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In-N-Out Burgers has a rich history that has generated a loyal consumer base. Harry Snyder introduced California's first drive-thru hamburger stand in a space barely 10 feet square at Francisquito and Garvey in Baldwin Park (In-N-Out Burger, N.d. ). This entrepreneur would wake up every day before dawn and go to the meat and produce markets to pick out fresh ingredients that would be used in the burger preparation for that day. The same strategy is still in use today as each location of the business receives their ingredients fresh in the morning for that day's estimated demand. The beef that they use to cook the burgers is never frozen and this improves the quality of the food that they serve.
Part of In-N-Out's success is embedded into the simplicity of the operating model. The company only serves burgers, fries, and drinks which makes their product offering one of…
Bacon, K. (2014). Farm Burger | Decatur, Georgia. Retrieved from Best Burger Atlanta: http://bestburgersatlanta.com/farm-burger-decatur-georgia/
Gofferdson, M., & Aspinall, K. (2005, November). Innovation vs. Complexity: What Is Too Much of a Good Thing? Retrieved from Harvard Business Review: http://hbr.org/2005/11/innovation-versus-complexity-what-is-too-much-of-a-good-thing/ar/1
In-N-Out Burger. (N.d. ). First In-N-Out Burger Opens. Retrieved from In-N-Out Burger:
2.3 Product Offerings
In-N-Out Burger serves a very specific and limited menu of products, including hamburgers, cheeseburgers, French fries, soft drinks, milkshakes, Neapolitan shakes and grilled cheese sandwiches. This minimalistic simple menu keeps the ordering process quick and simple for both customers and staff. They have a much-touted secret menu, but the secret menu builds on the ingredients from the offerings on the traditional menu.
2.4 Keys to Success
The key to in-N-Out Burger's success is to provide excellent customer service, fresh cooked from scratch food, and a mystique generated from such items as a "secret menu," all of which garner it a large fan following. They have incorporated the following elements into their success: knowing and understanding their target audience; using strong branding elements, offering fresh made-to-order products, treating employees and customers well; managing growth; and attracting a loyal following (Kalb, 2011). They have also been able to successfully…
Davenport, K. (2011, May 23). Why I love in-N-Out Burger . . . And it's not the fries. Retrieved February 28, 2012 from Entertainment Marketing website: http://www.entertainmentmarketing.com/2011/05/why-i-love-in-n-out-burger-and-its-not-the-fries/
Fujinaka, M. (2012.) in-N-Out Burgers. Retrieved February 28, 2012 from Answers.com website: http://www.answers.com/topic/in-n-out-burgers-inc
In-N-Out Burger. (2012). History. Retrieved from
In-N-Out has never directly competed with McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's. It remains small, disdains high volume sales, and still offers as fresh a product as it did in 1948. Patrons, who might be angered at a Bible verse if they saw it on the wrapper of another chain burger continue to come back to In-N-Out. The level of food quality and service makes even California's many liberal skeptics believe the chain's owners are sincere in their religious convictions, and they appreciate the Snyder family's commitment to customer satisfaction.
On the West Coast, visiting In-N-Out has become a right of passage. The ability to order the burger in unique ways suits the Californian sense of individualism. Stunts abound, such as in the case of a group of patrons who took advantage of the chain's promise to allow patrons to order as many patties or cheese slices on a burger as…
After Guy died in 1999 of a heart attack, the company was in legal limbo. Esther struggled with other relatives for control of the company. After Esther's death in 2006, Lynsi Martinez, Guy's 24-year-old daughter with no business experience took over the company -- this is another example of how the company breaks all of the rules. Despite Martinez's lack of business expertise, it continues to show a strong performance.
It is every founder's dream to create a company that offers such a high-quality product that no amount of mismanagement, selfishness, and lack of vision can overcome the allure of the product. In-N-Out has never directly competed with McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's. It remains small, disdains high volume sales, and still offers as fresh a product as it did in 1948. Patrons, who might be angered at a Bible verse if they saw it on the wrapper of another chain burger continue to come back to In-N-Out. The level of food quality and service makes even California's many liberal skeptics believe the chain's owners are sincere in their religious convictions, and they appreciate the Snyder family's commitment to customer satisfaction.
On the West Coast, visiting In-N-Out has become a right of passage. The ability to order the burger in unique ways suits the Californian sense of individualism. Stunts abound, such as in the case of a group of patrons who took advantage of the chain's promise to allow patrons to order as many patties or cheese slices on a burger as they like -- and ordered 100x100 at a Las Vegas store. But because it is perceived as a quality product, In-N-Out is not a 'guilty' pleasure like McDonald's -- it is a proud example of Californian's love of good food. Even Californian fast food is gourmet food. The love of the chain has only deepened as the widespread interest in where America's food comes from has grown more acute. In-N-Out is proof that it is possible to have burgers 'your way' -- not just Animal Style, but fresh, wholesome, and free of preservatives and fillers.
S. Or from other countries may not be as familiar with the in-N-Out Burger brand compared with the brands of some of the chain's competitors.
The ways in which consumers interact with businesses is also changing, as a result of social media. Consumers have become more media savvy, making them harder to reach with conventional advertising, but consumers respond well to sophisticated marketing techniques utilizing emerging technologies, social media and viral advertising.
The political/legal environment also can have an impact on the business at in-N-Out Burger. Although the direct legal environment is generally favorable, the indirect environment has some risks. For example, California is in dire financial conditions, which may result in increased corporate taxes, which would cut into in-N-Out's income. Legislation in response to the social trend towards healthier eating -- such as laws eliminating trans fats -- could adversely impact the company. A lawmaker in New York recently…
In-N-Out Burger is a beloved institution on the est Coast because of its high-quality ingredients; its fresh, made-to-order taste, and the popularity of its not-so-secret menu which gives loyal patrons a sense of being part of an 'in' crowd when they order from the restaurant. This paper will argue that In-N-Out Burger is an ideal addition to the Atlanta burger culture: the chain can capitalize upon the frequent calls to bring In-N-Out to the East Coast, as well as outflank all of its likely competitors. "In-N-Out, founded on the est Coast in 1948, is that rarest of chain restaurants: one with a cult following. Exalted both by hamburger fans and those who normally shun fast food, it has built its reputation on the rock of two beliefs: fast food should be made from scratch, and the whims of the customer should be entertained" (McNichol 1).
The fast food industry…
Alt, J. Kenji-Lopez. "In-N-Out vs. Five Guys vs. Shake Shack. Serious Eats. 18 May 2011.
22 Jun 2014. http://aht.seriouseats.com/archives/2011/05/in-n-out-vs.-five-guys-vs.-shake-shack-the-first-bi-coastal-side-by-side-taste-test.html
Gottfredson, Mark & Aspinall, K. "Innovation vs. Complexity: What Is Too Much of a Good Thing?" Harvard Business Review. November 2005. 22 Jun 2014. http://hbr.org/2005/11/innovation-versus-complexity-what-is-too-much-of-a-good-thing/ar/1
McNichol, T. "The secret behind a burger cult." The New York Times. 14 Aug 2002.
The communication plan
Communication is the basic ordeal of operation within the company. The company will desire to embrace the new modes of social media as done in the fashion industries. The company has collaborated with radio stations and television broadcast houses that enable the company to create awareness over its perceived products. Furthermore, the company will involve online communication channels as Twitter, Facebook, and creation of blogs, which bears the company's new products.
Distribution will be done by the present sectors and corporations, which have been distributing the company's products. The modes of distributions will be carried through the trucks and trains. The other permissible methods will be through the air and water (Smith, 2012).
In order to launch and maintain the product in the market, the company will have to use an estimated $5 million within all the branches of expanse. This amount of money…
Anderson, P. (2002). CookSmart: Perfect recipes for every day. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Groeling, T.J. (2010). When politicians attack: Party cohesion in the media. Cambridge:
Heneberry, M., & Cavender, C. (2005). The little black book of burgers: A thoroughly modern guide to the American classic. White Plains, NY: Peter Pauper Press.
