Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Vincent Hutchings -- acial Coding in American Politics
What are three key points discussed by the scholar?
The three key points that were discussed include: race continues to play an important role in political perceptions; to avoid negative stereo types requires showing a particular demographic in a positive light and most people are more racially tolerant but have negative perceptions at the same time. As a result, political candidates are subtle in the messages they are sending. This will not generate a backlash from the voters. ("Vincent Hutchings," 2013)
How do these key points relate to the chapters assigned so far in the term? Give two concrete example.
These points are illustrating how racial relations have changed since the 1960s. Now anyone who is running for office must reach out to different demographics through subtle messages. This is achieved by showing the way they are embracing these new…
Trayvon Martin Protests. (2012). Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/10/trayvon-martin-protest-la_n_1415208.html
Fox, F. (n.d.). Poor People's Movement. NY Polisci. Retrieved from: http://nypolisci.org/files/PDF%20FILES/ChapterIX_%207_Movements%20and%20the%20Structuring%20of%20Protest.pdf
Vincent Hutchings. (2013). You Tube. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xabaQqAjg4o
The prevailing culture has its greatest effect in terms of the form of government accepted by the people. The American system of government was shaped to be different from the parliamentary system prevalent in England and in other countries of Europe. The most dominant form of government in Europe today is some form of parliamentary government with a prime minister generally chosen from the political party with the largest number of seats. Some countries have a president who participates in the selection, while others have the prime minister as the head of the government. Some European countries still have a monarchy, though this is largely relegated today to the position of head of state rather than head of the government, meaning that the monarch is a symbol of the unity of the nation and serves a ceremonial function without participating directly in the promulgation or passage of laws. In country…
Basehart, Harry, and John Comer. "Partisan and Incumbent Effects in State Legislative Redistricting." Legislative Studies Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1991): 65-79.
Berry, William D., Michael B. Berkman, and Stuart Schneiderman. "Legislative Professionalism and Incumbent Reelection: The Development of Institutional Boundaries." American Political Science Review 94, no. 4 (2000): 859-874.
Bowen, John and John Richard. Critical Comparisons in Politics and Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1999.
Chase, Oscar G. "Some Observations on the Cultural Dimension in Civil Procedure Reform." The American Journal of Comparative Law 45, no. 4, Symposium: Civil Procedure Reform in Comparative Context (1997): 861-870.
Inequality, Voting and American Democracy. The American political system has always prevented electoral participation by certain social groups, especially those with the fewest resources. The obstacles to participation have changed over time and today formal barriers to participation have largely disappeared. Nevertheless, voting turnout has declined over the twentieth century, and the poor and less educated continue to vote at a lower rate than those who are wealthier and better educated. Discuss:
Past and Present Barriers to Electoral Participation. In reality, virtually every society has some type of framework in place to ensure that some people are "more equal" than others, even if these conventions are not codified in the nation's laws. The United States is no exception, although to the extent that such practices exist in this country is the extent to which the 14th Amendment is abrogated. Nevertheless, history has shown time and again that those…
Bickel, Alexander M. The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court at the Bar of Politics. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962.
Gross, Leonard and Norman Vieira. Supreme Court Appointments: Judge Bork and the Politicization of Senate Confirmations. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1998.
Smolla, Rodney A. A Year in the Life of the Supreme Court. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.
Stack, Kevin M. (1996). "The Practice of Dissent in the Supreme Court." Yale Law Journal 105(8):2235-59.
Political Science - Immigration
There are a number of important political and social issues facing the United States in this year of presidential politics, and immigration is among those key issues. Getting a driver's license is one particularly controversial issue relating to illegal immigrants. A Sacramento Bee story (Sanders, 2012) explains that legislation in California sponsored by Democrat Assemblyman Gil Cedillo will allow certain undocumented immigrants in the state to obtain driver's licenses. "It's important to all Californians that we have motorists who are licensed, tested and insured," Cedillo explains.
He went on to say that those immigrants who qualify for a driver's license "…are people who are going to be contributing to our economy by seeking work, or pursuing educational goals" (Sanders, p. 2). In other words, if illegal immigrants -- who wish one day to achieve citizenship but are not yet citizens -- wish to work, or are…
Los Angeles Times. (2012). Giving driver's licenses to illegal immigrants: is Jerry Brown right?
Retrieved October 17, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Malcolm, Andrew. (2012). Gov. Jerry Brown OKs legal driver licenses for young illegals;
Denver debate fodder? Investor's Business Daily. Retrieved October 17, 2012, from http://www.investors.com.
Those voices and protests helped force the democratic regime to respond. ut there has been no "profound process of 'democratic deepening' to be detected," Wolff explains. The main obstacles that prevent a stronger impact on the part of the piquetero movement are one, only the piquetero leaders actually participate in government legislative dynamics; and two, the social "category" of the piquetero ("unemployed workers") does not reflect what Wolff calls "a viable social cleavage on which to build distinct political organizations."
Further evidence of the challenges and obstacles faced by the unemployed workers' movement (piquetero) - in attempting to legitimize their demands and force the national government to create more jobs - is explained on pages 175-176 in John Peeler's text uilding Democracy in Latin America. For one thing, in Argentine the political power (for the most part) over the past fifty years or more has been in the hands of…
Bonner, Michelle D. 2005, 'Defining rights in democratization: the Argentine government and human rights organizations, 1983-2003', Latin American Politics and Society, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 55-77.
Gelineau, Francois and Remmer, Karen L. 2006, 'Political decentralization and electoral accountability: the Argentine experience, 1983-2001, British Journal of Political Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 133-158.
Llamazares, Ivan 2005, 'Patterns in Contingencies: the interlocking of formal and informal political institutions in contemporary Argentina', Social Forces, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 1671-1696.
Peeler, John 1998. Building Democracy in Latin America. Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner.
The Republican Party triumphed a majority in both houses of the Congress in the fall of 1994. This was the first time since the 1952 landslide of Eisenhower. It was believed by many that the Republicans had achieved the partisan realignment in the end. It also came to be believed that the prophesied Republican majority by Kevin Phillips in the late 1960s had come to reality.
