, relevant to considerations of the impact of locally adapted TV advertisements on sales revenues of Coca-Cola Company in Morocco during the Holy month of Ramadan.
Chapter III: Methodology
During Chapter III of the study, the researcher relates the methodology, which includes a survey, utilized to investigate the impact of locally adapted TV advertisements on sales revenues of Coca-Cola Company in Morocco during the Holy month of Ramadan.
Chapter IV: Analysis
During Chapter IV of the study, the researcher examines the information retrieved from the survey implemented; complimenting relevant results with information accessed from the literature review. The researcher creates, and presents a number of figures, reflecting results from the survey implemented during this study. The researcher further relates information retrieved from the review of literature to answer this study's research questions (Pope et al., 2000).
Chapter V: Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
In Chapter V, the researcher recounts the study scenario and relates conclusions regarding the findings from the retrieved information and analysis chapter. In this study's conclusion section, the researcher confirms the retrieved information, along with the survey's responses appropriately addressed the research questions. Based on this study's findings, the researcher ultimately offers recommendation for future researchers to consider for future study efforts. In hindsight, the researcher additionally notes applicable lessons to take away from this study's outlay.
1.4: Aim and Objectives
As every research project mandates the researcher determine the objectives he/she strives reach, the researcher relates the goals he aims to accomplish from this research effort in this section. Defining the specific objectives of this research also allows the researcher to recognize at the end of his dissertation, or perhaps even in the middle of it, whether or not the methodology designate to follow proves appropriate or needs to be altered or adapted, depending on the situation.
The aims for this study include:
Examining the impact of locally adapted TV advertisements on sales revenues of Coca-Cola Company in Morocco during the Holy month of Ramadan.
Confirm that advertisements locally adapted to fit with a specific culture more likely succeed than standardized advertisements.
The following four objectives evolving from this study's goal include:
1. An assessment of advertising theories
2. An evaluation of considerations for marketing to Muslims
3. An exploration of components of advertising to different cultures
4. An examination of Coca-Cola Ads
The following research questions arose from the above objectives:
What are some strategies a company may derive from advertising theories?
What are some of the primary considerations for marketing to Muslims?
What components do advertisers need to consider for different cultures; particularly Muslims in Morocco?
How do Coca-Cola Ads relate to its revenue?
The researcher asserts that similar to advertisements, the literature review evolves as it accesses and adapts samplings of relevant, credible "slices of life" to support the product/idea it aims to "sell." During the Literature Review, presented in this study's next chapter, the researcher accesses and adapts published information regarding the impact of locally adapted TV advertisements Coca-Cola Company produced for the Holy month of Ramadan on its sales revenues in the Moroccan market. Ultimately, this information, combined with results of the survey the researcher conducted will serve to support the researcher's
The impacts of Coca-Cola on retail
can be seen in everyday situations
(Economic impact of…, 2000, p. 31).
This literature review, an integral part of this study, proves significant as it addresses this study's questions which the researcher asserts will confirm effectiveness of the use of culturally charged advertisements to increase sales and revenues of the Coca-Cola Company. During the venture through relevant literature, the researcher also examines and compares the attitudes of the different segments of the Moroccan customer (youth, older people) toward the local adaptation of Coca-Cola advertisements to fit with the Moroccan, Muslim world during the Holy month of Ramadan.
This literature review adapts to a thematic characterization and includes the four following sub-headings.
1. Advertising Theories
2. An evaluation of considerations for marketing to Muslims;
3. An exploration of components of advertising to different cultures, particularly
Muslims in Morocco;
4. An examination of Coca-Cola Ads.
Literature Review and Secondary Data
Accessing credible information and data about one's study focus, as well as past projects conducted on approximately related topics proves to be a challenge. Sometimes the research one conducts may be too specific and/or the data available may be unattainable, due to prohibitive expenses or other reasons. In regard to the researcher's dissertation topic "The impact of locally adapted Coca-Cola TV advertisements on the Company's sales revenues"; taking as a case study the Moroccan market during the holy month of Ramadan, from an expansive research effort to collect the existent data, the researcher discovered a myriad of related articles and sources written by various researchers and authors all over the world. Some of these researchers and authors, as the researcher for this dissertation, similarly studied the role of local adaptation of advertisements to cultures, in different countries.
One particularly significant article, published in The New York Times on April 27, 2007, "Rewriting the ad rules for Muslim-Americans," directly relates to the researcher's focus. According to this source, the Muslim customer proves to be a valuable consideration for advertisers. Consequently, consumer companies and advertising executives have begun focus on ways to use the cultural aspects of the Muslim religion to promote their products. A survey JWT, a large advertising company in the WPP Group, conducted in both the American and British markets targeted Muslims to determine whether they would be receptive to specialized advertising. Marian Salzman, the company's executive vice-president and chief marketing officer, concluded that publicists need to pay more attention to the Muslim customer as they frequently feel excluded from mainstream advertising. This article relates various approaches companies currently implement to reach the Muslim customer (Rewriting the ad).
Another article, "Honouring Ramadan through inspirational ads and community programs," demonstrates the importance of the Holy month of Ramadan for Muslims, along with numerous ways Coca-Cola Company followed to improve its brand image in the Muslim world. The first successful culturally charged advertisement Coca-Cola Corporation developed for Ramadan in 2004, this article reveals, reached close to half a billion Muslims when launched in 12 different Muslim countries, including Morocco. The adapted advertisement proved significantly successful; contributing to increased sales revenues in numerous Muslim countries (Coca-Cola Company, 2006).
Mathieu Guidere (2008) demonstrates the value of local adaptation of advertisements to specific cultures and beliefs, relating the meaning of locally adapted advertisements, while also comparing the standardization and local adaptation of advertisements. Guidere argues that advertising localization compared to internationalization of ads is significantly more efficient. He also proffers a number of frequently related arguments supporting each strategy, and focuses on the particular process to take into consideration for effective local adaptation of ads (Mathieu Guidere, 2008). (need to add something more specific here)
2.1 Advertising Theories
In their study, "Television commercials as a lagging social indicator: Gender role stereotypes in Korean television advertising," Kwangok Kim and Dennis T. Lowry (2005) accessed a sampling of prime-time TV commercials, which included repeat advertisements, which numerous past studies, conducted in countries other than the U.S., did not include.
According to cultivation theory, the media play an important role in creating distorted views.... This theory suggests that exposure to media content creates a worldview, or a consistent image of social behavior, norms, values, and structures, based on the stable view of society provided by the media. In other words, cultivation theory posits that consistent images and portrayals construct a specific portrait of reality, and as viewers see more and more images, they gradually come to cultivate or adopt attitudes and expectations about the world that coincide with the images they see. Although this model has typically been employed to explain the impact of television violence, it also has been applied successfully to the cultivation of attitudes toward gender roles ....that people claimed no negative effects of product commercials on themselves (but did expect negative effects on others), other researchers have found evidence of a cultivated audience or the process of cultivation in advertising. (Kim and Lowry, 2005, Introduction section, ¶ 6)
Within the framework of cultivation theory, Kim and Lowry stress, repeat impressions prove vital to a TV ads success. When an individual views images over and over in television advertising, even TV viewers who claim commercials do not affect them are likely affected by what they see and hear. Cultivation theory asserts, the repeated playing of the TV ad's message into the viewer's mind potentially creates a "mainstreaming effect" (Kim & Lowry, 2005). This commercial side affect reinforces the contention that advertisers accept the responsibility to present statistically accurate societal images, as they are responsible to portray truth in their advertisements (Kim & Lowry).
Success in advertising, according to Mary Connelly (2007) in…