Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
The emergence of cinema as a medium at the fin de siecle was the result of technological innovations resulted from the Industrial Revolution, but it was also in response to a growing demand from entertainment consumers who were desperate for more exciting alternatives. Developing quickly from its early silent forms with accompanying piano and on-screen narration to increasingly sophisticated "talkies" that changed the way people thought about things, the cinema provided this alternative for millions during the early years of the 20th century by engaging them in ways that previous theatrical productions were incapable of achieving. To identify how early cinema developed during its formative years, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning the development of early cinema, as well as its technology, industry and cultural context. An examination of the concept of the "cinema of attractions" in relation to a perceived need to address the early cinema audience is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
The early history of the cinema took place during a period in history in which a wide range of popular entertainments were emerging. For instance, Barlow cites the development of "puppetry, miniature theatre, and experimental film in earlier kinds of popular entertainment like the cinema of attractions, nineteenth-century toy theatre, magic lantern shows, and cabinets of curiosities" as examples of late 19th century entertainment (2007, p. 22). Due to technological innovations and the demonstrated ability of cinemagraphic productions to attract large numbers of eager customers, it is not surprising that cinema became the most popular of these offerings at the time. The popularity of these offerings, though, was specifically predicated on the willingness of the audience to suspend their sense of reality and accept the version being presented on the screen, at least for as long as it took for the production to conclude. For instance, according to Braudy and Cohen (2004), the development of early cinema included what has been termed by Tom Gunn as the "cinema of attractions" that was characterized by "an aware audience for whom film was an extension of illusionistic theater" (p. 786). The term therefore implies a sense of active participation on the part of audiences in ways that transcended previous media and which compelled people to return time and again for more. In this regard, Braudy and Cohen advise that, "It is an informed amazement at film's power rather than a child's incomprehension that is at work in this 'cinema of attractions,' characteristic of the first decade of early film" (2004, p. 786). As early cinematographers drew of what they knew from thousands of years of theatrical productions in developing their own unique approaches to the emerging medium, one of the common characteristics of early cinema was its ability to provide the same high production values that became accessible to millions of people, making early cinema a cultural and social equalizer of sorts. Instead of being reserved exclusively for the affluent, the same types of elaborate and expensive theatrical productions could be presented in cinemagraphic form and shown over and over again. In this regard, Higson advises that, "The cinema of attractions is concerned with showing. This means in part a pictorial mise-en-scene which puts the decor, the sets, the props, and the costumes on display; but it also means that the story, the drama itself, becomes another of the attractions on display" (p. 91).
Irrespective of the thematic content, though, one of the defining characteristics of the cinema of attractions was the type of camera work that was used. For example, Higson adds that, "Rather than the camera engaging with the story and integrating the spectator into the narrative space through scene dissection, use of close-ups, eyeline matching, and so on, the camera for the main part stands back and observes the characters and their actions from, as it were, a respectful distance. It is as if the pre-given story is being observed by the camera (and by the audience) as it unfolds before it like a stage play" (1997, p. 91). In addition, Higson cites the "recurring look at the camera by the actors, which Gunning sees as another feature of the cinema of attractions" (p. 92). The impact that this new medium had on both its producers…[continue]
"Cinema The Emergence Of Cinema As A" (2012, July 03) Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/cinema-the-emergence-of-as-a-80964
"Cinema The Emergence Of Cinema As A" 03 July 2012. Web.22 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/cinema-the-emergence-of-as-a-80964>
"Cinema The Emergence Of Cinema As A", 03 July 2012, Accessed.22 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/cinema-the-emergence-of-as-a-80964
The outcome of all of this was a rock concert which -- aside from the actual happenstance of performances -- was heavily controlled by the interest of the filmmaker. Though various aspects of the concert-attendance experience indicate that great care was paid to the appeal of the event itself, there is an explicit self-consciousness on the part of the subject as to the grander intention of the captured film
Today, more than forty years later, the special effects for a film are still in an evolutionary stage, and the Star Wars one was the first films to use the 3 dimensional Computer Generated Images technique in a feature film. Today, visual and special effects are even more popular than they were a few years back, and when Luxo, which was the first computer generated film to be nominated
emergence of the Hollywood Production Code and the PCA Motion pictures production codes emerged in the 1930's and referred to as the Hays codes after Will hays who was the censor chief at Hollywood during this time. The production codes governed the production of motion pictures in the United States by major studios at the time. The motion pictures production code can be referred to as a set of moral
Counter Cinema Rejecting Ideological Indoctrination: Two or Three Things I Know About Her and Born in Flames as Forms of Counter Cinema Jean Baudry in his analysis of narrative cinema argues that film ideologically indoctrinates the viewer. In his essay "Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus" he asks whether instruments (the technical base) produce specific ideological effects, and are these effects themselves determined by the dominant ideology? He continues, that in
colors, when all you could see was black and white, when nobody could think of a featured film, it was then that the director Antonio came up with a film "story of a love affair" which challenged the traditional ideas and themes. Cronaca di un amore is an Italian black and white drama film which was released in 1950. The movie is known as 'Chronicle of a Love' in
Morphology A large range of the academic literature centering on the sociological as well as the cultural and linguistic properties of nicknaming can be found. This literature mostly focuses on only sociological and/or cultural properties and/or the linguistic properties but mostly with varying working definitions of the term nickname. For example, some researchers (e.g., Slater and Feinman 1985) notice the structural and sociological commonalities among both the formal and the nicknames
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322) Hemlet and Postcolonial theory Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and