The Republicans under the leadership of Newt Gingrich and Rush Limbaugh brought three disparate groups on one platform, namely:
The Entrepreneurial Republicans
These were the ones that celebrated the free enterprise system and sought reduction, even elimination of taxes and government regulations.
The Evangelical Republicans
The Evangelical Republicans perceived a shocking social decay and hunger around them for the return of a moral community made its basis on Christian certitude.
The Eurocentric Republicans
This segment of the Republicans feared cultural relativism in…
Fraser, Steve and Gerstle, Gary. The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 1930- 1980.
Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1989.
Hartz, Louis. Liberal Tradition in America. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. 1955.
Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition. New York: Knopf. 1948
This should not have been the view that the nation held especially in light of the 1993 attack on the orld Trade Towers, the attacks on the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia in 1996 and the 2000 attack on the U.S.S. Cole in Yemen. Each of the attacks had not only killed Americans but should have signaled to the country the woeful lack of ability the nation possessed with respect to identifying potential threats and protecting against them. But the U.S. had not taken the warnings that had been so violently given them by the '93 orld Trade Tower bombings, Khobar and Cole incidents but had failed to understand that the enemy that it was fighting wanted to kill as many civilians as possible and would use any means possible. The United States simply could not see that to this new enemy, it was not enough to simply hurt the…
Dionne, Jr. E.J., Why Americans Hate Politics. New York: Touchstone, 1992.
Hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee on U.S. Intelligence." U.S. Department of Defense Speeches 17 Aug.
Johnston, Robert K. "The Myth of the American Superhero." Christianity and Literature 53.3 (2004): 419+. Questia. 19 Mar. 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
The continued existence and development of these disparities have made a mockery of international institutions as they have failed to assist the developing nations to implementing their national goals and interests. One does not need to elaborate on this subject as the mechanism of the international institutions are common knowledge to all those even remotely associated with this subject. Therefore, a new approach to inter-state and inter-regional cooperation, coordination and collaboration is necessary in order to resolve the existing problems; an approach, which does not make the sphere of public ends at its national borders, but rather, an approach, which distinguishes and crafts an effective regional political and socioeconomic system that not only helps the governments solve their problems, but also has the trickle down effect to the masses. As Isabelle Grunberg, Inge Kaul and Marc a. Stern (1999) assert, "A clear jurisdictional loop, reaching from the national…
Boyer, Robert, and Daniel Drache, eds. States against Markets: The Limits of Globalization. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.
Frieden, Jeff and Martin, Lisa. International Political Economy: The state of the sub-discipline. Department of Government, Harvard University, 2000.
Fearon, James D. Bargaining, Enforcement, and International Cooperation. International Organization 52 (2): 269-305, 1998.
Grunberg, Isabelle; Inge Kaul and Marc Stern. Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century. Oxford University Press. New York. 1999.
In the case of Europe this would necessarily take the form of energy sources that are not based on the use of petroleum. In many member states, such plans are already well underway. France obtains much of its electricity from nuclear power, while there are extensive wind farms in places such as the Netherlands. The European Union is determined to use its influence both to set an example to other nations and to induce or compel other nations to take steps of their own. One need only look at the fight over the Kyoto Accords to see the effects of the struggle, and the obstacles faced by the federation.
While the European Union may act in a primarily peaceful fashion when it comes to environmental issues, the same cannot be said of other options available to it and member states. Europe has not yet established its own military force, though…
http://currychutney.blogspot.com/2007/11/global-economic-power-shift.html . http://www.itwales.com/998951.htm.
Kimball, R. (2003, Winter). Political Correctness or, the Perils of Benevolence. The National Interest 158+.
With the lessening rank of ideological moderates, the potential of bipartisan cooperation and compromise lessen. Today the two parties disagree with each other more frequently and more vigorously and forcefully than before. Party-based disagreements, policy stagnation, and paralysis stimulated by party rivalry seem to have become the norm instead of the exception (Ono, 2005).
It appears that no one in Washington can get anything accomplished because of the political game playing that goes on. Everyone is so busy making everything a political issue that they can't seen how their lack of co-operation is truly hurting America. It seems that no one really wants to step up and lead. Everyone just wants to follow what others around them are doing. The farther apart that the two political parties get in their thinking the less that will ever be accomplished. Their main concerns should be the economy and the people of this…
Checks and Balances. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0777009.html
Constitution of the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.senate.gov/civics/constitution_item/constitution.htm
Government in America. (2010). Retrieved from http://wps.ablongman.com/long_edwards_ga_12/33/8516/2180304.cw/index.html
Ono, K. (2005). Electoral Origins of Partisan Polarization in Congress: Debunking the Myth. Retrieved from http://www.ou.edu/special/albertctr/extensions/fall2005/Ono.pdf
Politics can very well be defined as the study of who gets what, when and how? The principal reason for such a definition is that politics conflicts between the demands for certain satisfaction and this conflict contributes to the major characteristic of every society. No society can meet all the people's wants, needs and desires. Resources cannot be distributed in accordance with the relatives bargaining power of its members. Someone or some group must be in a position to guide or explain as to what should be done and how. Thus, many problems whether they are social or economic must be settled politically or by the authoritative decision making process of society. Now the problem which arise here is that, questions of rights and obligations, which will handle a problem politically come in the way when a decision is to be made.
oodrow ilson thought that democracy was…
Friedrich A.H. The Road To Serfdom. The University Of Chicago Press. 1976.
Edmund B. Reflections On The Revolution in France. Hackett. 1987.
Alexander D.L. The Modern Democratic State. Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Louis H. The Liberal Tradition in America. 1955.
The winning side got what it wanted, in part - the continued legality of abortion - but it did not achieve a wider victor in the abortion war. Abortion's opponents were still represented by the dissenting justices. They too, used stare decisis in their opinion, but in a quite opposite fashion, laying open another path to those who might still hope to have abortion removed as a legitimate constitutional right.