Jones, S. (2011). Brand like a rock star: Lessons from rock 'n' roll to make your business rich and famous. Austin, TX: Greenleaf Book Group.
PHL/323 Ethics Management Current Ethical Issue Business Paper (select a recent article -- back 1 year) • esearch information issue deals business ethics a newspaper, magazine, journal, TV, Internet.
Current ethical issue in business: Ethics of marketing junk food
There are many products which are marketed to the American public which are not 'healthy' such as cigarettes and spirits. However, the issue of food marketing is a more nebulous one, ethically speaking. Unlike nicotine and alcohol, human beings need food to survive. But certain types of food have been identified by many nutritionists as being uniquely deleterious to human health, aka 'junk food.' McDonald's has drawn particular ire, in part because of its marketing to children, according to the article "Marketing to children: Accepting responsibility," recently published in Business Ethics. McDonald's is an American icon, yet it also sells some of the unhealthiest food in the country. McDonald's…
Brown-Adefope, Sanni. (2011). If you want healthy food you've got to eat it. KMOJ FM.
Garber, AK, Lustig, RH. (2011). Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev, 4(3):146-62.
Marati, Jessica. (2012). Behind the label: In-And-Out EcoSalon. Retrieved http://ecosalon.com/behind-the-label-in-n-out-burger-2/
Porter's 5 Forces
One of the most volatile and unstable industries is that of the grocery industry. There are many substitute goods and the product is perishable. ivalries are high because of the availability of substitute goods, the ease of transfer of consumption habits, challenges in the supply chain, and rival new entrants. Whole Foods is an excellent example of a company which has had to carefully hold onto its niche marketing strategy of offering organic and specialty goods, versus solely competing on price. The threat of new entrants is high given that customers can choose to purchase organic goods at Wal-Mart and Target, not just Whole Foods, as well as patronize their local farm stands. Substitute products are plentiful not just in the form of other grocery products but also in the form of buying prepared foods from healthier chains like Chipotle. Competitive rivalry is more intense than ever…
Ozanian, M. (2015). How CrossFit became a 4 billion dollar brand. Forbes. Retrieved from:
Market researchers have long understood that complexity -- particularly in the form of too many choices -- can cause consumers to freeze up and not make a selection. Gottfredson and Aspinall (2005) argue that complexity is not just confounding for consumers, but that it can also contribute to lower profits. Innovation is perceived as a positive factor in business, but to a degree, innovation has taken on a life of its own. To illustrate how effective restraint can be in business, Gottfredson and Aspinall (2005) discuss the In-N-Out Burgers enterprise. While In-N-Out Burgers is focused on creating its own particular brand of harmony around the number four, other businesses need to identify a balance based on the attributes that are the most valued by their customers.
Contemporary consumers expect a level of customization that may actually serve to reduce the quality and expediency of their service experiences. Gottfredson and Aspinall…
Burgelman, R.A. And Siegel, R.E. (2006, December). Defining the minimum winning game in high-technology ventures. California Management Review.
Gottfredson, M. And Aspinall, K. (2005, November). Innovation vs. complexity: What is too much of a good thing? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review.
Moore, G.A. (1991). Crossing the chasm: Marketing and selling disruptive products to mainstream customers. New York, NY: Collins Business / Harper Collins Publishers. Retreived from http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html
SWOT of a Christian Business Leader/Marketer
· Christian faith that is united to the brand of the business and used in marketing campaigns to develop brand loyalty among consumers. The faith can be leveraged to gain traction with consumers and increase the brand’s popularity.
· Large base of Christian consumers who are loyal to Christian companies like Chick-fil-A and Hobby Lobby and In-N-Out Burger (Edouard, 2015).
· Strong score on the Faith Equality Index, which Christian consumers use to determine which companies they will patronize (Wetzstein, 2015).
· Positive track record in the community in terms of corporate social responsibility—the business supports Christian projects and programs in the community.
· By promoting the Christian identity, the business risks polarizing consumers and turning them off from the brand.
· The business lacks a broad-based appeal in which Christian consumers can feel satisfied with the company’s values and non-Christian consumers…
This is an attempt to study the history and development of one of the great institutions of United States and a part of the images of the country that has spread in the whole world. As is well-known, the dominance of the world by United States came after the Second World War when the traditional leaders of United Kingdom and Germany lost their predominant positions due to the destructions of the war, and the impact of change in economic order due to the freedom of many countries. This was the freedom of the colonies and United States had been one of the first colonies to be free, and the former colony became the leader, along with Russia which was the pathfinder of the failed social and economic structure of communism. It was a contest between the two to prove the relative superiority of the two systems, and the…
McDonald's Marketing Strategies. [Internet]
Available from http://www.marketingtops.com/marketing/marketing55.html [Accessed 24 April 2004]
McDonald's keep thinking up good deals for their customers nowadays due to the drop in sales and reduction of margins that the company is facing, and one of that is to provide extra benefits to their customers, and this is often achieved by increasing the quantity served by just adding item quantities at a very low price.
Fascinating Mcfacts about McDonald's International. The Times November 11, 1996
McDonald's And Hardees
In a recent visit to two competing fast food franchise restaurants, McDonald's and Hardees, there were many different operational processes that were identified. For example, McDonald's has a more diversified menu that caters to more consumers while Hardees by contrast seems to utilize more of a niche strategy. Both operations seem fairly efficient and effective towards the operational goals that they seem to promote. I think they are both offering the products that they should be. McDonalds has a larger menu and Hardees has more of a targeted niche.
Each organization utilizes technology to meet their operational objectives and operates efficiently based on these objectives. Between the two operations, McDonald's seem to have the technological edge however and their operations are streamlined through a dedication to operational excellence that uses advanced technological systems as a foundation for its business functions. McDonalds must be more efficient to offer…
Higuera, V. (N.d.). Seasonal Factors Affecting the Restaurant Industry. Retrieved from Small Business Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/seasonal-factors-affecting-restaurant-industry-31192.html
McDonalds. (N.d.). Full Menu Explorer. Retrieved from McDonalds: http://www.mcdonalds.com /us/en/food/full_menu/full_menu_explorer.html
Nunez, A. (2011, July 26). McDonalds To Announce Improved Commitment To Nutrition. Retrieved from Shape Magazine: http://www.shape.com/healthy-eating/meal-ideas/mcdonalds-announce-improved-commitment-nutrition
Wong, V. (2013, June 5). Carl's Jr., Hardee's Are Wooing McDonald's 'Deprived' Angus Eaters. Retrieved from Bloomburg Business Week: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-06-05/carl-s-jr-dot-hardees-woo-mcdonalds-deprived-angus-lovers
Prospective Marketing Plan of a Healthy Fast Food Franchise Chain-to-Be
SIMON SAYS -- EAT HEALTHY, EAT SMART
Today, the average American consumer has little time to prepare home cooked meals. This fact of modern daily living has driven even the most conscientious mother and father into the arms of fast-food chain stores. The result has been the national health disaster of the expanding American waistline and also the expanding American health care budget. Americans, our chain believes, want to eat easy, healthy meals that taste good. Americans, today, in an increasingly image conscious society care about their health and looks but desire a way to have a warm and tasty family meal in a warm family environment that is emotionally as well as physically supportive of such a lifestyle. In other words, no sprouts, but not just fried spuds
The core values of our organization are that…
Thorson, Esther. (1989) "Products, Positioning, and Market Segmentation." Advertising Age: The Principles of Advertising at Word. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.
Harrell, Gilbert. Marketing: Connecting with Customers.
Another food site, that of a chain restaurant in-and-Out Burger, (http://www.in-n-out.com/)is perhaps the most aesthetically dominant, as it does not feature many photographs of the food at all, although it does include general links about the company's history and menu. It primarily creates interest about the regional California chain through old-fashioned images of burgers and fries, stressing the customized, all-natural nature of the good food offered at the stores.
