Political parties are a collection of individuals of similar creed organized to aid in electing members to public positions. The constitution does not mention parties and earlier professionals considered them as dangerous or undesirable. Nevertheless, political parties have resulted in the creation of electoral institutions and other incentives that justify their presence. The very first political parties that were established in America tried to form coalitions to help control the government's more organized machinery. The attempts at control soon took an electoral angle. A two-party system would later emerge to steer competition in elections. The system would collapse in the Good Feelings Era but would again emerge in the presidential elections of 1824 after which it gained considerable stability until the present day (Samuel Kernel, Gary C. Jacobson and Thad Kausser).
Polarization in Two-party Competition
From the 1970s, congressional parties have grouped themselves based on geography and ideology. The six…… [Read More]
The moderate wing of the Republican Party is rarely heard from in the national media, with the possible exception of U.S. Senator Susan Collins of Maine, who tends to side with Democrats when healthcare issues are on the brink of defeat and need that one last vote to pass.
In the Republican National Committee (www.GOP.com) ebsite under "Issues" the GOP does not state a policy or a goal, but rather: on "Economy" they attack Obama on the budget, on promoting renewable energy, among other attacks; on "Foreign Policy" the GOP attacks Obama's treaty with the Russians on reducing nuclear stockpiles.
Democratic Party -- Origins
Meanwhile, the Democratic Party originated under the national leadership of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, according to the "Citizen's Compendium"; the Jacksonians and the Jeffersonians at that time resembled each other especially in terms of being opposes to "aristocracy" and being distrustful of banks. The…… [Read More]
Political Parties and Democracy
A central claim of democratic theory is that democracy induces governments to be responsive to the preferences of the people. Political parties serve to organize politics in almost every modern democracy in the world (in both presidential and parliamentary systems). Some observers claim that the parties are what induce democracies to be responsive. In this essay, the author will show this point of democracy being dependent upon the buildup of democratic expression through the buildup and maintenance of organic party organizations in both presidential and parliamentary systems in democracies worldwide. This analysis excludes ethnic parties which infect the systems with instability. ather, we will see how other institutions can be harnessed to channel these energies in more profitable directions.
Brief Outline of Sources on Best System Mix for Political Stability-
The stability of any presidential system is that the candidates participate in the races in the…… [Read More]
Over the years, the electoral process has changed a lot. As per the original rules, each state legislature selected its electors. The electors would then assemble at a given time and vote for two people. The person with the majority of votes became the president and the runner-up became the vice-president. This system was in practice until the 1800 election. (the Presidential Electoral Process)
By 1800, American politics were dominated by political parties. Under the rules which were prevalent at that time, in the occurrence of a tie, the House of epresentatives voted to sever the tie. The electors after 1800 voted individually for the president and the vice- president. Also, presidents and vice-presidents from the same party contested in the election. Between the years 1840 and 1900 the electoral system was focused toward the common people. The electoral system was again altered so that people, as different to state…… [Read More]
Political Parties and Bilingual Education
Politics, throughout history, has influenced various decisions. Bilingual Education has been subject to this. This very controversial debate has been a hot political issue throughout all five major political parties. This paper will disucss the background on policy issues, as well as the feelings of the parties regarding bilingual education. It will then throw a pitch as to how to address these differences.
Is bilingual education common in the United States' schools? Not yet, but each year more schools in varied contexts throughout decide to implement either one-way or two-way bilingual enrichment classes. Currently ESL pullout, the least effective and most costly model, remains the most common type of program for English language learners in the United States. ESL pullout is expensive because it requires extra ESL resource teachers. It is less effective because students miss important academic subjects while they attend ESL class.
Some…… [Read More]
dominant American political parties [...] question: Do the two dominant American political parties serve the public's interest, or just their own upper class interests? How would you change the party system so that all are truly represented?
AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES
The founding fathers did not create the two dominant American political parties, Republican and Democrat, to serve their own interests; they were created as instruments of the people's political and personal beliefs. Just as the Constitution guarantees freedom of religion, as noted here,
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shad ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States (Vile 248).
