 2002): 52-62.
Leander, a. "The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies." Journal of Peace Research. 42.5. (2005): 605-622.
Reforms in France and Germany
Divided Government and Constitutional Reform
hen it comes to government, there are many forces within the framework, which influence political change for a nation and its people. hen it comes to the governments of Germany and France each are structured and managed differently, however, the same force of divided government has resulted in profound constitutional reforms for both countries. This paper will discuss the forces that expand the potential opportunities for change to result and influence the legislative process. This issue of divided government is present in both governments and its effect on legislation has both short-term and long-term ramifications. How each country is willing to accept divided government as a part of the political machine is where each country forms its own identity and path for the future decision-making environments. It is the country's ability to embrace divided government or its ability to reject…
Buckman, Kirk. "Divided Government and Constitutional Reform in France and Germany."
French Politics 2 (2004): 25-60.
tatus of Open Data in Europe
Open data refers to the idea of having certain data freely available for people to republish and use as they wish (Open Government Data, n.d). There are no restrictions like patents, mechanism control, or copyright placed on the person using the data. Open data is mainly aimed at allowing governments to share their information with the public. This brings about Open Government Data that refers to any data commissioned or produced by a government that can be freely used, redistributed, and reused by anyone. For data to be considered open, it should be readily available and the person requiring the data should not have to make a request (Bedini et al.). The advancement of the internet and World Wide Web has pushed for open government data. The advancements made on the internet have allowed people from across the world to access data…
Sheridan, J., & Tennison, J. (2010). Linking UK Government Data. Paper presented at the LDOW.
Vienna City Administration. (N.D,). Open Data in Vienna, from http://www.wien.gv.at/english/politics-administration/open-data.html
Wonderlich, J. (2010). TEN PRINCIPLES FOR OPENING UP GOVERNMENT INFORMATION, from https://sunlightfoundation.com/policy/documents/ten-open-data-principles/
Government & Politics
The arguments contrast two observations. Which of them is the best and why? Give a detailed and substantial response.
Charles eard and John Roche had differing views regarding the American constitution as they hailed from different background. Due to their diverse backgrounds, they have their own views regarding American constitution. A deep study of both authors shows that, John Roche is an optimist and a reformer, while Charles eard attempts to expose the inner intentions of the founding fathers (Thesis Statement, 2014). oth authors give interesting insight into the minds of the founding fathers with rock solid evidence. eard (1913) proposes that founding fathers had huge properties to protect while Roche (1961) argues that constitution united the nation quite effectively.
Those penning the constitution had sold commercial and financial interest of their own (p. 36)
The authors of the constitution were bent on penning a…
Berg, S. (2012). The Founding Fathers and the Constitutional Struggle over Centralized Power. Baltimore County: University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/pdf/The_Founding_Fathers_and_the_Constitutional_Struggle_PF.pdf
Dalleva, N. (2010, August 30). An Analysis Of John Roche's Essay "A Reform Caucus in Action." Retrieved from Essencearticles.com: http://www.essencearticles.com/book-reviews-politics/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay-a-reform-caucus-in-action
Dalleva, N. (2010, September 15). Education. Retrieved from articlesfactory.com: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/education/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay.html
Folsom, B. (2009, June 11). The Freeman. Retrieved from Fee.com: http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/the-founders-the-constitution-and-the-historians
Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions
The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work
Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.
Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
Two New Jersey State Legislators -- Biographies and Legislative and Ideological Histories of Democrat John D. Adler and Republican Joseph Palaia
This paper is a biographical paper on two state legislators from two different political parties, illustrating how the two of them compare on issues pertaining to judicial ethics and the environment of the state. The member of the majority party, Democrat Senator John D. Adler of the New Jersey State Legislature currently represents Cherry Hill, New Jersey, one of the southernmost counties of the state. Adler studied government at Harvard University, earning his A.B. In the subject, and later going on to earn his law school degree from the same university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Adler is particularly noteworthy for his work on the New Jersey Israel Commission from 1995 to the present. He thus takes a strong interest in international as well as national affairs, although part of…
Senator Joseph A. Palaia. (2004) New Jersey State Legislator Website. Retrieved on July 21, 2004. http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/members/palaia.asp
Senator John A. Adler. (2004) New Jersey State Legislator Website. Retrieved on July 21, 2004. http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/members/adler.asp
The survival of Jordanian monarchy is determined by its capability to capture power and regulate over the political process, its efficacy in stabilising the negative forces of trans-national ideologies on the domestic arena between the early 1950s and the early 1970s coupled with the coming out of a feeling of loyalty to the state and nationhood etc. (Salloukh, 1996)
King Hussein is magnanimous than the Jordan itself. The great talent of Hussein was his diplomacy in dealing with the people that are antagonistic to one another mercilessly and fundamentally that he approved wholly with them. Normally, the people were never aware of the impossibility of the agreement due to his effectiveness in dealing. The diplomacy is not normally related to integrity but in case of Hussein it was not true. (Foster, 1999) the efforts of King Hussein in prevailing peace in the region were internationally acclaimed. (Aquino, 2002) the stability…
Allman, T.D. (1974) in Defense of Monarchy from J.J. Ray (Ed.) "Conservatism as Heresy." Sydney: A.N.Z. Book Co.
Aquino, Nucha. (2002) "The World's Monarchy" Retrieved at http://fun-articles.elaguna.net/culture/worlds_monarchy.htm. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Burns, John. F. (June 28, 1999) Heir to Morocco's Throne Is Playing a Larger Role. The New York Times Company. Retrieved at http://home1.gte.net/eskandar/kinghassan.html. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Clarke, L. (9 April, 1999) "Abdullah's Jordan: Assessing the First Two Months" the Estimate. Volume: 11; No: 8; pp: 27-35
International Marketing Communication Perspective
There are challenges that face organizations, which engage in global marketing. This form of cross border marketing involves diversity cultural backgrounds. It is pertinent to note that each country has distinctive needs relating to producing goods for them. International marketing requires a comprehensive understanding of the needs of each target market. This study provides a comprehensive review of the differences and similarities that exist between the marketing needs of UAE and Indonesia (Govers, 2009).
The aim of marketing communication is to convey the accurate information to the targeted group of people. In Indonesia and UAE, the populations are largely Muslim. The right choices to be made as a marketer have to be made to ensure any message delivered to the people is helpful to the brand being marketed. These require a communication strategy when addressing the target market. A communication strategy will help in…
Amant, K., & Kelsey, S. 2012. Computer-Mediated Communication across Cultures:
International Interactions in Online Environments. Hershey, PA: Information Science
Cohen, W.A. 2006, The Marketing Plan (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons.
Plato and Aristotle's political theories
The most capacious account of Plato's established philosophical views has been published in "The epublic" as a comprehensive handling of the most basic values for the behavior of human life. As it deals with a large number of matters, The epublic can be interpreted in a lot of diverse manner: as a discourse on political conjecture and observation, as an academic manual, or the manner in which to protect moral behavior for instance. (Plato: The State and the Soul) Politics written by Aristotle gives a substantial assessment of the beginning and configuration of the nation. (Theme Analysis: The Politics) A significant matter to keep in mind while taking into account the opinion and involvement of Aristotle in Philosophy is the fact that he was there 2000 years back. One of the early foundations done by him was Lykeion that was involved solely with pure sciences,…
Boeding, Ron. Ideals of Aristotle and Hayek: A Synthesis. Retrieved from http://nb.vse.cz/kfil/elogos/history/boeding.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Conceptions of Equality/Plato, Aristotle and additions. Retrieved from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~stanlick/equality1.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Irbe, George. Aristotle's Spurned Legacy. 23 October, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.interlog.com/~girbe/Aristotle's%20legacy.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Kemerling, Garth. Aristotle: Politics and Art. 27 October 2001. Retrieved from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2t.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Vienna and Paris
in the Decade 1900-1910
Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910
Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the orld. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the orld's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also…
Bloy, M. (2011, January 5). The third republic: 1870-1914. Retrieved from Historyhome.co.uk Web site: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/europe/3rd-rep.htm#dreyfus
Bonyhady, T. (2011). Good living street: portrait of a patron family, Vienna 1900 . New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Brandstatter, C. (2006). Vienna 1900: art, life & culture. New York, NY: Vendome Press.