Indeed, Justices Rehnquist and Scalia attacked the very basis of the plurality's opinion. Rehnquist wrote that, "any theory on the proper scope of stare decisis in constitutional adjudication is bound to be indeterminate," a principle that, followed to its logical conclusion meant that, "virtually any overruling can be attacked or defended on the basis of the [chosen] criteria."
Rehnquist et al. believed that Roe had been wrongly decided in the first place, and should be overruled. Planned Parenthood v. Casey…
Dunn, Pintip Hompluem. "How Judges Overrule: Speech Act Theory and the Doctrine of Stare Decisis." Yale Law Journal 113.2 (2003): 493+.
Peters, Christopher J. "Foolish Consistency: On Equality, Integrity, and Justice in Stare Decisis." Yale Law Journal 105.8 (1996): 2031-2115. http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367432' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Find a real life example of a small state in the global South that bargained with a great power about an issue where your interests diverged. Briefly describe the outcome. Imagine you are the leader of this poor state. hat leverage and strategies could you bring into play to improve the outcome for your state?
On January 1, 2008 "the last tariffs on corn, beans, sugar and milk were lifted under the North American Free Trade Agreement, completing a 14-year transition to an open market between Mexico, the United States and Canada"(McKinley 2008). However, many Mexican farmers of these products agree with the sentiments of one small Mexican farmer: "e cannot compete against this monster, the United States...It's not worth the trouble to plant. e don't have the subsidies. e don't have the machinery," and say that the high prices of fuel and fertilizer make it impossible to make a…
Moore, Samuel & Q. Mizher. "U.S. Says it Accidentally Killed 9 Iraqi
Civilians." 4 Feb 2008. The New York Times. 4 Feb 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/04/world/middleeast/04iraq.html?ref=world
McKinley, James. "Mexican Farmers Protest End of Corn-Import Taxes." The New York Times. 1 Feb 2008. 4 Feb 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/01/world/americas/01mexico.html?ref=americas
In addition, the critical approach requires both knowledge and reflection to come to an understanding of the interest group and its needs. Thus, the critical theory can provide a more balanced view of interest groups and what they really want. For example, in the pluralist theory, a major drug company winning Congressional support for its policies may be seen as representing the needs of all drug companies, and thus representing the needs of the people served by that drug company, and assume the competition was not as valuable or representative. However, the critical view would look at what the drug company really wants by altering policies, and if the decisions will enhance service and research, or really only enhance the company and its value to shareholders.
After looking at the two different theories of interest groups, it seems, as interest groups have grown increasingly powerful, that the critical approach is…
Golden, Marissa Martino. "Interest Groups in the Rule-Making Process: Who Participates? Whose Voices Get Heard?" Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 8.2 (1998): 245+.
Petracca, Mark R., ed. The Politics of Interests: Interest Groups Transformed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.
Rust, Michael. "Disparate Interest Groups Vie for Hearts of the Elderly." Insight on the News 27 Nov. 1995: 11+.
Seidenfeld, Mark. "Empowering Stakeholders; Limits on Collaboration as the Basis for Flexible Regulation." William and Mary Law Review 41.2 (2000): 411.
The blame game began almost immediately, and President Bush, together with many among the American people, looked for scapegoats. Iraq - a Muslim nation weakened by war and economic sanctions - would prove an easy target of American wrath in this new era of suspicion and fear. The belief had arisen that, if the rules governing intelligence had been different, 9/11 might have been prevented. A frequent target of attack was "the wall" that supposedly existed between domestic and foreign surveillance operations. In the opinion of the 9/11 Commission, there had evolved the,
Exaggerated belief that the FBI could not share any intelligence information with criminal investigators, even if no FISA procedures had been used. Thus, relevant information from the National Security Agency and the CIA often failed to make its way to criminal investigators. 13
In other words, information that had been available to domestic investigative agencies, like the…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000351083' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
He believed that in the end all people were good and that everyone is capable of finding that good. Justice to him was more of an internal process as opposed to be an outwardly showing one. Based upon his definition and viewpoint every person is responsible for determining what is right and what is wrong and acting appropriately. He thought that justice was an internal process that each person had control of in their lives.
3. What are collective-action problems? What does it mean to be a free rider? Why does the free market often under-produce public goods? What are the implications of this problem for the theory of the "invisible hand"? Define each of these terms, and give examples.
A collective action problem is any situation that when there are uncoordinated actions that may not result in the best outcome that can be achieved. An example is that of…
Collective Action Problem. (2009). Retrieved December 10, 2009, from Answers.com Web site:
Congressional Committees. (2009). Retrieved December 10, 2009, from Open Secrets.org Web
Political Science war in Iraq would be dangerous at best, disastrous at worst. It will embolden the terrorist cause and encourage further attacks against the United States and its allies. Support for al-Qaida and other terrorist networks will increase, as anti-American sentiment will grow exponentially. A war in Iraq will exacerbate tensions in the Middle East, a region already ripe with political strife. The use of military might to overthrow Saddam Hussein will confirm the negative image many people have about the United States and may stimulate further grassroots movements to undermine American interests. War in Iraq will also verify the accusation that America's main concern is control of oil reserves in the region. An overthrow of the Iraqi government amounts to a selfish, ill-advised political and military move. Moreover, tens of thousands of civilians stand to be killed in what would doubtlessly become a total war. American troops would…
The USA Patriot Act
Congress passed the U.S.A. PATIOT Act in response to the terrorists' attacks of September 11, 2001. The Act gives federal officials larger authority to follow and seize communications, both for law enforcement and foreign intelligence gathering reasons. It gives the Secretary of the Treasury with regulatory powers to fight corruption of U.S. financial institutions for foreign money laundering reasons. It seeks to further shut the countries borders to foreign terrorists and to restrain and remove those that are within the borders. It fashions new crimes, new penalties, and new procedural efficiencies for use in opposition to domestic and international terrorists. Even though it is not without safeguards, critics challenge some of its provisions go too far. Although it allows a lot of the enhancements sought by the Department of Justice, others are worried that it does not go far enough (Doyle, 2002).