It also guarantees…… [Read More]
political parties candidates gain contributions. Considering, debates obtained stronger limitations. Make a case side show pros cons . 2 Discuss role voting population trend. Mention modern requirements keeping voters polls, potential voters choose
Politics in the United States spurs rather hated debates, especially between the two main forces of the political system, the epublicans and the Democrats.
The financing of the electoral campaigns is often a subject for debate for the public, the media, as well as the candidates themselves. At the same time, the financing of election campaigns has come to be legislated by law and at this point there are states that prohibit private contributions to electoral campaign and other that do not limit this contribution. In this case, seeing that the money spent in electoral campaigns provide more or less chances for candidates, the opportunities should be equal and the law uniform.
The sources of the money…… [Read More]
Their Function in Texas and Overall
The Major Functions of Political Parties
Political parties are nongovernmental institutions that serve the idea of political equality. Their purpose is to organize and give direction to the political desires of the people of a community. Political parties allow for a crucial link between a government's people and itself, while allowing people to be heard that might not otherwise be (Berman and Murphy).
The two most popular political parties in the United States are the epublican and Democratic Parties. The epublican Party was founded officially in 1854 in ipon, Wisconsin. Among its core beliefs are that America is a constitutional republic, that America is the greatest nation in the world, and that a healthy nation must have religion play a significant role in its society (Uticensis). The Democratic Party is an older political party within the United States, and has core beliefs…… [Read More]
However, class-based differences in party identification remained prominent and actually grew stronger in the 1970s and 1980s, with upper-class and middle-class individuals identifying more strongly with the Republican Party" (309). Likewise, Pomerantz (1999) notes that, "hile people change their party identity only rarely, the significance of that affiliation waxes and wanes over time" (37). Citing the research conducted by attenberg based on data collected in the National Election Studies (NES), which were initiated in 1952 and have been conducted in every subsequent presidential campaign since that time. To determine voter affiliation with a given political party, attenberg developed a gauge to determine the degree of indifference or neutrality regarding American political parties. The respondents to the NES are queried, among other things, concerning what aspects they like and dislike about each political party. According to Pomerantz, "Some people have nothing to say, good or ill, about either party" (37). In…… [Read More]
classical theoretical model of political parties and point out the differences between this model and the two principal American political parties.
The classical theoretical model of political parties in the United States parties holds that these parties exist primarily to control government and to gain power rather than to promote a given ideology. The classical model maintains that in order to prosper and retain viability, political parties must adjust to the changing demographic, economic, and social conditions in American society. To the extent that the two principal American political parties achieve these goals is likely the extent to which they will be able to remain responsive and sustain their constituencies over time as discussed further below, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
The United States has historically used a two-party political system since organized political parties first began to take shape during the…… [Read More]
American Political Parties
The Political Impact of Media Bias
From 1962 to his retirement in 1981, alter Cronkite led America through such pivotal events as the Kennedy assassination, the moon landing, the Vietnam ar, and the atergate scandal as the anchor on the CBS Evening News. Each night he would sign off his newscast with his signature sign line "And that's the way it is." As a result, he was identified by many opinion polls as the most trusted man in America. However, America's trust in the media has now waned. According to polling information presented by Burns, only 15% of North Americans trusting the media. According to DellaVigna & Kaplan (1188) over 70% of Americans believe that there exists bias in news coverage. Lee (45) defines bias in the news media as "any form of preferential and unbalanced treatment, or favoritism, toward a political or social issue (e.g. pro-choice…… [Read More]
President and Political Parties
Ironically, the New Deal reforms started with the intention of liberating the executive from the chains of partisan politics that only served the opposite purpose by weakening an already poor relationship that consequently isolated presidents from their earlier institutional support derived from their political parties (Milikis n.d.). Milikis Provides a unique portrayal on aspects of the American government and gives fresh insights into the failing trends of the party system and the process that once created a stronger and more active state at the national level. However, the same was lacking in the representation of important institutions that have the potential of choice and common deliberation. He warns as he places the matter in contemporary perspective that this is a nation in the middle of a struggle to repair its waning links between the government and the people (Milikis n.d.).
President arrack Obama
Powerful…… [Read More]
egarding the rights of seniors, the Affordable Care Act closed the so-called 'doughnut hole' that did not cover a specific middle range of Medicare drug coverage and the Democrats have strongly resisted attempts to privatize Social Security (What we stand for: Social Security, 2011, Democrats).