George, H.S. (2008). Paris 1900. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City Museum of Art.
orse Than atergate
All students are familiar with the creed of the X-files, a popular recent science fiction television show that instructed its viewers, young and old, to 'trust no one.' At the time this motto of secrecy and distrust, particular distrust of government policy and institutions was much criticized, as fostering cynicism in the hearts of the young about the potential of political involvement to create change in an open society. How is it possible to encourage students to question and to engage in governmental debate, when policy so vitally affects their lives yet when many feel ostracized by a government of secrecy and shame? In an era where every vote counts, and when a teacher is confronted with a classroom of potential voters, he or she is constantly faced with the civic as well as educationally responsible challenge of making politics accessible and interesting to students in an…
Csmonitor.com "Selling the Public." (January 16, 2003) Christian Science Monitor Online. Retrieved November 27, 2004 at http://c5.zedo.com/jsc/c5/ff2.html?n=305;c=127/1;s=78;d=19;w=400;h=450;t=III-INTERACTIVE
Dean, John. (2004) Worse than Watergate. Little, Brown.
"John Dean." (2003) The Washington Post. Watergate Revisited Homepage. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-adv/advertisers/popunders/usforgrowth_nov04_wp_3.html
Santayana, George. (2004) Homepage of author's works. Retrieved November 27, 2004 at http://members.aol.com/santayana /
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
Julius Caesar and George ush
William Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar explores the social and political underpinnings of perhaps one of the most famous assassinations of all time, the assassination of Julius Caesar by his friends. Currently we live in a time of major upheaval in the world, the combination of war and economic hardships have made this first decade of the new millennium a turbulent one. These two timeframes can be connected through their respective leaders. Shakespeare's Caesar bears a great deal of resemblance to our current leader, George W. ush. The following paper will attempt to make a comparison between these two figures, the Shakespearean Caesar and the real life President of the United States.
At the top of Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar is returning to Rome in a parade, triumphant in his victory over the Roman general, Pompey. This particular man is painted as Caesar's archrival, his nemesis…
Shakespeare, William. (1599) Julius Caesar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Hatfield, J.H. (2001) Fortunate Son: George W. Bush and the Making of an American President. Brooklyn: Soft Skull Press.
Associated Press. (2003, May 1) Bush Experiences Aircraft Carrier Landing. Las Vegas Sun.
Martin, Patrick. (2002, December 24) U.S. Senate Leader Trent Lott Resigns. Retrieved May 6, 2003 from World Socialist Web Site. Website: http://www.wsw.org/articles/2002/dec2002/lott-d24.shtml
Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change
David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…
Dewey, J. (1938, 1998). Education and Experience: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Indianapolis, IN: Kappa Delta Pi Society.
Tyack, D. And L. Cuban (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Harvard University Press.
America's wars have historically been a reflection of America's very own cultural tendencies; they're usually enormous in scale, they traditionally consist of a colorful variety of fronts and they are most often regarded as a man's game. So it doesn't strike one as peculiar, perhaps, that the perpetually striking images of Vietnam are of camouflaged nineteen-year-old men enduring the graces and horrors hosted by Southeast Asia during the skirmish that lasted over a decade. It may seem more peculiar, however, when one considers that more than 15,000 women relocated from their American homes to the perilous, jungle canopied land. Vietnam's legacy of physical handicapping, psychological desecration and cultural rifting echoes in an innumerable collection of films, books, publications, organizations and documentation detailing the heroics, trials and disgraces of a generation of men. But the women that this nation sent off to serve in a countless number of indispensable capacities have…
2. Evans, Barbara. Caduceus in Saigon: A Medical Mission to South Viet-Nam. London: Hutchinson, 1968.
3. Youngstrom-Diebolt, Jean. Keynote Address. Women's Memorial. Austin, TX. 1993.
4. Wilson, Captain Barbara A. Vietnam Southeast Asia. Military Women in Vietnam, 1996.
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…
Haaren, J. (2010). Famous Men of Greece. NY: ReadaClassic.
This classic work by Haaren is certainly a scholarly source, as Haaren was a highly respected classics professor and president of the department of pedagogy at Brooklyn Institute. His Famous Men series has been used by educators for decades to inform students about the history of the ancient civilizations. In this book, Haaren describes the lives and times of various important Grecian figures, including Pericles and Socrates. I plan on using this source to provide information on Athens and what it achieved during its height of empire as well as how it achieved it.
