Comparative Study on Two Political Systems in the World Term Paper

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political systems of the United States of America and the Arab Republic of Egypt.

The United States of America it a constitution-based federal republic with a strong democratic tradition (United pp). Under the constitution the government operates through three branches of government, the executive branch, legislative, branch and the judicial branch (United pp). The Executive branch consists of the president who serves as both the chief of state and the head of government (United pp). The president and vice president, who serve a four-year term, not to exceed two terms, are elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each of the fifty states (United pp). A cabinet of advisors are appointed by the president with Senate approval (United pp).

The legislative branch is made up of a bicameral Congress which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives (United pp). The Senate consists of one hundred seats, two representatives elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms, with one-third renewed every two years (United pp). The House of Representatives consists of four hundred and thirty-five seats, whose members are directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms (United pp).

The Judicial branches consists of the Supreme Court whose nine justices are appointed by the president with confirmation by the Senate for life on condition of good behavior, the United States Courts of Appeal who hear cases of conflict from lower courts, the United States District Courts that preside over regional districts, and the local State and County Courts within each fifty states (United pp).

The main political parties are the Democratic Party, the Republican Party, the Green Party, the Independent Party and the Libertarian Party (United pp). The constitution provided for a separation of state and government, therefore there is no government religion in the United States, although the majority of the population adheres to Christian doctrine however, because the U.S. is a country founded on basically on immigration, the landscape is comprised of many religions and many cultures (United pp). The U.S. has welcomed some fifty million immigrants, more than any other country, and admits approximately 700,000 persons per year (Portrait pp).

Egypt has known the political organization since its early civilizations, and is a living translation of a rich heritage that has evolved through history (Political pp). From 1923 to 1952, Egypt was a constitutional monarchy, then military officers seized control of the government and it became a republic in 1953, however, it essentially remained a military dictatorship dominated by a single political party until 1978 when a multiparty political system was instituted (Egypt pp). Egypt's constitution, which was approved by a national referendum in 1971, provides for an Arab socialist state with Islam as the official religion, and stresses social solidarity, equal opportunity, and popular control of production (Egypt pp). The presidency holds the concentration of political power, and since 1952, its presidents have come from the military ranks, which hold much authority over the government (Egypt pp). Much like the United States, the orientation and policies of Egypt's government shift considerably with each presidency (Egypt pp).

On September 11, 1971, the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was issued and amended on May 22, 1980 to provide for Egypt's political system and define the public authorities (Political pp). This system is based on a multi-party system that operates within the framework of the fundamental elements of the Egyptian society (Political pp). Much like the United States, the public political participation is achieved through the political parties on all levels and in all domains within the bounds of the legal constitution (Political pp). Moreover, much as in the United States, Egypt enjoys freedom of the press and the media has evolved as a popular monitoring authority (Political pp).

The Egyptian constitution defines the country as "an Arab Republic with a democratic, socialist system" with the political power divided into four parts, president, cabinet, legislature, and court system, however, the actual power rests with the president (Situation pp).

Egypt's government, as the United States, is divided into administrative units, the legislative, the executive, and the judicial authorities (Political pp). The president of the republic, who may serve unlimited consecutive terms, is the head of state and is nominated by the…[continue]

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