Abramson, L. & Godoy, M. (2066). The Patriot Act: Key Controversies. Retreived from http://www.npr.org/news/specials/patriotact/patriotactprovisions.html
Doyle, C. (2002). The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act: A Sketch. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21203.pdf
Reform the Patriot Act. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/reform-patriot-act
The USA PATRIOT Act: Preserving Life and Liberty. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/highlights.htm
Analysis of "Regime type, strategic interaction and the diversionary use of force" by Ross a. Miller
In the journal article of Ross Miller entitled, "Regime type, strategic interaction and the diversionary use of force," the author illustrated, through a comparative analysis of two regime types, how diversionary theory takes place under a democratic and autocratic leadership. he broader or general theory utilized in the study is diversionary theory, which posits that leaders tend to engage in international conflict or war when presented with possible conflicts domestically or in the leader's home country. hus, Miller attempts to analyze the existence or absence, as well as nature and effect of diversionary theory when applied in the context of democratic and autocratic governance.
In analyzing the nature and effects of diversionary theory to both democracy and autocracy, two hypotheses are explored by the author's study. he first hypothesis stated that "democratic…
The basic dependent variable used in the study is force, measured by assigning codes that enabled Miller to quantitatively assess the results of the study. A code of 0 is given when "the dispute participant either did nothing or threatened or displayed force,"; 1 is given when "minor levels of military force were used"; and 2 is coded when the "use of force resulted in at least 1,000 battle deaths." Given these measures, Miller also specifically identified incidences of domestic conflict and violence within the regime, and the indicators used are changes in economic growth rates, levels of rebellion, and levels of protest.
Independent variables used in the study include bullying strategies used by nations experiencing domestic conflict; identification of the initiator or target as a revisionist state or not; and lastly, the relative power of the dispute participants. The first control or independent variable was determined by analyzing initiator or target behavior, while the second independent variable was identified by eliciting a hostile response upon employment of the bullying strategy. The last independent variable is based on the number of troops, military expenditures, and military expenditures per soldier of the country or regime.
The primary unit of analysis of the study is the MID, or militarized interstate dispute. The MID is a data set that contains a collection of information about conflicts among states between the years 1816 and 1992.
The United States Congress is the U.S. Government's Legislative Branch and is responsible for passing laws that affect Americans. Interest groups such as the U.S. movie industry try to influence Congress to pass laws that will be the best for their industry. In order to influence Congress, special interest groups use lobbyists to deal directly with Congressmen and persuade them. At the same time, other interest groups have lobbyists trying to convince Congressmen to do the opposite. The interest groups push and pull Congressmen and sometimes one interest group gets enough influence in Congress to get laws passed. The President, who is the head of the Executive Branch of United States government, is also watching the situation. If the President does not like the law about to be passed, he will speak out about it, to influence the public and Congressmen. The article "hite House airs objections to…
Verrier, R. (2012, January 14). White House airs objections to SOPA, PIPA anti-piracy bills. Retrieved on January 16, 2012 from Los Angeles Times Web site: http://latimesblogs.latimes.com /entertainmentnewsbuzz/2012/01/white-house-sopa-pipa.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Supreme Court Justices
There are currently nine Supreme Court Justices on the Supreme Court of the United States. Clearly, the Supreme Court shows a definite conservative tendency, with seven of the nine justices appointed by epublican Presidents, and only two appointed by Democratic Presidents ("Justices").
The Chief Justice of the Court is William H. ehnquist, who has served on the Court since 1972, and has been the Chief Justice since 1986. He was nominated to the court by President ichard Nixon, and nominated for Chief Justice by President onald eagan. He is a conservative in almost all matters facing the Court (Shapiro 153).
John Paul Stevens is an Associate Justice on the Court. He has served on the Court since 1975, and was nominated by President Gerald Ford as an Associate Justice. Sandra Day O' Connor is also an Associate Justice on the Court. She has served since…
Author not Available. "The Justices of the Supreme Court." SupremeCourt.us.gov. 2004. 14 April 2004. http://www.supremecourtus.gov/about/biographiescurrent.pdf
O'Malley, Michael. "An Outline of the Anita Hill and Clarence Thomas Controversy." George Mason University. 2004. 14 April 2004. http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/hill/hillframe.htm
Shapiro, Martin. "Chief Justice Rehnquist and the Future of the Supreme Court." An Essential Safeguard: Essays on the United States Supreme Court and Its Justices. Eds. Stephenson, D. Grier, and Paul L. Murphy. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. 145-162.
The urpose of a olitical Court
In the view of Henry J. Abraham (Abraham 1998, 55), "theoretically," just about any qualified law school graduate with ambitions for an important judicial appointment would appear to have a fair chance at being nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court. That is providing, of course, the candidate is politically "available" and is, in Abraham's words, "acceptable to the executive, legislative, and private forces that, in the order enumerated, constitute the powers-that-be underlying the paths of selection, nomination, and appointment in the judicial process." key phrase in Abraham's criteria is "acceptable to the...legislative" body; as has been witnessed in the past few days and weeks, some of the conservative judicial nominees - not for the High Court but put forward by resident George W. Bush for federal appeals courts slots - have not been "acceptable" to a sufficient number of U.S.…
Peter W. Sperlich. "...And then there were six: the decline of the American Jury," in Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature, ed. Elliot E. Slotnick (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1992), 244.
Michael C. Munger, "Comment on Ferejohn's 'Judicializing Politics, Politicizing Law'," Law and Contemporary Problems 65 (Summer 2002): 87.
Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action (New York: Random House, 1995), 488.
Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.
Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.
Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.
Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.
Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.
Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
An early draft of the Constitution initially did not permit Congress to rule on the issue of slavery at all, but later versions gave Congress the ability to ban or regulate the practice after 1808.
There was also the issue of the Presidency. The Congress created the idea of the Electoral College as a way to help elect the President in a country where communication was still difficult at best. It took nearly four months to agree on the College, and only then, could the term, the powers, and the re-election of the President be discussed and agreed on.