Map the 7Cs for salon.com. Do the same for the New York Times website. How do these maps differ? How are they similar? Now map the 7Cs for a retail site, such as buy.com. Compare the three maps.
Cost: A relatively low cost, functional website. Information available to all surfers.
Convenience: Easily searchable.
Communication: News headlines well-displayed.
Community: Surfers can post reactions to various articles online.
Coordination: Site fairly easy to surf and coordinated between different sections.
Customization: Little customization…
The author of this report is asked to do a few things within this report. First, the author is to look at and assess the Grand Strategy Selection Matrix. Second, the author is to review and assess the general business model and strategy of Overstock.com. The author of this report is to then select which of the quadrants that Overstock falls within. While it may be a little difficult to pin them down as they are like other online companies in many ways and they are also different in many ways, the choice is pretty clear to the author of this report which one applies to them.
There are, of course, four cells in the Grand Strategy matrix and they are numbered I, II, III and IV. The first cell is for companies that are in turnarounds or re-entrenchment status, are divesting or are liquidating. Examples of firms…
Ning. (2014, October 2). Grand Strategy Choice. Mastering Business Strategy.
Retrieved October 2, 2014, from http://strategycapstone.ning.com/page/grand-strategy-choice
Yahoo. (2014, October 2). Yahoo Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes,
News. Yahoo Finance. Retrieved October 2, 2014, from http://finance.yahoo.com/
This has weakened their global position over the long-term. The reason why, is because they were focused on select demographics of the population instead of which regions can provide the largest amounts of growth. However, the major marketing initiatives in the Western hemisphere have helped the firm to show future potential. This had caused the company to be sold from one organization to next, who think that they will be able to make it successful. ("Country and Evaluation")
Evaluate urger King's strategy of using razilian experience to guide its entry into Russia.
The strategy that urger King is using in razil allowed them to take into account factors that could increase the possible risks they are facing in a location. These include: developing infrastructure, establishing a good management team, focusing on major cities, establishing local offices and supporting continuous development. These elements are important, because they are providing the company…
"Country and Evaluation," n.d.
Cooper, Chris. "Japan Offers California Loan." Bloomberg, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
Naylor, Brian. "Stimulus Puts High Speed Rail on Track." NPR, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
To reduce inventory management costs and errors, enterprise must form a strong, galvanizing connection with suppliers, buyers, internal production, and customers most of all. In conclusion, inventory management will always be part art and science, as tacit & implicit knowledge is needed to provide greater insight into the analysis generated fro enterprise software applications specifically designed to streamline inventory management. The inherent unquantifiable aspects of demand management will also make inventory management a continually difficult, complex problem enterprises must confront daily to stay profitable and grow.
Forecasting and Demand eferences
Leung, S. (2003, Oct 01). Where's the beef? A glutted market leaves food chains hungry for sites; finding spots for new outlets takes heaps of research and an eye for details; hint: Move next to Wal-Mart. Wall Street Journal, pp. a.1-a.1.
Meng, F., Tepanon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2008). Measuring tourist satisfaction by attribute and motivation: The case…
Mathaba, S., Dlodlo, N., Smith, a., & Adigun, M. (2011). The use of RFID and web 2.0 technologies to improve inventory management in south african enterprises. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 14(2), 228-241. Link:
Wang, H., & Yan, H. (2009). Inventory management for customers with alternative lead times. Production and Operations Management, 18(6), 705-720.
As noted, the recent "supply chain streamlining" is a move to cut costs and build greater economies of scale. This is consistent with a firm engaging in a cost leadership strategy. That the company also has strong brands allows it to continue to pursue its longstanding differentiation strategy as well. However, the company has been slow to respond to new trends, a reflection of its conservative culture and the slow pace of change at the family-owned firm. This may have cost the company some market share in the past. Indeed, the company's recent success has been Folger's, which is positioned at the low end of the coffee market. As the recession hit high end coffee companies like Starbucks hard, low end companies benefited as consumers traded down. Folgers has been a rare cost leadership success for Smuckers, but did so on the existing strong level of brand recognition.
TaglineGuru.com. (2010). Slogan & jingle list. TaglineGuru.com. Retrieved June 12, 2010 from http://www.taglineguru.com/sloganlist.html
Bronnenburg, B. & Walthieu, L. (1996). Assymetric promotion effects and brand positioning. Marketing Science. Vol. 15 (4) 379-394.
Smuckers 2009 Annual Report. In possession of the author.
FoodProcessing.com. (2010). Smuckers to close four plants, expand three. Food Processing. Retrieved June 12, 2010 from http://www.foodprocessing.com/industrynews/2010/052.html
Coca-Cola pursues a differentiation strategy, and has built its company around the pursuit of this strategy. The strengths that the company has -- R&D, marketing, and heavy advertising -- all directly support the differentiation strategy. Coca-Cola uses its strategy to foster sources of sustainable competitive advantage, although the strongest of these is the company's brand. All told, Coke has an excellent strategy that does not result in many missed opportunities. There are different strategic directions that the company could take, but there is also evidence that Coca-Cola management is aware of these options and has rejected them. All told, the approach that the company has taken remains successful, and should be successful for the foreseeable future.
Porter's generic strategies typology highlights four main strategies that can be used to succeed in business (QuickMBA, 2010). Two of these are focused on niche markets, which obviously does not apply…
Interbrand. (2011). Best global brands 2011. Interbrand. Retrieved March 24, 2012 from http://www.interbrand.com/en/best-global-brands/Best-Global-Brands-2011.aspx
Kim, W.C. And Mauborgne, R. (2009), What is BOS? Nine key points of Blue Ocean Strategy. Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from:
Lee, M. (2012). The real story behind the real thing. CNBC. Retrieved March 24, 2012 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/33307309
Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's
Objectives & Mission Statement
Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…
Bauman, Valerie. (11 Aug 2005) "People try to lose weight at McDonalds." AP Wire. Accessed on AOL on 22 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=20050811163009990002
Burger King. (2005) Official Website. Retrieved 11 Sept 2005 at http://www.haveityourway.com/
Collins, Luke. (2002) "Chips are down for Burger Giants" MCD: McDonald's Corporation News and Articles. Retrieved 27 Aug 2005 at http://www.licenseenews.com/news/news134.html
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
Nadel et al. v. Burger King Corp. & Emil, Inc.
What court decided the case in the assignment?
Case C960489 was filed on 05/21/1997 and heard by the Court of Appeals of Ohio, First District, Hamilton County. On 07/07/1997, a discretionary appeal (Case 1997-1386) by Burger King was filed in the Supreme Court of Ohio. he Case is Disposed.
According to the case, what must a party establish to prevail on a motion for summary judgment?
In order for a party to prevail on a motion for summary judgment in this case, it is necessary to show that no genuine issue of material fact existed. Specifically, the Ohio Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 56 (E) states that:
"When a motion for summary judgment is made and supported as provided in this rule, an adverse party may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of the party's pleadings,…
The court found that the appellants did not have a duty to warn of the dangers of using a BB gun, that despite the warnings labels on each BB gun package, and the policy of Swallen's not to sell BB guns to customers under the age of 18, the manufacturers and sellers had no duty to ensure that the BB guns were always used under adult supervision and in a safe manner. That to do so would make them insurers of their product and would be tantamount to judicial legislation, which is not a function of the court.
G. The principle of law the case was used (cited) for in the case:
See, e.g., Temple v. Wean United, Inc. (1977), 50 Ohio St. 2d 317, 4 O.O.3d 466, 364 N.E.2d 267; Taylor v. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. (1987), 36 Ohio App.3d 62, 520 N.E.2d 1375; Hall v. Sun Oil Petroleum Products (Sept. 28, 1984), Lucas App. No. L-84-084, unreported, 1984 WL 14378.