Homer. (2004). The Iliad. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Homer's epic poem is a classic of literature that has been respected, admired, taught and read for centuries. It provides insight into the Grecian mind as well as how the Greeks used mythology in their own lives. I plan to use this source in order to support the argument that Athens used culture to maintain its empire -- by building temples to the gods and goddesses, by celebrating art (drama), and by memorializing the heroic deeds of its ancestors.
Civil Order Control
Civil order control has become a necessary aspect of modern day law enforcement. Inherent in civil order control, however, are a number of problems that have to be addressed in order for it to be effectively implemented, such as societal attitudes, law enforcement norms, and so on. As Roberson and Das (2015) point, in civil order control “there is often a strong political component to the activities being controlled” (p. 72). The reason for this is that whenever a situation occurs that is a threat to civil order, it is basically a threat to the government of the society as well. That is why throughout history, any type of civil order control has been met with controversy—whether it was a workers’ strike or protest being put down by military force or a holdout of a religious sect like the Branch Davidians in Waco being smoked out by…
The Al-Aqsa Intifadah (which began, I believe, in about 2000 when the Camp David talks were then stalling) was begun by PLO and still exists today (much less actively than from about 2000 to about 2004, roughly) under the PLO umbrella.
3) Democratic nations including Great Britain and the United States have long called for democratic elections in Palestine. Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States?
No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its 1987 outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such. Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem (and is). And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…
science, history, and advances in technology many of the myths and misconceptions that justified racism are gone. e now know that all humans are biologically the same both physically and mentally. e also now have a reliable scientific theory as to why human beings posses different colors of skin pigmentation. The civil rights movements and the hard work of many righteous people both in the spheres of religion, politics and the social sciences have helped erase and virtually eliminate the racist and prejudice attitudes that existed in America. Traditional racism has now been replaced by symbolic racism, which as described by David O. Sears and P. J Henry is a theory that "has its origins in a blend of black affect and conservative values, particularly individualism" (Sears, Henry 1). Symbolic racism is a perceived movement in which whites have abandoned traditional racism and have through their use of political influence…
Sears, David O., and P.J. Henry. "The Origins of Symbolic Racism." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85.2 (2003): 259-75. Print.
Sniderman, P.M., G.C. Crosby, and W.G. Howell. The Politics of Racism. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000. Print.
Where the Twain Meets: Dada and Surrealism
Distinct artistic movements, genres, and philosophies, Dada and Surrealism do cross over and share considerable points of reference. Dada made its mark on the art world first, with its genesis in Switzerland during the First World War (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). In fact, Dada was never constrained by visual media, with poets and performance artists at the forefront of the largely political and reactive movement (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). To call Dada avant-garde, or progressive, would be an understatement, because Dada transformed the ways people thought about and created art. Art was no longer about creating aesthetic beauty or pleasing a patron, but about actively challenging social norms, politics, and even what it means to be human. Dada art can be provocative, but is not necessarily so, with some artists using their medium to question and even “humiliate” art itself (Rubin 11). The…
twenty-nine-year-old female from Ghana in West Africa. I moved to the United States fourteen years ago. And currently, I am employed as a bookkeeper. This paper seeks to compare my life with that of another person, utilizing fundamental social comparison theories. The other person I will be comparing myself to is my boss. He is a smart, kind and diligent man, whom I look up to as a mentor and role model. In this paper, I will utilize different theories and adopt changes if need be, as part of my attempts at self-improvement. Different types of relationships will also be discussed (Social Comparison Based on Attitude and Belief Systems, Interpersonal elationships, Gender Issues, and Social Communication, 2012).
Social comparison is the assessment of self against another, utilizing psychological principles influencing behavior, experience and judgment of individuals. As human beings we always compare ourselves with others socially. For instance, any…
Festinger, L. (1950). Informal social communication. Psychological Review, 57,271-282.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117-140.
Taylor, S. E., Wayment, H. A., & Carrillo, M. (1996). Social comparison, self-regulation, and motivation. In R.M.
Mussweiler, T., & Ruter, K. (2003). What friends are for! The use of routine standards in social comparison. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 467-481.