There were also issues regarding the powers of Congress, and how much power the states would retain. The Committee of Detail created the division of powers between the federal and state governments, as well as the separation of power between the President, the Congress, and the Courts. This was vital to…
Lloyd, Gordon. "Introduction to the Constitutional Convention." Teaching American History.org. 2006. 6 Dec. 2006. http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/intro.html
Eddlem, Thomas R. "Sherman's Great Compromise: Roger Sherman's Brilliant Proposal Saved the 1787 Constitutional Convention from a Hopeless Deadlock and Safeguarded against Centralization of Power at the Federal Level." The New American 28 June 2004: 37+.
Jillson, Calvin C. Constitution Making Conflict and Consensus in the Federal Convention of 1787. New York: Agathon Press, 1988.
Potter, Lee Ann. "Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention." Social Education 69.5 (2005): 232+.
There are several patterns and outcomes that are fairly common in the realm of political science. Similarly, there are some subjects and points of study that are more common than others. Just a few that come to mind include the ethics of congressional staff, whether third party candidates could or should be a viable option and the demarcation that could or should exist between federal and state authority. For each of these three major examples, there will be an example given of such a thing and an analysis of the overall paradigm and question. While there are some ideas and concepts that make a lot of sense to the common voter, the people in Washington seem to be less than inclined to listen.
One member of Congress that has been accused of ethics violations would be Charles Rangel, the former Democrat member of the House of Representatives. It…
There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City
Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
The company has many different levels of organization, and oversees the lives of the people it employs, in that they spend most of their lives there, and receive a wage in return. They are supposed to be loyal to the company, and stand behind it in times of stress. The company supports others in the community, as well, in the form of taxes, bribes, and workers spending their income in businesses throughout the community. Thus, the company is a political institution with community influence, and the power that goes along with that influence. Political institutions all have several items in common, from group membership to support and influence in the community, as well as representing a large aspect of that community, and the packinghouses all meet these requirements.
Finally, the theme of Socialism that the author weaves through the book is representative of politics and political institutions the world over,…
Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1906.
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…
Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press
Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.
New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
This new law became part of California's Education Code in August, just before the beginning of the 1998-99 academic years. Since this time there has been no empirical evidence indicating there has been any benefit to language minority students from passage of Proposition 227 (Mora, 2002).
The political battle over bilingual education has only served to confuse the academic issues that are involved in educating language minority children. In California 25% of the total student population is made up of students classified as limited English proficient, or English language learners (ELL). A full 37% of the state's K-12 students speak a language other than English as their native language. Only 8% of the teaching force holds a bilingual (BCLAD) credential, however. Not all teachers that are teaching in classrooms with language minority students have the proper credentials. "In fact, 30% of teachers of limited English proficient students are not credentialed…
Mora, Jill K. (2002). Proposition 227's Second Anniversary: Triumph or Travesty? Retrieved
April 29, 2009, from Web site:
Proposition 227:English Language in Public Schools. (1998). Retrieved April 29, 2009, from Smart Voter Web site: http://www.smartvoter.org/1998jun/ca/state/prop/227/
There was once a time when Greeks, for example, prided themselves over their national identity which was obviously based on the piece of land that Greeks occupied. However with the passage of time, this piece of land is losing its significance. Land is still important for other reasons but it is no longer the factor that sets one group of people apart from another. This is an interesting development and one that explains why geography is gradually becoming history.
Everywhere nation-states are dying and this death has contributed to rapid decline in the significance of geographical demarcations. We can blame the information age as well as globalization for this change. But according to civilization theories postulated by Huntington, this change is grounded in religious and cultural differences/similarities. West is now better known for its identity as westerns rather than as North Americans or Europeans. This is due to the fact…
Samuel Huntington: Clash of Civilizations. Retrieved online 6th June 2006 at http://www.alamut.com/subj/economics/misc/clash.html
Economists can demonstrate how, in the aggregate, consumers and industry benefit from free trade. In the process of creative destruction, however, some industries and workers are displaced by the changes wrought by free trade.
The measurement of benefit in the case of Volkswagen continues to reverberate today, after over 25 years. When VW entered the Chinese market, it did so over the objections of its local labour unions and politicians. Part of the objection came because the State of Lower Saxony controlled 20% of the shares, and the government was concerned about the loss of jobs in its domestic sector. The managers of VW saw it differently: by creating a successful and growing subsidiary in China, the reasoning went, the company could increase its generated cash and derive strategic benefits from finding a lower-cost supplier of parts.
There were, however, forces to overcome:
Unions threatened to strike in Germany unless…
Chase, S. (1947). A Generation of Industrial Peace: Thirty Years of Labor Relations at Standard Oil Company. New York: Standard Oil Company.
Chunli, L. a. (2003). The Chinese Automobile Industry and the Strategic Alliances of China, Japan, the U.S.'s Firms. Cambridge: MIT International Motor Vehicle Program.
Dubois, C.P.-D. (2007). Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 953-960.
Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.
What will that lead to in future politicians? Will they conduct their entire campaigns online, with no need to reach out to real people on the campaign trail? That remains to be seen, but the technology of the Internet, and all it implies, is changing how we view political news and reporting, and it certainly could change the face of actual campaigns in the future, and that has implications for our society in general. Change is not always bad, and it can bring about necessary reform and legislation, and it is quite clear blogging is bringing about great change in how we get our political information. How that affects our society and us in the future remains to be seen, but it is certain that blogging, political campaigns, and the importance of valid information will all continue to be issues in the future.
How can candidates use blogs effectively in…
Cornfield, Michael. "Buzz, Blogs, and Beyond: The Internet and the National Discourse in the Fall of 2004." Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2005. 17 Oct. 2007. http://www.nielsenbuzzmetrics.com/files/uploaded/whitepapers/BMwp_BZMPew_BlogsBuzzBynd.pdf
Froomkin, a. Michael. "Chapter 1 Technologies for Democracy." Democracy Online: The Prospects for Political Renewal through the Internet. Ed. Peter M. Shane. New York: Routledge, 2004. 3-20.
Miller, Nora. "Anti-Spin: Using Internet Resources to Unwind Political Claims." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 62.1 (2005): 76+.