Business environment is mainly characterized by various human economic activities including the production, sale, and purchase of goods and services that are carried out with the main objective of earning profits. Generally, the business environment can be described as a set of conditions that facilitate and promote the human economic activities. This environment is basically comprised of the internal business environment and the external business environment. The internal business environment includes the factors that are within the control of business while the external business environment refers to factors that are beyond the control of the business enterprise. One of the most common aspects of the business environment and human economic activities is the economy, which is generally influenced by various factors.
ole of Business in the Economy:
Business is defined as the management and coordination of individuals and resources in order to achieve specific production objectives, with the main goal…
Bernanke, B. (2011, February 9). The Economic Outlook and Monetary and Fiscal Policy.
Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2011/02/09/the_economic_outlook_and_monetary_and_fiscal_policy_108845.html
"Introduction to the Economy, Fiscal and Monetary Policy." (n.d.). Investorguide.com. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.investorguide.com/igu-article-284-basic-economic-concepts-introduction-to-the-economy-fiscal-and-monetary-policy.html
"McDonald's Issues First Worldwide Social Responsibility Report." (n.d.). CSR Press Release.
Role of Nutrition in Health
Nutritional Assessment is a detailed evaluation of objective as well as subjective data, relating to an individual's food intake, along with giving due consideration to factors such as medical history and lifestyle of the said individual. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to identify the malnourishment and/or undernourishment in an individual's diet and to eradicate the factors that make it unhealthy and unfit. Once the data relating an individual's eating habits has been collected and organized, it can be used to evaluate the nutritional status of that person. The assessment is followed up by a plan to either intervene or to devise a new proper nutritious diet plan to help the individual attain a healthier status (Carol Rees Parrish, August 2003).
In keeping up with the current obesity and overweight statistics, the need for a balanced nutrition profile has increased tenfold. Australia today is…
Ageing, D. o. (1998). Australian Guide to Eating Healthy. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/E384CFA588B74377CA256F190004059B/$File/fd-cons.pdf .
Carol Rees Parrish, M.R. (August 2003). Nutritional Assessment: Current Concepts and Guidelines for the Busy Physician.
Institute, M.O. (June 2012). Obesity in Australia.
Institute, N.H. Obesisty. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.pdf .
There is a fixed amount of output possible for any given investment in production capacity, at all possible costs, and if we plot all the potential scales of output against the resulting average cost per unit of production, the result is a long run average total cost curve (LRATC). These economies and diseconomies of scale cause the LRAC to fall from a high origin to a minimum point, and then (theoretically) eventually begin to rise, where there is a minimum where slope is zero. This is the optimum enterprise scale (Petroff, 2002 n. pag.). Each combination of output and average per-unit cost represents a discrete, short-term, short-run ATC curve for that level of production, and optimum firm size is the SRATC curve where unit cost is minimal (7 units at 32$ each, in Table 6), the MC cost curve crosses both LRATC and SRATC, no other firms enter to capture…
Ben-Akiva, Moshe (2008). 'Theory of the Firm.' OpenCourse Ware, Massachussetts
Institute of Technology, Cambridge Mass. Online (March 16, 2011): http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/civil-and-environmental-engineering/1-201j-transportation-systems-analysis-demand-and-economics-fall-2008/lecture-notes/MIT1_201JF08_lec09.pdf
Bober, Stanley (2001). Alternative Principles of Economics M.E. Sharpe, New York.
Braff, Allan (1969). Microeconomic Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
Many sports teams use Indian logos and names as their moniker. One such team is the Washington Redskins. There are many people, both Indians and non-Indians, that say that the use of such logos is wrong and that the word "redskin" is racist. However, not all people (even including many Indians) agree on this matter (Cox et al., 2017).
The issue to address is whether the trademark/patent and other offices have the right to impose a rule or guideline based on the presumption that "redskin" is racist. There is, of course, the question of whether there are violations of Title VII, hate speech laws, etc. (Cox et al., 2017).
Rule of Law
Even if the trademark office has yanked Redskin as a usable name, there is not a clear violation of the law and there is rampant disagreement about whether redskin is a racist term. It would…
There is a clear divide between the real care nurses must give -- and do give, every day -- and the layperson's perceptions of nursing (Scher 2003).
Scher, Betty. (2003). Second opinion. Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing Journal.
1(1). Retrieved http://www.son.jhmi.edu/JHNmagazine/archive/spring2003/pages/second_opinion.htm
In my work as a nurse on the med/surg floor of an urban hospital, I encountered many individuals with lifestyle-related issues. Heart disease, diabetes, and strokes may present themselves as acute situations, but often the real precipitating cause is related to choices about diet and exercise the individual has made over the course of a lifetime. A recent sociological theory that can help address this issue is the concept of 'social contagion:' individuals tend to norm their health behaviors to the lifestyle choices of their friends. If their friends make good choices regarding food, exercise, and preventative care, they are likely to do so as…
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L. & Cassie L. Cunningham, Cassie L. (2008). Geographical
clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41 (3): 209-214.
With this in mind communications strategy has to be developed and implemented. The central debate remains that of degree of uniformity. The pros and cons are obvious, i.e. economies of scale, consistent message across markets, centralized control, different market characteristics, media availability and costs and government regulations (alabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2011). The stronger argument appears to be that different strategy appears to work in different situations, rather than a totally standardized campaign. Once these geographical issues are decided upon then the scope of the campaign, objectives and elements of strategy can be worked on. If the organization develops a message for one market and then transposes this intact into others or if it develops a message with a number of markets in mind from the start, it may be centrally conceived in both cases (Han, 2009; Wills & Ryans, 1977).
This is popular because of co-ordination and control providing the…
Ahmed, S.A., a. d'Atrous and M.E. Adraoui. 1994. 'Country-of-Origin Effects on Purchasing Managers Product Perceptions.' Industrial Marketing Management 23 (July): 323-332.
Keller, Kevin Lane. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 1-22
Shirin, Khosrozadeh; Kambiz, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee. 2011. The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Chinese Business Review, August Vol. 10, No. 8, 601-615
Bailey, W. And S.A. Gutierrez de Pineres. 2007. 'Country of Origin Attitudes in Mexico: The Malinchismo Effect.' Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9 (3): 25-41.
Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century
Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.
Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.
This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.
ags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the…
Basic Training, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.home.eznet.net/~kcupery/PBArtic/paperbasics.html
Greatest Achievements - 3. Airplane, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_3_2.html
Harrods.com - Frequently Asked Questions, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.harrods.com/faqs/default.html
IHT: A Special Report 3/15/97, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.iht.com/IHT/SR/031597/sr031597c.html
9/11 terror attacks was characterized by enactment of new laws and executive orders that focused on enhancing homeland security. However, these laws and orders have become controversial because they have ceded power to the executive branch and limited people's rights. Some examples of these limitations include restrictions on privacy, limitation of free speech and association rights, and limitation of religious freedom. While these actions were necessary to help prevent another attack, they are inappropriate since they compromise civil rights and checks and balances established in America's democracy. The federal government would have taken less drastic measures through reordering priorities of law enforcement instead of generating fundamental changes in law.
Week 5: Discussion
In the American judicial system, the Supreme Court reviews very few cases most of whom are appeals from lower courts. It should not be mandatory for the Supreme Court to review more cases despite having appellate jurisdiction. The…
Participants will be recruited with announcements in local newspapers and school newsletters. Flyers are posted in the nurse's offices and in the clinic. esponse cards will be given to parents who indicate an interest in participating in the study. See the participation invitation -- Appendix 1.
Once enrolled, participants will answer a series of questions related to food choices, influences, physical activities and food and beverage advertisements. The first measure will involve showing the children a set of distinct images. The children will then be asked 1) what company the image belongs to; 2) what they feel about that company; 3) if the images make them feel good/bad/nothing; 4) if they enjoy the food; 5) how they feel after eating the food; and, 6) what their parents think of the type of food or company. The following 15 images are examples of popular logos. These 15 will be used…
Caprio, Sonia. (2006). Treating child obesity and associated medical conditions. The Future of Children,16(1), 209+. Gale Group.