George Orwell. Reflections on Gandhi and Freedman Speech are taken through a point-by-point comparison and the author gives the reader a chance to see likenesses and similarities in both ideas and writing styles. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
DIFFERENT MESSAGES YET THE SAME
Throughout the years, historians and authors alike have used their skills to persuade the audience of certain truths as they see them. If we look back in history, we will find that different people often produced similar schools of thought at different times for different reasons. One of the most classic examples of this occurrence would be the Freedman Speech, by Frederick Douglass and the Reflections on Gandhi, by George Orwell. Each of these works reflect similar styles of writing, as well as similar points of admiration as well as critical thought toward the hero in question. hile Douglass and Orwell discuss heroes…
Douglass, Frederick. Independence Day Speech (Atlantic Monthly, 1866)
Orwell, George. Reflections On Gandhi. (1990),
As our nation becomes increasingly more diverse we will be presented with the challenge of understanding our cultural differences. The purpose of this paper is to develop and design a learning project that compares cultural differences of two ethnic/cultural groups. For the purposes of this project we will compare the differences between Asian and Western cultures. The project will be based on the cultural impact of performance in workforce, production, sales, customer services, etc.
efore we can create a learning project we must first understand the cultural backgrounds of both groups.
The economic boom seen in various Asian countries during the 90's called into question the work ethic and cultural values that made these nations successful. One of the most definitive explanations for the work values that are prevalent in Asia, especially China, has been attributed to the concept of Confucianism. Confucianism is the…
Marcus, George E. "Meanings of the Market: The Free Market in Western Culture." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 4.4 (1998): 804.
Marglin, Stephen A. "Development as poison: rethinking the Western model of modernity." Harvard International Review 25.1 (2003): 70+.
civilization in the ancient Near East (3500-1000 B.C.E.) and the Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) shared a great number of similarities as well as numerous differences. These points of comparison covered the political, economic, and social realms, cultural and intellectual ideas, as well as values and institutions. Further, each civilization differed in their specific impact on the creation of estern civilization, and the degree of that impact.
Civilization in the ancient Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) arose out of a number of important causes. First, the location of the Mediterranean area between three continents, and the influence of civilizations like Mesopotamia, India and China nearby. Further, the excellent communication by sea, the mild climate, and the invention of writing were important factors in encouraging the development of civilization in the area (Poiycratis).
The history of civilization in the Mediterranean is not one of a single cultural, political, social,…
Ancientnewreast.com. Near eastern history, language and culture. 03 June 2004. http://www.ancientneareast.com/
Carlos, Michael C. Near East. Odyssey Online. 13 June 2004. http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/homepg.html
Poiycratis, G.S. 1992. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CULTURES. Annals of the MBC,5(1). 03 June 2004. http://www.medbc.com/annals/review/vol_5/num_1/text/vol5n1p5.htm
Crime is everywhere. People commit a variety of crimes for a variety of reasons. Four of some of the biggest and longstanding crimes people commit are human trafficking, drug trafficking, organized crime, and corruption. These crimes often go hand-in-hand; they do not exist without the other. Therefore, they will have various similarities. They will also have some differences.
One major difference is the scope and scale some crimes have like human trafficking. Drug trafficking although international, tends to have specific destinations and routes. Human trafficking however exists everywhere and the routes can span from three to four countries or more as a country may serve as a pick up point, a transfer point, a departure point, and an entry point. It is a huge way people fuel criminal organizations and is usually the least prosecuted compared to drug trafficking. Some countries like the Ukraine barely prosecute those who have been…
Natarajan, M. (2011). International Crime and Justice. Cambridge University.
Political Framework of Islam
The Peninsula states of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, ahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman are under growing pressure from outspoken critics who use the language and authority of Islam in these overwhelmingly conservative Muslim societies to call for political and economic reform. The rise of a radically activist Islamic politics predates the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, but Sunni and Shia Muslim radicals received significant boosts from the establishment of Islamic government in Tehran and, more recently, from the Gulf War in 1990-91.