McPherson, Miller, and Smith-Lovin, Lynn. "Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks over Two Decades." American Sociological Review. 2006. 17 Oct. 2007. http://www.asanet.org/galleries/default-file/June06ASRFeature.pdf
" The bill then goes on a calendar, so it can be debated, discussed, or amended. The bill then goes to the floor of the house where it is read, discussed, and voted on. If it passes by a two-thirds margin, it goes on to the Senate, where it goes through the same process. If it makes it this far, it is "enrolled," signed by the Speaker of the House and the Vice-President, and then it goes to the president for signature ("Ben's Guide"). Both legislative branches seem to have similar means of passing bills, Canada's follows about the same procedure in a different order.
In Canada, Canadians elect a Parliament, and the most the members can sit on Parliament is five years. The Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leaders of the two bodies are the Speaker of the House and the…
Andres, Gary J. "Left, Right Left; Liberals, Lobbyists and Laws in Lock Step." The Washington Times 2 Feb. 2006: A19.
Editors. "Ben's Guide to Government." Ben'sGuide.gpo.gov. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://bensguide.gpo.gov/9-12/index.html
Editors. "Canadians and Their Government." CanadianHeritage.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/special/gouv-gov/section2/infobox2_e.cfm
Editors. "Office of the Registrar of Lobbyists." ORL-BDL.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.orl-bdl.gc.ca/epic/site/lobbyist-lobbyiste.nsf/en/h_nx00162e.html
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=97002683' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.
Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.
He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…
Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.
Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…
Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,
Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.
The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media support in the form of entertainment industry backing of the kind that appeals to the candidate's often young, white base. The musical group, the lack Eyed Peas recorded as song entitled "Yes We Can," that contains words from Obama's speeches as lyrics, and provides a powerful musical beat to his campaign while giving it the cachet of popular culture.
The media's love affair with arack Obama recently became a theme of the Clinton campaign when, beginning at the Texas debate, Hillary Clinton drew attention to a Saturday Night Live skit in which, during a simulated debate, arack Obama was offered a pillow to make him comfortable rather than asked the hardball questions that were hurled at his opponent.
The televised lampoon of…
Colmes, Alan and Hannity, Sean.
Discussion of the Media's Treatment of Sen. Hillary Clinton." Hannity & Colmes, 27 February 2008.
Clinton, Obama Trade Jabs on Health Care." Associated Press, 28 February 2008.
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Because concealment is provided, hidden transcripts, which in most cases are contrary to the public transcript, are unrestrained performances within the safety provided offstage and the assumed like-mindedness of the audience.
The difference between the public vs. The hidden transcript is the "impact of the domination on public discourse" (5). Thus, Scott illustrates the contradiction between the public and the hidden transcripts as he illustrates George Orwell's experience in colonial Burma (10-11). For the dominant, failure to perform his role could very well threaten his autocratic position, which may open for questioning the legitimacy of his authority and power. Because he needs to maintain his position of authority, he chooses to perform his public transcript despite his hidden transcript. While public performance has much bearing on the dominant's position of authority, Scott shows that decisions that truly matter are made in the realm of the private rather than in public…
Scott, James C. "Behind the Official Story." Domination and the Arts of Resistance:
Hidden Transcripts. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1990. 1-16.
Scott, James C. "A Saturnalia of Power: The First Public Declaration of the Hidden
Transcript." Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1990. 202-227.
There is little or no public bidding on contracts, and contract arrangements are poorly spelled out, or not described at all. Furthermore, additional cost overruns are caused by the reliance on interagency contracts that actually demand an additional fee on the part of the Department of Defense. (GAO, 2007, p.9)
There is little difference in performance either before or after the awarding of contracts. Companies that were not checked into prior to contracting are barely supervised once they begin to perform the required work. Officials at the Department of Defense, and also those at the Department of the Interior acting for DOD, issue task orders that go "beyond the scope of underlying contracts;" commonly failing to justify non-compliance with regular procedures that ensure best value for the government. (GAO, 2007, p.10) it is as if Department of Defense officials see outside contractors as but members of the usual military command…
United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). (17 January 2007). DOD Needs to Exert Management and Oversight to Better Control Acquisition of Services (Defense Acquisitions GAO-07-359T). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office.
he appellate court applied the precedent of Saucier v. Katz (2001), which states the application of the qualified immunity test. According to Saucier, an officer can be stripped of qualified immunity protection only if their conduct violates a constitutional right and every reasonable law enforcement officer would have known that, at the time of the incident, their actions were in violation of the law. Because the road Harris was traveling down was empty, the court found the Scott's action unreasonable and thus outside his immunity.
On appeal to the Supreme Court, the Court reversed, finding that Scott had acted reasonably in accordance with the Fourth Amendment. he Court stated, "A police officer's attempt to terminate a dangerous high-speed car chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the Fourth Amendment, even when it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death."
Clearly this case…
The U.S. District Court ruled in favor of Harris, finding that Scott had violated Harris' Fourth Amendment Rights. This decision was upheld on appeal. The appellate court applied the precedent of Saucier v. Katz (2001), which states the application of the qualified immunity test. According to Saucier, an officer can be stripped of qualified immunity protection only if their conduct violates a constitutional right and every reasonable law enforcement officer would have known that, at the time of the incident, their actions were in violation of the law. Because the road Harris was traveling down was empty, the court found the Scott's action unreasonable and thus outside his immunity.
On appeal to the Supreme Court, the Court reversed, finding that Scott had acted reasonably in accordance with the Fourth Amendment. The Court stated, "A police officer's attempt to terminate a dangerous high-speed car chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the Fourth Amendment, even when it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death."
Clearly this case will affect future situations in that it gives police greater power to use force to stop potentially dangerous situations, even if the perpetrator's safety is put at risk. However, I agree with the Supreme Court's decision because a police officer is a trained professional and such actions as that taken by Scott are done not out of malice but out of a concern for the general safety of the public.
He has something there. Bellamy writes, "During the last decade of the century, such small businesses as still remained were fast-failing survivals of a past epoch, or mere parasites on the great corporations, or else existed in fields too small to attract the great capitalists" (Bellamy 52). Many small businesses cannot compete when large corporations enter their territory, so Bellamy seems to recognize that greed and capitalism will always exist, no matter how advanced our society becomes.