Darwin, David. (2009). Advertising obesity: Can the U.S. follow the lead of the UK in limiting television marketing of unhealthy foods to children? Vanderbilt journal of transnational law,42(1), 317+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Enz, C., & Lundberg, C. (1993). A Framework for student case preparation. Case Research Journal,13, 134.
Evans, W. Douglas. (2008). Social marketing campaigns and children's media use. The Future of Children,18(1), 181+. Gale Cengage Learning.
" Every town now has Thai, Japanese, and Indian restaurants to complement the Chinese and Italian fare. Consider the supermarket shelves that carry multicultural products such as Campbell Hispanic-style Fiesta soup, sushi platters, wasabi and seven different taco salsas. Burger King and McDonald's sell their millions of burritos to somebody!
EXAMPLE OF NEW MAKETING TENDS
In July 2001, Campbell's Soup Company announced a program to recreate the company and restore its growth track. In practice this included introduction of new ethnic product lines. Campbell's new Select Harvest () Mexican-Style Chicken Tortilla Soup was the principal new introduction that followed this reinvention.
It was a smart move. Select Harvest () soups were ranked the top new food and beverage product of 2009, according to a report released by Information esources Inc. (II). II's annual New Product Pacesetters (TM) report showcases the most innovative and successful new products of the year in…
Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2006. U.S.
Census Bureau Web site. www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/histpov/hstpov2.html. Accessed March 26, 2010.
Toosi M. Labor force projections to 2016: more workers in their golden years. Mon Labor Rev.
In the last 30 years, developing markets have shown the potential for fast food restaurants to realize increasing profit margins. This is because markets such as China provide them with the capacity to offer unique products and experiences to customers. However, specific concepts must be integrated with each other to effectively connect with them. In the case of McDonalds, they are facing considerable challenges and opportunities in China. (Allon, 2012) ("McDonalds and KFC")
A good example of this can be seen with observations from a report conducted by Zach's esearch which said, "The U.S. business accounts for 30% of the fast-food giant's overall revenues. The region has not been able to post positive comps since Oct 2013 mainly due to heightened competition and a few wrong decisions that have slowed service. Moreover, the headwinds in the international market have compounded the woes for the domestic market. Going forward, we…
McDonald's Earnings Beat. (2014). Zacks.com. Retrieved from: http://www.zacks.com/stock/news/151017/mcdonalds-earnings-beat-sales-miss-as-us-amp-china-falter
McDonalds and KFC. (n.d.)
Allon, I. (2012). Global Franchising Operations Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Cendrowski, S. (2004). Why McDonald's Supplier Failed in China. Fortune. Retrieved from: http://fortune.com/2014/09/02/why-mcdonalds-supplier-failed-in-china/
This is too much. I need to stop before I...Jacob. come in here.
Sam closes the door behind him. Shot of the door closing behind Jacob and Jacob looking as though someone punched him in the crotch.
Yeah? What's up? Oh and if you're going to tell me that the cops will find out I did it, this isn't Law and Order okay? it's difficult to catch someone committing a crime unless you're stupid or unlucky.
We need to talk. Look man, it's not fun anymore. I...want out.
Scene 5: "Warning": Jacob goes to the Boss's office in the upper west side, 86th street. The receptionist tells him to go inside and he closes the door behind him. The mustachioed boss clasps his hands while turning off the flatscreen.
Hey boss, I had a bit of a problem doing a deal in the Bronx.
Huang, G., Jain, V., Learned-Miller, E.: Unsupervised joint alignment of complex images. in: International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 1 -- 8 (2007)
Ramanan, D., Baker, S., Kakade, S.: Leveraging archival video for building face datasets. in: International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 1 -- 8 (2007)
Laptev, I., Marsza-ek, M., Schmid, C., Rozenfeld, B.: Learning realistic human actions from movies. in: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2008), http://lear.inrialpes.fr/pubs/2008/LMSR08
Sivic, J., Everingham, M., Zisserman, a.: Person spotting: video shot retrieval for face sets. in: Leow, W.-K., Lew, M., Chua, T.-S., Ma, W.-Y., Chaisorn, L., Bakker, E.M. (eds.) CIVR 2005. LNCS, vol. 3568, Springer, Heidelberg (2005)
9% to 734 units (Khun, 2009)
Additionally, James Moss, of Curzon Investment Property, has commented (Khun, 2009) that Dominos and Subway have been successful in the UK market as a result of their franchise models that are almost recession proof. In addition many investors (who want to own a franchise) have found these two chains to be exceptional investments. Additionally, many "Britons are also shunning posh business lunches and choosing instead to head to Eat or Pret for a sandwich (Khun, 2009,9)." The report also explains that "Independent operators (with fewer than five outlets) have increased their market share by 2.2% across the UK's top 10 cities to further fuel the feeling that many high streets are turning England into 'fried chicken Britain'(Khun, 2009,9)." The following chart illustrates the most popular cities for Fast Food in the UK.
Number of Fast Food Restaurants by City
London (central) (847 outlets)
"About the Company." Available at: http://www.pret.com/us/about_our_company/about.htm [Accessed 11 August 2011].
Business: Junior fat; obesity and advertising. 2005. The Economist, 377(8457), 68-58-61. R
Jones, P.; Hillier, D., Shears, P.,Clarke-Hill, C. 2002 . Customer perceptions of services brands: A case study of the three major fast food retailers in the UKManagement Research Review25. 6/7: 41-49
Kuhn, K 2009. UK's fast food sector is up 8%. Caterer & Hotelkeeper199. 4605 (Nov 27-Dec 3, 2009): 9
Again, Mc Donald's has managed to deal with competitive threats posed by both these market players due to the fact that the prices that Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee charge are much higher than that charged by Mc Donald's. The primary reason behind higher prices of Costa Coffee and Starbucks is the fact that their target market is much stronger and niche as compared to that of Mc Donald's. The recent economic crunch however, has benefitted Mc Donald's as many people who prefer sophisticated ambience, due to their lower purchasing power and increased inflationary pressures now prefer Mc Donald's over the likes of Starbucks and Costa Coffee. As a result, Mc Donald's is the strongest market player in the Global region today.
Mc Donald's target market includes all the people who travel for leisure and/or business purposes and prefer to have a luxurious accommodation. The cafe provides best possible…
Afuah, A. 2009, Strategic innovation: new game strategies for competitive advantage. UK,
Taylor & Francis.
Akhter, S 2003, Strategic planning, hyper competition, and knowledge management. Business Horizons.
Black, J. (2004). Integrated Marketing Communications. College and University, 80(1), 53+. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045074006
Individuals now have increasing control over how and when they receive information. Promoters now have to take a new approach to reaching potential consumers. The push method of promotion, broadcasting messages in bulk, is no longer as effective as it once was. Now promoters have to be more creative and implement more of a pull strategy to entice consumers. They have to create a desire for the consumer to want to hear the information.
Starbucks -- this brand is likely best target to populations at a national level. Not every country has a culture that values coffee in the same way.
Netflix -- Netflix is also best targeted at a national or regional level. Different populations and groups will have different media preferences.