Regional specialists from the government, the academic community, and the private sector debated the impact of radicalized Islamic politics on the regimes and U.S. interests in recent roundtables at the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS). They agreed that Islamic radicals throughout the region have common perceptions of the causes of their societies' ills. These include dissatisfaction with ruling families that…
The readings for this assignment deal mostly with racial / ethnic issues. The Mellody Hobson story (from TED), posted by Ben Lillie, explores the dynamics of color and race, pointing out that only two of Fortune 250 companies are chaired by African-American women. Hobson goes on to point out that people ought not to be just "color brave" but they should be willing to confront their demons, and should invite people of color to apply for jobs because diversity brings strength to a company.
I saw a feature on the TED movement on the wonderful CBS program, Sunday Morning, and clearly people like Mellody Hobson have a powerful impact on that stage when they reach deep into the well of progressive ideas and creative solutions. In the Obstacles to Cultural Competence, again the issue of ethnic differences was covered, and covered very well. It was fascinating to read…
Lillie, B. (2014). Be color brave, not color blind: Mellody Hobson speaks at TED2014.
Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2016, from http://blog.ted.com .
Student News Daily. (2005). Conservatives vs. Liberal Beliefs. Retrieved March 25, 2016,
From http://www.studentnewsdaily.com .
U.S. Healthcare System v. Canada Healthcare System
The Canada healthcare system is usually considered as a probable model or standard for the United States healthcare system, particularly in relation to healthcare reform initiatives. The Canadian healthcare system largely differs from the United States one since it is a single-payer and largely publicly funded whereas the U.S. healthcare system is multi-payer and largely privately funded. However, Canadians and Americans seem to concur that they would not like each other's healthcare system though most Americans base their claims on ignorance regarding how the Canadian healthcare system works while Canadians don't understand how the U.S. healthcare system works. Despite the differences in the two healthcare systems with regards to objectives, there are similarities in the objectives of these systems. Moreover, the Canadian healthcare system provides important lessons through which the United States healthcare system can be improved or reformed.
U.S. And Canadian Healthcare…
Bernard, E. (n.d.). The Politics of Canada's Health Care System. Retrieved from Harvard
University website: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/healthc.pdf
"Comparing the U.S. And Canadian Health Care Systems." (n.d.). The National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved January 19, 2015, from http://www.nber.org/bah/fall07/w13429.html
Helfgott, S.M. (2012, February). A Comparison of the Canadian and U.S. Healthcare Systems.
LEASING vs. PURCHASING COMPUTER EQUIPMENT?
Leasing and Purchasing Computer Equipment
Considerations for Lease Option 7-9
Advantages of Financial Leasing 9-12
GE Transportation plans to replace their computer equipment for the Human Resources and recruitment department having roughly 100 employees. This paper is based on researching what is the most economical way for the employer, GE, to outfit its office with computer. In this paper the pros and cons both of buying new equipment for the employees or leasing computers to use are analyzed. As per the results of the research, it was found that it is in the best interest of GE transportation to lease the computer equipment. Purchasing computer equipment will cost U.S. $88,461 and will have limited coverage for repairs. Renting computer equipment will cost 80,793 and will also come with a service contract for $500 annually.
Comparing Leasing vs. Purchasing Computer Equipment?