Ultimately, Bellamy's book is a hopeful look into a future utopia that cannot exist. Bellamy wants to believe in the best of humankind, but unfortunately, his utopian world is simply a fantasy world. His ideas are born from a good heart that hopes society can learn from its mistakes and improve on many of the ills he saw in the nineteenth century. That is not the case. Society does not improve; it seems…
Bellamy, Edward. Looking Backward, 2000-1887. Boston: New American Library, 1960.
The Homeland Security Appropriations Act supplies a total of four billion for state and local assistance agendas. State-based formula grants are financed at one and half billion, including four hundred million for law enforcement, with necessities directing the utilization of the per capita formula. The all hazards Emergency Management Performance Grant program is financed at one hundred and eighty million. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants are also made available. The bill provides a total of three hundred and fifteen million in transportation security grants. Firefighter assistance grants are financed at seven hundred and fifteen million, including sixty five million for hiring (Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, 2004). All of these regulations have placed increased burden on both state and local governments to carry out the tasks that have been placed on them by the approval of these acts.
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland…
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005. (2004). Retrieved
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.policeemployment.com/resources/articles/homeland-security-law
Moss, Mitchell, Schellhamer, Charles and Berman, David A. (2009). The Stafford Act and Priorities for Reform. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Moss_03.09.09.pdf
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…
references for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy, International Organization, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp.137-174, Published by Cambridge University Press
political opinions he or she holds?
What causes an individual to hold the political opinions he or she holds?
Political Attitudes Toward Immigration and acial Stereotypes
Immigration has been a prominent political issue heighted by legislation introduced over the last few decades. People hold various political opinions of immigrants, especially those in the U.S. illegally, which tends to be divided along racial lines. It is interesting that in a country built by immigrants that many people have negative attitudes toward immigrants that are perpetuated by stereotypes and prejudice against racial groups. Stereotypes are widely used to generalize about the characteristics of groups of people through the assignment of simple labels alleged to represent group traits which are frequently based upon perceived wrongs of one group by another (Burns and Gimpal, 2000). Some of the most prominent stereotypes that have been the subject of psychological investigation involve ethnic identity (Burns and…
Burns, P. And Gimpel, J. (2000). "Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy." Political Science Quarterly, 115, 201-225.
Ferguson, M. And Hassin, R. (2007). On the Automatic Association Between American and Aggression for New Watchers."
Lodge, M. And Tabor, C. (2005). "The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders,
Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis." Political Psychology, 26, 455-482.
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…
Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New
York: Oxford University Press.
Cornfield, M. 2005. Commentary on the Impact of the Internet onthe 2004 Election,
Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 3.
Again, here we see that political disposition is a significant factor in shaping one's position on the subject. Those who support the death penalty tend to take a position of greater trust in the fairness and equality of the government, which is a disposition promoted itself by certain cultural, economic and racial characteristics. From this disposition, a counterargument frequently proposed against the notion of discontinuing the death penalty due to its apparent racial biases cites "a 1987 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that evidence specific to a defendant -- not statistics showing systemwide bias -- is necessary to challenge an individual's death sentence on a racial claim." (Melone, 1) This is to argue that an individual case evaluation, whereupon capital punishment is considered, should inherently protect against the permeation or ethnic, racial or geographical biases. Of course, in order to accept this argument, one must possess a certain degree of faith…
Carlson, T. (2000). Tucker Carlson: Death Penalty Deserves More Vigorous Debate. CNN. Online at http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/06/22/tucker.carlson/
DPIC. (2005). National Polls. Death Penalty Information Center. Online at
DPIC1. (2009). Financial Facts: Information on Costs of the Death Penalty from DPIC. Death penalty Information Center. Online at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/costs-death-penalty
Gleick, E. et al. (1995). Rich Justice, Poor Justice. Time Magazine. Online at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983050-2,00.html
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
Urban Political Science: Questions and Answers
MIAMI-DADE EHICS COMMISSION:
Miami-Dade County is seeking a new chief for its ethics board.
What is the primary purpose of this ethics board?
he ethics committee was first enacted to change the Miami home rule charter. It was set up as an committee that has semi-judicial powers and it is independent of all other government offices in the county for the purpose of maintaining its ability to look into the ethical practices of government offices with an unbiased view (Miami Dade.gov).
What issues has the Commission handled that do NO relate to the member of the Board itself?
Since the board is now just conducting the search for a new boss (Hiaasen, 2011) it is not doing any business save that. It has recently worked to create a new ordinance on conflict of interest standard because it has had an issue with the county…
The budget for the entire county is $3 billion, and that has been cut from a previous proposal. The center itself also is going to be operated at an expenditure which was reduced from previous estimates, but specific numbers were not given (Varian, 2011). The articles did say that a community room would cost a group $850 per night which makes it unreasonable for most groups.
4: Was this an appropriate use of government funds? (A: No)
No it was not. The term community center cannot be adequately applied to this center because the entire community will not be able to access it. Also, the cost to tax payers was very high. The people who are supposed to be able to use the center cannot because of the high cost and they cannot afford the taxes
S. It is now the Germans, the British, the Italians, the Swedes, and all of the European Union."
Over the last fifty years the American foreign policy has been characterized by "liberal internationalism and globalism"
During the period between 1781, which was the beginning of the confederation through the year 1941 the country was equal in unilateralist and isolationist in theoretical framework of international affairs. However in 1941 at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked oosevelt sold the theoretical stance of internationalism to the citizens of America as well as to the epublican Party. Isolationism stated that our neighbors were far away across vast oceans, so therefore, why bother with problems that far away from our homes. Stated by Kupchan (2003) is: " The unilateralism came from two things:
1) American exceptionalism, the sense that we were a new, unique nation, and we don't want to engage in the world,…
The Post Cold War Army Online at http://www.army.mil.cmh-pg/books/COS/34-42.htm.
Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Russia Country Analysis: A Country Report Online available at: Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Kupchan, Charles (2002) The End of the American Era: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-first Century - Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs Online available at http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID / 9/prmID/876
Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
The international political perspectives of free trade
A Global Analysis
International Trade Impact on Tunisia
The Export of agricultural products
International trade and development of Tunisia
Balance in the Trade egime
Imports and exports of Tunisia
Coping With External and Internal Pressures
The Common External Tariff (CET)
Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)
ules of origin
The New Commercial Policy Instrument
Sector Based Aspects
GATT/WTO's Main Principles
Multilateral negotiation and free trade
The Trading Policies of European Union
Critical Political Economy
The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia
The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia
The Smith Co Company
The Softkim and Lovers Limited
The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43
Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific
Alternative Mediterranean Conference
Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776
Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database:
S., would begin training the finest female minds at their top universities, too. "The Space ace" of the 1960s was mainly between the U.S. And the former U.S.S.. As women become more educated and gain rare opportunities to profoundly change and expand their perspectives, such as the view of Earth from space, more women will become aware and organized regarding the ways they are institutionally subordinated and restricted, fundamentally with respect to their bodies and the law. With enough support and the right combination/condition of circumstances, women organized, fought, and won for legal protection regarding contraception and prophylactics.
In some cases/countries, there are societies that are able to see past or through gender bias and gender prejudice in order to do what is best for that country, including choosing the best leadership, which eventually included women.
Though the events of the timeline happen around the world and at different times,…
Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2013). Timeline: Through the Centuries. Brittanica, Web, Available from: http://www.britannica.com/women/timeline?tocId=9404138 . 2013 May 23.
National Archives. (2013). Women. National Archives, Web, Available from: http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/womens-history.html . 2013 May 23.
Krastev (2011) is perplexed by the stability and longevity of authoritarian regimes in the “age of democratication,” (p. 7).
The “new authoritarianism,” or the “user-friendly” version of authoritarianism is compelling and attractive (Krastev, 2011, p. 7). Russia is actually a good springboard for discussing the new authoritarianism because it represents some of its key features, within a historically relevant framework. Russia’s authoritarian regime is also paradoxical in that it has appropriated some of the most salient democratic institutions.
Theories & Concepts
Krastev (2011) relies heavily on Seymour Martin Lipset’s theories of democracy, political culture, and economic development.
The author provides evidence from other political theorists including Jason Brownlee, Steven Levitsky, and Lucan Way (p. 11), and also cites Jeane Kirkpatrick’s 1979 classic “Dictatorships and Double Standards,” (p. 12).
Ideology, or a relative lack thereof, is one of the features of the new authoritarianism. Also,…
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)
Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress
Marx further included that finally the biased behavior of the working class will end this dictatorship period, and a class less society will establish. He believed that for the formation of this society people need to launch an organized movement against the dictatorship and only a successful revolution would lead to the formation of society of "Communism" (Skoble, 2007).
When we talk about the political philosophy, we can observe that both John Locke and Karl Marx are in favor of the idea that when there is a need of change then an organized revolution is compulsory. People cannot get their rights until they demand for it because it's natural thing that you need to raise your voice in order to get your right otherwise other will keep it as their own possession.
The point of differ come when we talk about the scenario in which both of them forwarded their…
Riemer, N., & Simon, D. (1997). The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. San Diego: Collegiate Press.
Skoble. (2007). Political Philosophy: Essential Selections. London: Pearson Education India.
Tully, J. (1993). An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
American Political Behavior
New Technology and ealignment
POL 370 American Political Behavior: New Technology and ealignment
Module 6/Discussion 1 -- New Technology and ealignment
What role will technology, including social networking, play in fostering a realignment of the electorate?
The coming of the new millennium, has introduced a significant change, which has affected political scenes significantly. Modern technology today is key in all aspects of human interaction. To the same extent is the connection in politics. The rise of social applications of networking like Twitter is key in passing messages from one person to another. Hence, it is critical to note that many political people influence citizens and communicate easily to their supporters and fans through these sites. In the same way, they increase their votes and win the confidence of many people by quickly responding to their requests and challenges. Consequently, is the effect in the realignment of the…
Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
Winograd, M. & M.D. (2009) Millennial makeover: MySpace, YouTube and the future of American politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Press. (ISBN 978-0-8135-4504-2)
Zeleny, J. (2012, August 1). The Electoral Map: Pennsylvania Now Leaning Democratic. The New York times. Retrieved August 7, 2012, from http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/08/01/the-electoral-map-pennsylvania-now-leaning-democratic/
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
United States Congress, and the lens used in this case study analysis includes political theories. Viewed through this lens, the organization will be analyzed in terms of who has what power in the organization, who has access to agendas and control over information, what power coalitions or alliances exist, and how the unit attempts to influence other units and create upward influence in the organization. As Morgan (2006) points out, all organizations can be perceived as political systems concerned with and dependent on political activity. The United States Congress happens to take that concept of political systems a step further because the precise and overt purpose of the organization is political activity. To achieve its goals, Congress does exhibit the universal political traits of organizations that hinge on the relations among "interests, conflict, and power," (Morgan, 2006, p. 152). It is how the stakeholders in the organization pursue their interests,…
Donges, P.& Jarren, O. (2014). Mediatization of political organizations. Chapter 10 in Mediatization of Politics. Esser & Stromback (Eds.): 181-199.
Hirsch, A.V. (2016). Experimentation and persuasion in political organizations. American Political Science Review 110(01): 68-84.
Merchant, P. (n.d.). 5 sources of power in organizations. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-sources-power-organizations-14467.html
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization. Sage.
4. Dr. Michael Hanchard. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Hanchard may be the most important contact in academia for any aspects of the study linked to race because Dr. Hanchard has done extensive work in both comparative politics and transnational politics. Furthermore, Dr. Hanchard may be able to provide insight into research methodology because he has done research on black political activists in various locales.
5. Dr. Wesley Skogan. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Skogan concentrates on citizens as consumers and creators of law, therefore he may have valuable insight on political involvement.
6. Dr. Dennis Chong. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Chong wrote Rational Lives: Norms and Values in Politics and Society, in which he examined the interrelationship between how people's individual choices effect their social and economic realms. Because choice of residence may be one of the most basic social choices, Dr.…