Local milk -- the local milk brand should target the regional or local level since it is regionally produced.
d. North Face -- this brand could potentially…
Ad Respect. (N.d.). Ad Library. Retrieved from Ad Respect: http://www.adrespect.org/common/adlibrary/adprintdetails.cfm?QID=3638&clientID=11064
BuildDirect. (N.d.). Life at Home. Retrieved from BuildDirect: http://www.builddirect.com/blog/home-improvement-in-autumn-10-after-labor-day-labors/
Free Checking Information. (N.d.). Ally Bank. Retrieved from Free Checking Information: http://freecheckinginformation.com/tag/ally/
Johnson, L. (2015, July 22). Uber Takes Over New York Times Homepage With Large Ad Calling Out the Mayor. Retrieved from AdWeek: http://www.adweek.com/news/technology/uber-takes-over-new-york-times-homepage-fight-proposed-bill-166050
Oakley Pub and Gill
As John R. Walke (2008) descibes in The Restauant: Fom Concept to Opeation, "chain estauants have some advantages and some disadvantages ove independent estauants" (p. 8). What the chain offes in its favo is public ecognition of a name customes can tust, moe extensive advetising, and geate ability to discount. Independent estauants, on the othe hand, also have some advantages -- they ae not bound by any copoate model, they ae significantly easie to stat up, and they can even boom into thei "chains." This pape will look at one independent estauant, called Oakley Pub and Gill, and identify its stengths and weaknesses, fom cost-contolling to sanitation, food poduction, leadeship, and staffing.
One cost-contol challenge fo Oakley would have to be the fact that its food and beveage costs outinely hove aound 35%. Cost, accoding to Randy White (2005), should not be something so high,…
references checked -- all before the hiring process is completed (Staffing Best Practices).
In this way, Oakley could easily eliminate some of the problems it has been having lately through the kind of nepotism that never translates into success. A better plan of action would serve the restaurant well when it comes to recruiting and staffing its outfit. In fact, some of the same qualities that Arlinghaus should be showing (humility, trust, integrity) could easily be characteristics that one would find on the hiring template. Creating that template would be the best way to improve the staffing process at Oakley Pub and Grill.
As John R. Walker observes, a casual restaurant like Oakley has a defining presence: "it fits the societal trend of a more relaxed lifestyle…[with] signature food items, creative bar menus…[and] a comfortable decor" (p. 9). Oakley does all this -- now all it needs to do is fine-tune its services, reduce its costs, employ better food production, enhance its managers' leadership skills, and afford itself a staffing template. Then Oakley will be a more successful independent restaurant.
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
Another key factor that contributed to the rise of the business to its status of success is that of the quality of service offered. ight from the menu across to the attendants, there is quality in everything that Five Guys offers. The menu is simple and straight forward, despite the pressure from the customers and interested parties to increase the services it offers, they have kept their menu simple and easy. This makes it easy for the customers to just order by the number of what they want from the menu. The quality of service is very much complementary to that of the quality of food. However, without effective employees, the business would not have been so successful (Thornberry, 2006). The service delivery speed is very fast and thus customers do not feel inconvenienced having to wait to be served. They are always attended to on time. This wins the…
Greenberg, D., McKone-Sweet, K., & Wilson, H.J. (2011). The New Entrepreneurial Leader:
Developing Leaders Who Shape Social and Economic Opportunity. San Francisco:
Kates, S. (2011). Free market economics. Cheltenham: Elgar.
American Cultural Products have an Impact on Other Cultures
About the American Culture
How the American Culture Affects Products Globally
Influences of Culture on One Another
American Culture in China
American Culture in Korea
Major American Cultural Values
Globalization has created a completely new way of life for billions of people. It has provided people with new technologies and alternative ways of consuming everything, from products to music and films to literature and even language. In other words, globalization has impacted entire cultures in various countries (Friedman, 2005). The trend has been aided by the creation of the ability to purchase life changing goods for consumers; providing many varieties of consumable items at reasonably low prices on an international market has spread different cultures.
Understanding the impact of globalization on the regional and national cultures requires the understanding of the process and the meaning of globalization. While the term…
Bhagwati, J. (2004). In defense of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cismas, S. (2015). The impact of American culture on other cultures: Language and cultural identity. http://www.wseas.us. Retrieved 26 March 2015, from http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2010/Cambridge/AIKED/AIKED-61.pdf
Friedman, T. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Haugen, D. (2009). American values. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Advertising Controversy and Assessment Overview
Stage 1 Controversial Advertising
The advertisement in this controversial case aimed to actually cause some sort of stir by having models pose in proactive poses. These marketing techniques are directed at young women aged 16- 35 and fashion conscious men who are seeking to say in step with the current fashions of the day. The advertisement in this case was very effective for several reasons. The first reason for its effectiveness is because the picture is very risque and promotes a challenge to sexual and violent taboos. This cutting edge style certainly appeals to a demographic that looks to set itself apart by pushing the social envelope using sex and violence as a tool to stir emotions. The scale of the controversy also depicts the success of the ad campaign and created a definite buzz amongst the fashion industry. This ad could be…
Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Batra, R. (1999). Brand positioning through advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe: The role of global consumer culture. The Journal of Marketing, 75-87.
Campbell, C., Pitt, L. F., Parent, M., & Berthon, P. R. (2011). Understanding consumer conversations around ads in a Web 2.0 world. Journal of Advertising,40(1), 87-102.
Clarke, I., & Honeycutt, E. D. (2000). Color usage in international business-to-business print advertising. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(3), 255-261.
Ehrenberg, A., Barnard, N., Kennedy, R., & Bloom, H. (2002). Brand advertising as creative publicity. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(4), 7-18.
On the one side are those who argue against advertisements aimed at children due to a belief that children are uniquely susceptible, and on the other side are those who sell advertisements and advertising, such as ad agencies and business school textbook authors, out of a belief that advertising is able to effect product preference in any meaningful way. In short, both of these groups are incorrect, because advertising, and animated characters in particular, actually have fairly little influence on product preference and purchasing decisions. They can generate recognition and positive emotional connections between the audience and the product, but these connections do not necessarily translate into actual purchases. However, in order to demonstrate why this is the case, one must examine some relevant scientific research on the subject and attempt to inject some reasonable skepticism into the hyperbolic claims of parents' groups and advertising cheerleaders.
Aside from market research…
Altstie, T, and J. Grow, Advertising strategy: creative tactics from the outside/in, SAGE,
Thousand Oaks, 2006.
Callcott, MF, and W. Lee, "A content analysis of animation and animated spokes-characters,"
Journal of Advertising, vol. 23, no. 4, 1994, pp. 1-12.
LMT 307 Food and Beverage everse Logistics -- Fall 2015
The implementation of sustainable rules and regulations as well as constraints in the markets across the world, have compelled international industries, in this case, the food and beverage industry, to establish reverse logistics, which is the backflow management of the supply chain system. everse logistics encompasses the waste management of products and merchandises in the backward supply chain. There has been a gap or limitation in research studies on the implementation of reverse logistics on the food and beverage industry. Due to the fact that food and beverage products are delicate in nature, the backward flow of packing and food supplies compel the formation of a free-flowing reverse logistics system throughout the supply chain. The development of an efficacious reverse supply chain practice for the food retail industry necessitates the conduction of studies on prevailing…
Gustavsson, J., Otterdijk, R. (2011). Global food losses and food waste: extent, causes and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 1-29.
Hawks, K. (2006). What is Reverse Logistics. Reverse Logistics magazine. Retrieved 1 October 2015 from: http://www.rlmagazine.com/edition01p12.php
Kabir, M. I. (2013). Reverse Logistics in Pharmaceutical Industry. International journal of supply chain management, 2(1).
Petersen, J.A., Kumar, V. (2009). Are product returns a necessary evil? Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 35-51.
Particularly McDonalds and Starbucks fight daily on sales as well as share prices (Brush, 2011). The Starbucks growth has been slow during last some periods yet it offers a tough competition to the McDonalds by offering extensive sale points. The two companies are in competition war yet the customer base of the two is totally different. The Starbucks customers are more affluent and the McDonalds customers are more price sensitive (Shaughnessy, 2013).
The company can work on the customer pool that lies between total affluent and totally price sensitive. The company, like it has done before in 2012, can float the videos of its hygienic processes on YouTube. It can show that McDonalds operates cleaner that the clean companies and that eating at McDonalds mean eating healthy and quality. Thus there should be deals and sitting areas designed for middle and rich class too so that a big customer base…
Brush, M., (2011), "McDonald's or Starbucks: Who wins?" Retrieved from:
Choi, C., (2013), "McDonald's Profit Falls Short of Wall Street Expectations', Retrieved from:
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…
Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.
Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
This study demonstrates that different total P. fraction releases may differ between two bodies of water under similar oxygen conditions (Kisand & Noges, 2003). This study is important in that it highlights the complexity of understanding P. fractions in any given body of water. There are a multitude of potential reactions in any body of water. Oxygen plays a role in the reactions of any individual lake, but one cannot make predictions based on oxygen level alone.
Shallow lakes differ from stratified lakes in many ways. A stratified lake typically reaches equilibria in such a manner that it becomes divided into regions. This is not the case with shallow lakes. With a shallow lake, the entire lake may change from clear water to macrophyte dominated to algae dominated, each phase has its own state of equilibrium (Dokulil & Teubner, 2003). Total chlorophyll to phosphorus ratios are different in these various…
Burger, D., Hamilton, D., Pilditch, C., & Gibbs (2007).Benthic nutrient fluxes in a eutrophic polymictic lake. Hydrobiologia. 584, 13-25.
Dokulil, M., & Teubner, K. (2003). Eutrophication and restoration of shallow lakes - the conceptof stable equilibria revisited. Hydrobiologia. 506-509, 29-35.
Farmer, J., Bailey-Watts, a., Kirika, a., and Scott, C. (2006).
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 4 (1): 45-56.
Strategic Management of Human esources
This paper acquaints the reader with the Human esource Management at the largest fast food brand in the World -- McDonald's. It describes the core HM practices which are currently in use at the company and discusses them in the light of modern International H Management practices. The paper also contains recommendations on how McDonald's can improve its H practices.
McDonald's is the World's largest fast food service retailer. Head quartered in Oak Brook, United States; it operates with almost 33,000 fully functioning fast food outlets in 119 countries. It was incorporated as a barbecue restaurant by ichard and Maurice McDonald in 1940. Initially, McDonald's was just offering beef burgers, drinks, and fries. In 1955, McDonald brothers sold it to aymond Albert Kroc who was a franchising agent at that time. ay Kroc took this business to the heights of success…
Anca, D.C., & Vazquez, A., 2007, Managing Diversity in the Global Organisation. New York: Palgrave: Macmillan
Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63
Bloom, M., C., & Milkovich, G., T., 1997, Re-thinking international compensation: From expatriate and national cultures to strategic flexibility. NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, pp. 1-2
Chain, P., H., 2000, What Real MNEs are doing in Managing Expatriate Assignments: Trends and Strategies, International Management, IS 6670, pp. 2-4
The level of the investment also isolated them more in the case of a failure. They paid attention to the wrong details. Disney acted on American views of Europe rather than on native views, which could identify the important cultural differences. It appeared that the managers were too confident in their success to research the small details about European cultures.
In planning Euro Disney there were not any contingency plans put into place. The attitude towards customer habits was very complacent. They assumed that there would be so many customers every day, each staying an average number of nights spending an average amount of money. In America this would have worked because there is already a well established theme park culture. The European market proved to be a lot more unpredictable.
Up until now, Disney's venture into China has been anything but magical. The Hong Kong theme park, which opened…
Balfour, Frederik. 2009. "Disney Shanghai: Good for China, Bad for Hong Kong." 28 June,
2010. Business Week. Web.
Liu, Ling Woo. 2009. "Disneyland in Shanghai: A Second Try in China." 28 June, 2010. Time.
Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell
ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…
1. Bellintani-guardia, B., & Ott, M. (2002). Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (chamaeleo calyptratus). Experimental Brain Research, 145(1), 56-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-002-1091-z
2. Ben Simon, G.,J., Hovda, D.A., Harris, N.G., Gomez-Pinilla, F., & Goldberg, R.A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1072-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.23.1072
3. Engelund, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Harrison, A., & Hannibal, J. (2010). Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 340(2), 243-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-0950-3
4. Henderson, D., & Miller, R.F. (2003). Evidence for low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents in the dendrites of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 20(2), 141-52. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198275379?accountid=458
Otto ank's conflict theory posits that the experience of birth is the root cause of all human anxiety. The state of being in the womb is theoretically blissful, and birth is a deeply traumatic experience (Wolverton, 2011). From this premise, ank suggests that several core conflicts characterize the human experience and can lead to neurosis. One conflict is between the life instinct and the death instinct. The life instinct encourages the person to be an independent, competent individual; whereas the death instinct stimulates interest and action in community and family (Boeree, 1998). A second core conflict, related to the first, is between the fear of death and the fear of life. Fear of death leads to dependency, codependency, unhealthy union, and a loss of self. Fear of life leads to isolation, separation, alienation, and too much individualization. esolving the central conflicts between life and death becomes the goal…
Boeree, C.G. (1998). Otto Rank. Retrieved online: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rank.html
Hallstrom, L. (1993). What's Eating Gilbert Grape.
"The Myth of the Birth of the Hero," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bsu.edu/classes/magrath/305f02/Rank1.html
Woolverton, F. (2011). Are we born into trauma? Psychology Today. Retrieved online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-trauma-addiction-connection/201109/are-we-born-trauma
Mr. Coach is a 51-year-old white male who was referred by a primary physician because of his elevated blood pressure during a routine screening. Mr. Coach has had a history of heart issues, including an abnormal heartbeat in 2012 for which he underwent a medical procedure. Although Mr. Coach does not smoke and he exercises regularly, he has a family history of hypertension and other risk factors that make it important to pay closer attention to dietary and lifestyle choices. For example, Mr. Coach's blood lipid tests reveal high cholesterol and high triglycerides. Mr. Coach does report being under pressure with his job and personal life and has been experiencing stress, which is also a risk factor. Mr. Coach's diet is far from ideal, and some dietary changes might help to reduce the client's risk factors for cardiovascular disease or metabolic syndrome. Mr. Coach has expressed interested in balancing his…
American Cancer Society (n.d.). Stomach cancer. Retrieved online: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/stomachcancer/detailedguide/stomach-cancer-prevention
Mallya, V. (2015). Everything you wanted to know about -- cholesterol, lipid profile, VLDL, HDL and triglycerides. Retrieved online: http://www.thehealthsite.com/diseases-conditions/common-queries-about-cholesterol-lipid-profile-vldl-hdl-triglycerides/
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2015). What is metabolic syndrome? Retrieved online: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms
Quaker Instant Oatmeal (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.quakeroats.com/products/hot-cereals/instant-oatmeal/variety-pack.aspx
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
There a number of techniques for performing multivariate analysis. These include factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The first of these, factor analysis, is used to determine "something about the nature of the independent variables that affect the dependent variables," without actually measuring the independent variables (Darlington, n.d.).
DeCoster (1998) notes that there are two types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. As DeCoster points out "Factor analyses are performed by examining the pattern of correlations (or covariances) between the observed measures. Measures that are highly correlated are likely influenced by the same factors."