Alexander, P. (n.d.). business - Should You Lease or Buy Your Tech Equipment? | Entrepreneur.com. Business News & Strategy For Entrepreneurs | Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/80230#
Coastal Leasing, Inc., (n.d.). There are some distinct differences between lease and loan financing! . Retrieved from Coastal Leasing, Inc. website: http://www.coastalleasing.com/MediaZone/Differences Between A Loan & Lease.pdf
Erie, Pennsylvania, Computer, Laptop, Projector, and AV Rentals.(n.d.).Rentech Solutions Computer Rentals, Laptop Rentals, Lcd Projector Rentals. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.rentechsolutions.com/rentals/pennsylvania/erie/
Gale Group. (n.d.). Computer Rental and Leasing market report | HighBeam Business: Arrive Prepared. Business information, news, and reports | HighBeam Business: Arrive Prepared. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://business.highbeam.com/industry-reports/business/computer-rental-leasing
Mill and Wilson
Attempting to find any common ground between the moral and political philosophies of John Stuart Mill and Edward O. Wilson seems futile, given that their ideas are based on extremely different premises and assumptions. Wilson was a Darwinian evolutionist who argued that human culture, behavior and morality was mostly rooted in genetics -- in DNA that had evolved over millions of years -- while this idea would simply have been alien to Mill. Wilson was a determinist and reductionist who seemed to put a low premium on individualism, while for Mill the individual was absolutely free and sovereign, and could not be coerced of controlled unless he or she did harm to others. There simply is no room in such unlimited personal freedom in Wilson's philosophy which is more concerned with the survival and reproduction of the human species as a whole than with individuals. In any…
Romeo and Juliet and English Patient
Shakespeare's romantic tragedy Romeo and Juliet provides an archetypical structure for the development of similar tales. One example of a story built on themes evocative of Shakespeare's play is Michael Ondaatje's 1992 novel The English Patient. Although the plot and characters differ considerably as do the time periods in which the stories are set, Romeo and Juliet and The English Patient share themes, imagery, and motifs in common. Both stories take place amidst violence and war; both are also set in Italy. Both focus on tales of passionate, forbidden, and unrequited that is love made all the more powerful against the violent backdrop. ar is integral to the plot and character development in both stories: war creates the symbolic and actual tension between the various pairs of lovers in the two tales. ar is what brings the lovers and friends together and what tears…
Ondaatje, Michael. The English Patient. Canada: McClelland and Stewart, 1992.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. Text online at < http://www-tech.mit.edu/Shakespeare/romeo_juliet/ >.
Kafka, he Wannsee Conference, And Shadows and Fog
Kafka's protagonist of "he Metamorphosis," Gregor Samsa, perfectly embodies the totalitarian mindset in the sense that he is colonized by the desires of his employer, his family, and even the room in which he lives to the point that he can hardly think for himself. he room in which Samsa dwells is so small; the man becomes a virtual prisoner of its confines. Samsa turns into an insect seemingly as a result of the limiting pressures of his physical space and cramped social and emotional life. In fact, his life is so confining, he can only think of returning to the office, even after becoming transformed into a huge and hideous insect.
Over the course of the short story by Kafka, Gregor's own family rejects him after his physical alteration, despite the fact that Gregor has long been giving up his own…
The film shows the discussions that caused the Nazi officers to arrive at the exact particulars of settling the 'final solution' of the so-called Jewish question or problem of living space in Europe, as well as of Jewish culture. At the conference depicted in the film, which actually took place, the 'hothouse' nature of the discussion of the officers, according to the apparent theory of the director of the film regarding totalitarianism, created the necessary 'freedom' for the Nazi officials at the conference to discuss the removal of Jews from every sphere of life of the German people and the expulsion of the Jews from the supposed righful European living space of the Ayran German people. Because everyone at the conference agreed, in totalitarian lockstep and mind that Jews were inferior, this horrifying decision became feasible to the Nazi's mindset.
Over the course of the film, the ability to be the most restrictive in terms of Jewish life becomes a kind of competition for the Nazi officers, as they compare who enacted legislation to prohibit Jews from owning canaries, with those who engage in the most bloody anti-Semitic rherotic. Before the viewers' eyes, with beautiful scenery in the background, the totalitarian mindset takes hold, and measures about the concept of the deportation, labor use, and extermination of the Jews.
The much earlier 1955 film "Night and Fog" enacts as a similar depiction of the totalitarian mindset after the fact. The film is a documentary of the Holocaust crafted by Alain Resnais. Less than a decade after the end of the war, it interposes archival clips from the concentration camps with denials of the camps' existence. Under totalitarianism, it suggests, even as obvious a truth as the Final Solution can be ignored, as Gregor Samsa ignored his limited life, and as the Nazi officials as a collective denied their individual humanity.
As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. he status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. he commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or…
The Liberal Democratic Party was an example of a political entity which has cultivated a corporatist nature to its politics. The LDP being the oldest and strongest political party in Japan, it dominated and controlled the Diet for many years since the emergence of 20th century. As the 20th century prepared for the coming of the 21st century, LDP had been the focus of political scandals, wherein its strong connections with businesses and corporations revealed that Japanese politics was controlled not by the LDP, but its sponsor businesses instead. In 1998-2001, it was found that LDP had been involved in the long history of corruption and bribery from businesses and corporations in exchange for a promise in deregulation in specific sectors of the business/economic society (e.g., banking and financing and manufacturing).
