Enterprise software -- Used in large-scale businesses, enterprise software is commonplace throughout many of the world's largest companies. This class of software is used for orchestrating complex business processes that require tight integration to ERP, CRM, SCM and pricing systems.
Personal productivity software -- Software including Microsoft Office, Outlook and personal productivity applications. Personal pro0ductivty applications are often used for accessing and analyzing the large-scale databases in enterprise software systems.
Cloud-based software -- Software that resides on servers at diverse, remote locations that are used for managing a wide variety of personal productivity and collaborative tasks. These applications are typically relied on in companies that have diverse working relationships and need to have access to data in nearly real-time.
Explain the relationship of algorithms to software
Algorithms are the foundations of software applications as they orchestrate diverse areas of a program's code that runs specific tasks. They are designed to streamline processing and ease the replication of complex tasks as well. Finally algorithms are invaluable in providing enough flexibility for a software application to scale in response to load requirements over time.
3. Compare and contrast PC applications and Web applications
Contract PC applications are purpose-built to customers' unique and often very precise requirements while Web applications are designed to serve as many common needs as possible from a common code base. Contract PC applications also require an intensive level of customized programming to stay current with evolving user needs, while one of the fundamental aspects of Web applications is that they are designed to be continually updated over time. Web applications are by nature designed to be delivered entirely over the Internet while contract PC applications are dependent on a specific operating system they are developed and coded on. That is why there are many applications that run on the Apple Macintosh for example that don't run on the IBM PC or Windows-based systems.
4. Describe the role of the operating system in a modern computer system
The operating system orchestrates the many diverse functions throughout a computer system, scheduling and completing tasks using a diverse set of resourcing including microprocessor cycles and memory allocation. In this way the operating system creates the optimal computing environment for applications to run as efficiently as possible with no interruption required on the part of the system users. In this way the operating system is integral to managing the lower-level and baseline tasks of the system so that application-level work can be accomplished.
5. Explain how file systems are organized
A file system defines how data is stored and retrieved, and inherent in that definition is the design and structure of logic rules that dictate the associativity and relational nature of the data. Given how different these factors are in creating file systems architectures, the security, file constraints, logic workflows and user interface considerations all have an impact on the overall structure and performance of a given file system. The focus on how to create file systems that can scale to the evolving needs of computer users is key to the future of this area overall.
6. Outline the evolution of user interfaces from machine-language programming to futuristic interfaces
Machine-Language interfaces -- Defined by a series of binary characters and coding standards that are defined to the byte level, this interface was the most challenging of all to use and the most error-filled as a result.
Command line interface -- Much like the interfaces of the early MS-DOS operating systems, these command line interfaces are known for their unique and even esoteric line command syntax. They are also known for their time-consuming approach to defining overall command strings and command lines. The labor-intensive nature of these command lines led to the development of shell scripting to automate them.
Graphical User Interface -- Microsoft Windows running on top of the MS-DOS operating system and the Apple Macintosh are two of the more well-known graphical user interfaces. Known for providing icons and graphical elements to guide users, the graphical user interface transformed computing and make it possible for millions of users to use applications.
Mobile and contextual interface -- As mobile begins to dominate the computing landscape, this type of interface is becoming more and more prevalent.
7. Describe some challenges of applying intellectual property laws to software
There are a myriad of challenges to applying intellectual property to software, starting with the interpretation of the laws from a design standpoint and the implementation of concepts across the diverse base of software code modules. Second there is the interpretation of intellectual property laws as they relate to the look and feel of the software itself. Usability continues to be added to key areas of intellectual property laws and define their overall interpretation. Third, there is the interpretation of intellectual property laws from the standpoint of managing the workflows and processes from an application program execution perspective. This is the most challenging aspect of intellectual property laws as it requires a thorough analysis of how to arbitrate how designs are turned into coded applications and programs.
1. Describe how PC and Web applications have revolutionized writing and publishing
Both PC and Web applications have led to an exceptional growth in writing and publishing, beginning with Desktop Publishing on the first Apple systems and progressing through the development of camera-ready artwork on Apple iPads and comparable tablet PCs. Writing and publishing continues to be revolutionized by the use of software by streamlining the content creation, editing and publishing process of getting documents online in a fraction of the time it took before. The overall development of word processing applications on PCs and Web-based applications is also accelerating blogging, integration to special media and the speed at which anyone can quickly translate their ideas into finished websites and documents of all types.
2. Discuss the potential impact of desktop publishing and web publishing on freedom of the press
As can be seen from the proliferation of desktop publishing and web publishing globally, both of these technologies greatly accelerate freedom of the press and put the focus back on truth and transparency over state-run media. The shift in East Germany away from communism that culminated with the Berlin Wall being torn down can be attributed to the rise of Adobe PageMaker and the Apple Macintosh, which gave the people of East Germany a quick way to get their voice heard. Desktop publishing and Web publishing make contributions to freedom of the press every day, as can also be seen in Egypt as well.
3. Speculate about future developments in digital publishing
There will be greater speed, agility and accuracy compared to ever before in the field of digital publishing, with strong focus on how to make content more accessible and usable across the Internet. Digital publishing will also make the task of creating entirely new websites, videos and infographics exceptionally more accurate and streamlined. Finally, digital publishing will also lead to the development of an entirely new class of professionals who concentrate their efforts on excelling with these applications and tools.
4. Explain how computers can be used to answer what-if questions
By programming decision rules into computers, they can be used for guided decision making. Specifically the use of constraint-based logic engines that can quickly analyze large amounts of data and arrive at a single conclusion will become increasingly commonplace in the future as well. The IBM Watson product is a case in point.
5. Describe the functions and applications of spreadsheets and other types of statistical and simulation programs
These applications are designed to provide accuracy, aggregation and ease of analysis in managing large sets of data. They are also defined for delivering advanced statistical and simulation programming analysis, which is invaluable on scientific and engineering professions. Spreadsheets can also be used for creating and running complex equations that simplify very complex data sets into unique, clearly defined equations and hypotheses.
6. Explain how computers are used as tools for simulating mechanical, biological, and social systems.
Given the inherent flexibility of software and the accelerating computing power of systems, it's easily predictable that simulations of mechanical, biological and social systems will become commonplace. Each of these types of systems have a unique, often highly varied and complex series of interconnections and integration points that software can easily replicate and test for a variety of conditions. Only by using software running on a series of computing systems can the many permutations and combinations of systemic functions of mechanical, biological and social systems be measured.
1. Explain the difference between painting software, image-processing software, and 3-D modeling software
Painting software is used for completing relatively simplistic work on a digital canvas and is meant to provide a simulation of painting on a canvas. Image processing software is used for completing a complex series of calculations and computations to gain the greatest level of granularity and precision from each pixel in an image. 3-D modeling software is…