An example in the real world is outlined by Goldberg (n.d.). In this example, an energy company wanted explanations for trends in customer energy usage. The study featured sixteen different factors ranging from bill services to cost/rates issues to type of house. This example is not very good, because…
Darlington, R. (no date). Factor analysis. Cornell University. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://www.psych.cornell.edu/Darlington/factor.htm
DeCoster, J. (1998). Overview of factor analysis. University of Alabama. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:fhT6X0seACcJ:www.stat-help.com/factor.pdf+factor+analysis&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjxn4JseiKhyt9yGulIOd2RnUxNCCDfycz842ZJmn_FeIysy-GyFA-mNphQfYAO14e-E1fEIKcbxiEiqV8L_-laeRwcg2CYXPdQHVOCA20zdn0vxqtrtPwynEquP3QAbKc1pPSC&sig=AHIEtbTgla9jm-AxXtFO7yUHs-Aj9Pf2rQ
Goldberg, R. (no date). Proc factor: How to interpret the output of a real world example. Guideline Research. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:LHXtU1yyTzwJ:www2.sas.com/proceedings/sugi22/STATS/PAPER268.PDF+factor+analysis+real+world+example&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjmRIib9hGiYYKUnI01mFaBNqV9ZF_zvBJGm8sJtZyC8g3w_arK3xdkC4G03CSGwFcMbqL5lcammE1-jjEqTfYZCVgEq0PTgyh8kSsy8sHGHP21J4kTl9ExF7lgRid8ljAueMsw&sig=AHIEtbRThDVofsMNMv8rs3i4F6kzdDO54Q
Young, F. (no date). Multidimensional scaling. University of North Carolina. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://forrest.psych.unc.edu/teaching/p208a/mds/mds.html
The capital requirements together with reserve policies were overhauled with the entry of new leadership and avenues of the company. Moreover, the company had to align compensation with long-term returns. The strategies, which were laid by the company after its revival was to settle the dividends of the purchasers, and pay debts, which had been accrued in payments (Stonehouse, 2004).
Porter's Five Force
The Porter's Five Forces have a great influence of the way McDonald's Company has been operating in the market. Literally, the company has embraced all the five figures making up the Porter's Five Forces. These are the forces, which influence the market as it happened to McDonald's Company. The company faced the threat of new entrants into the market. When the company was introduced, it dealt with different products, most of which were also being produced by some other companies. As such, the company had to shift…
Ahlstrom, D., & Bruton, G.D. (2010). International management: Strategy and culture in the emerging world. Australia: Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Facella, P., & Genn, a.M. (2009). Everything I know about business I learned at McDonald's:
The seven leadership principles that drive break out success. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gilbert, S. (2009). The story of McDonald's. Mankato, MN: Creative Education.
[hs130, section: ____ ]
Today, on the twentieth of August, I will take you on a trip inside the gastrointestinal tract, and beyond in the human body to observe the process of digestion and excretion. As simple as it may seem, this process is more than just moving down a hollow tube. To understand this more deeply, let's begin our journey!
EVIEW OF THE VIDEO TAPE:
Being reduced to eight microns in a hamburger holds the possibility of being chewed, grinded and dissolved in gastric acid. Even though I used special shield defenses, the slight possibility can still be a scary thought. Despite the risk, I felt motivated enough to allow myself to be amazed by the human body.
In about a moment, I was in the mouth of a 55-year-old man. Mixed with me, were fries, meat, lettuce, cheese, burgers and bear. Staying away from the teeth…
Barrett, K., Heddwen, B., Boitano, S., & Barman, S. (2010).Ganong's review of medical physiology. (23 ed., pp. 451-489). Philadelphia: McGraw Hill.
Hansen, J.T., Koeppen, B.M., & Netter, F.H. (2002). Netter's atlas of human physiology. (5th ed., p 246 -249) Teterboro, N.J: Icon Learning Systems.
Kumar, V., Abbas, A., & Fausto, N. (2010) Robbins Basic Pathology. (8th ed., p 25-60) Philadelphia: Saunders.
Leonard, R., & Kendall, K. (2008). Dynamic swallow studies: Measurement techniques. (2 ed., pp. 292-294). San Diego: Plural Publishing.
McDonalds also places strong emphasis on marketing to children, including the use of playgrounds in its restaurants. As a result, McDonalds is able to maintain some pricing power over its customers and to attract customers to its restaurants despite strong competition from a wide number of sources.
Issues and Challenges: McDonald's operates in a number of mature markets, where growth is slow. Growth is now focused not only on overseas markets but for the most part on less desirable overseas markets, the China and India excepted. This has slowed the pace of growth for the company in recent years. Another challenge has been the economic downturn that saw many customers reduce their meals away from home. The result of these two challenges has been that McDonald's saw a reduction in its revenue in fiscal 2009 (MSN Moneycentral, 2010).
The childhood obesity issue is the latest in a string of challenges…
Allen, N. (2010). McDonalds Happy Meals with toys banned to fight childhood obesity. The Telegraph. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/7647021/McDonalds-Happy-Meals-with-toys-banned-to-fight-childhood-obesity.html
CBC. (1990) Muscovites mad for McDonald's. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from http://archives.cbc.ca/economy_business/business/clips/12844/
Chatterjee, S. (2009). McDonald's offers potato burger with fries, no onions in India. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aS3rBACqZf7Q
Holguin, J. (2003). Fast food linked to obesity. CBS News. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/05/health/main591325.shtml
However, the expatriate has the net advantage of significantly superior product knowledge and control, even if the costs of maintaining him are also higher. Foremost, the expatriate must be able to travel from the host country to the home country in order to conduct face-to-face meetings with his superiors and inform them of the progresses made. Traveling however consumes time and energy and the employee could become tired and unfocused. The need for a strong mind with high motivation and concentration skills becomes as such obvious (Honeycutt, Ford and Simintiras). Also, there is a strong need for the individual to be extremely well adjusted and capable to integrate within the new community. This is most important when "historically, multinational firms have been plagued by the problem of premature return of expatriate managers due to their inability to adapt to the culture of the host country" (Katz and Seifer, 1996). A…
Befus, D.R., Mescon, T.S., Mescon, D.L., Vozikis, G.S., 1988, International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 26
Hess, M.B., Linderman, P., 2002, Expert Expatriate: Your Guide to Successful Relocation Abroad: Moving, Living, Thriving, Intercultural Press
Hsieh, T.Y., Lavoie, J., Samek, R.A.P., 1999, Are You Taking Your Expatriate Talent Seriously? The McKinsey Quarterly
Honeycutt, E.D., Ford, J.B., Simintiras, a., 2003, Sales Management - a Global Perspective, Routledge
Break a Bad Habit
Forming a bad habit can be one of the most problematic things a person can do it their lives. A bad habit can be time consuming, costly, bad for you, and even embarrassing. There are all kinds of habits that can be considered bad; biting your nails, smoking, procrastination, overspending, gossiping, and lacking punctuality to name a few. Any one of these things can be considered socially unacceptable in many cases and in some cases can even cost people their jobs. This paper will examine the complex process known as a "habit." It will provide information about how to identify one, why they are bad for you, and what can be done about it.
There are many ways to identify the ways that bad habits form. If you are a scientist, you might look at the actual brain processes. Research by Assistant Professor Kyle Smith, who…
Phil, D. "Bad Habits and Your World." N.d. Dr. Phil. Online. 6 December 2013.
Platt, B. "Scientist Identify an Off Switch for Bad Habits." 5 August 2013. Dartmouth Now. Online. 5 December 2013.
Smith, J. "14 Bad Habits That Could Cost You Your Job." 15 October 2013. Forbes. Online. 6 December 2013.
Young, S. "Tips for Breaking Bad Habits and Developing Good Habits." 16 October 2007. Pick the Brain. Online. 5 December 2013.
Employees and business management personal are taught business ethics as a fundamental guideline. It is tasked with assigning a particular meaning and role to business on the whole. Taking ethical decisions entails keeping certain aspects in mind. Written below is a brief argument on the points regarding ethics and a scenario is setup where business ethics are employed.
In layman words, business ethics entails working within reasonable means in a financial environment. Some particular aspects are required to achieve that (Brusseau). The decisions are guided by principles, comprehending the facts, making a valid argument and lastly ethics basically entails discerning between right and wrong (Brusseau). The overall result is secondary to the process at hand. The end result consists of constructing and making valid arguments. Hence, business ethics isn't really brainwashing. It's just fine tuning. The conclusions are formed from transparent values, confirmed facts and viable arguments (Brusseau).
Brusseau, J. (2011). Business Ethics Workshop (1st ed.). Flat World Knowledge. (Course Book)
Archibald, A. (2007, December 30). Employees' Responsibilities In Business Ethics. Retrieved January 9, 2014, from