The social structure of Japan at present was not as hierarchical and stratified as it was during the Meiji Restoration period. As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. The status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. The commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or political affiliation. Perhaps the most evident form of class stratification was geographical in nature: there is the "burakumin" or "hamlet people," which was stratified as such because they lived in segregated villages in the country. The burakumin was the equivalent of America's ghettos, wherein most of the minority members of the society live. Not only are the burakumin segregated geographically, they are also marginalized in the sense that burakumin people are assigned jobs and activities that are considered "unclean" by the Japanese, that is, menial working such as cleaning, slaughtering animals, and disposing of the dead. This stratification in Japanese society has little influence in politics, mainly because they are not active participants and involved in Japanese politics. The burakumin, in effect, are not represented in Japanese politics.
Nations and Nationalism Exist: Comparison of the ork of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson
The objective of this study is to compare the work of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson and to answer as to which argument is the most persuasive for why nations and nationalism exist.
Definition of 'Nation'
Anderson (1991) defines the concept of nation to be such that results in theorists of nationalism being perplexed by three specific paradoxes include: (1) the objective modernity of nations to the historians eye vs. their subjective antiquity in the eyes of nationalists; (2) the formal universality of nationality as a socio-cultural concept -- in the modern world everyone can, should, will 'have a nationality as he or she has a gender vs. The irremediable particularity of its concrete manifestations, such that, by definition, 'Greek' nationality is sui generis; (3) the political power of nationalism vs. their philosophical poverty and even…
Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.
Geertz, C. (n.d.) The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States.
Hobsbawm (1980) Nations and Nationalism Since 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laitin, DD (n.d. Identity in Formation: The Russian -- Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Cornell University Press. Ithaca and London.
The definition for "subversives" is a bit vague, but Fagen explains that in Argentina and elsewhere in Latin American dictatorships the victims of violent repression tended to be union leaders, liberal political leaders, artistic people in cultural circles, student protest leaders and media personalities (p. 41). The whole point of these horrendous repressive policies was to inspire fear, confusion and "distrust" among the general population. For those who believe the United States' military always stands on the side of democratic movements it may come as something of a shock that the U.S. funded and trained many military outfits during the time of dictators in Latin America.
"An entire generation of Latin American military officers and police were armed, trained, and 'professionalized'" by American police and military leaders (Fagen, 1992, p. 43). Fagen says the repression in Argentina was, in part, designed to "Purge ideological infection"; Argentine present General Jorge Rafael…
Fagen, Patricia Weiss. "Repression and State Security." Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Hunter, Wendy. "Continuity or Change? Civil-Military Relations in Democratic Argentina,
Chile, and Peru." Political Science Quarterly 112.3 (1997): 453-475.
Remmer, Karen L. Military Rule in Latin America. University of Texas: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
" The problem seen with such systems is that they are characterized by competitive elections that install governments dedicated to maintaining political stability and labor discipline but not to expanding democratic freedoms or instituting needed changes. The Mexican state shows clearly the way the prevailing political culture can shape and give direction to political institutions. The political institutions of Mexico are similar to those of the United States, but as Cornelius and Craig note, what seems the same on paper is not the same in operation because the prevailing political culture is one-party rule at all levels: "Until recently, selection as the candidate of the official party has been tantamount to election, except in some municipalities and a handful of congressional districts where opposition parties are so strong that they cannot be ignored" (Cornelius and Craig 25).
The prevailing features of the system are found in the following elements common…
Burnaby, Barbara and Thomas Ricento. Language and Politics in the United States and Canada: Myths and Realities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.
Camp, Roderic Ai. Politics in Mexico: The Decline of Authoritarianism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Carroll, Michael P. "Who Owns Democracy? Explaining the Long-Running Debate over Canadian/American Value Differences."
The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 42, Issue 3 (2005). March 26, 2007. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012185252 .
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).
The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…
Brook, Daniel, (2005) "Modern Revolution: Social Change and Cultural Continuity in Czechoslovakia and China," University Press of America
Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick, (1966), "The birth of Communist China," Michigan University
Li, Mingjiang, (2009), "Soft Power: China's Emerging Strategy in International Politics," Lexington Books
Tang, Wenfang and Holzner, Burkart (2006) "Social Change in Contemporary China: C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion" University of Pittsburgh Pre