As is obvious from my analysis perhaps, I side with the Democratic Party. The epublicans have failed to provide any meaningful strategies for healthcare reform, and I have personally seen people in my family struggle with their insurance companies to pay for various procedures. Insurance companies, unless regulated by the government will strive to not cover care rather than to do so, because they are profit-making organizations.
The discrepancy between the rich and the poor has widened during times of extended epublican executive and legislative rule because of the strong emphasis on deregulation and cutting taxes. Even wealthy public figures like Warren Buffet have stated…… [Read More]
Republicans regained control of Congress. This election and the current political climate have brought into question the usefulness of political parties. The purpose of this discussion is to review the American political parties and to investigate whether or not the parties are useful. In addition we will discuss if American democracy could function better without political parties and review whether or not a multi-party system would be preferable to a two-party system. Let's begin with a review of the history of the two-party system.
History of the two prevalent parties
According to the official website of the Democratic National Convention the Democratic Party was founded in 1792 by Thomas Jefferson. ("Brief History of the Democratic Party") The party was originally created as a congressional caucus in an effort to get the Bill of Rights passed. ("Brief History of the Democratic Party") Thomas Jefferson was the first Democratic President of…… [Read More]
The best that they can hope for is to influence a political party to get behind their cause and vote to have it adopted. Political parties on the other hand, have the power and ability to change laws and mandates by their voting clout.
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
epublican Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Walker, Jack L., Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America (Univ. Of Mich. Press 1991).… [Read More]
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]
Parties and Party Systems
The Creation and ole of Political Parties and ole Effects
In general political parties have four main relevant dimensions; government control to some degree and in some facet including legislation making and approval and nominations to electoral bids and/or nominations to nonelected positions in government, a stable base which includes mass popular or populous support, they have some internal structure that controls funding and platform and finally they are a source of information to the public. According to Katz the defining characteristics of a party include their general position as "central actors" in democratic as well as other forms of government and they are very unlikely to be replaced by "social movements or governance networks" (2008, p.294) The central role or most important dimension of a political party is its ability to control government in some fashion, the development of this aspect of the party system…… [Read More]
Conflicts are not regarded as the right way of solving disputes between nations or communities. As such, boundary conflicts have not been governing any chance to exist within the society. These conflicts reiterate the need for the United Nations to explore on the natural boundary existence between various nations (Tucker and Priscilla 152). Though boundary politics results in wars and conflicts, they are potent towards the existence and preservation of sovereignty between nations. Because of the recurrence of political boundary conflicts, many nations have resorted to signing treaties indicating a separation and boundaries relating to political movements.
There are a number of steps, which can be used to end political boundary wars in the world. Politics, being the higher agent of political boundary wars, should be subjected to scrutiny and study. This will help recover rightful ways of separating between politics and boundaries between nations and communities. Nations…… [Read More]
a) Are we in the midst of a political realignment in America?
Political realignment is an aspect, which is in evitable in America. It is evident that the political scenes in America today are changing from one state to the other. It is clear across the nation that realignment is not only bringing significant changes in the political scenes, but the changes are evident and are affecting the social and economic circles too. The big picture in political circles in America is that of minority parties rising up to become the most influential across the board. On the other hand, people in the majority parties have to stir up their confidence to catch up with the completion. In this context, political realignment is one of the major features in America (Winograd & Hais, 2009).
b) What role will social capital play in fostering / hindering the realignment?…… [Read More]
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]
The urpose of a olitical Court
In the view of Henry J. Abraham (Abraham 1998, 55), "theoretically," just about any qualified law school graduate with ambitions for an important judicial appointment would appear to have a fair chance at being nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court. That is providing, of course, the candidate is politically "available" and is, in Abraham's words, "acceptable to the executive, legislative, and private forces that, in the order enumerated, constitute the powers-that-be underlying the paths of selection, nomination, and appointment in the judicial process." key phrase in Abraham's criteria is "acceptable to the...legislative" body; as has been witnessed in the past few days and weeks, some of the conservative judicial nominees - not for the High Court but put forward by resident George W. Bush for federal appeals courts slots - have not been "acceptable" to a sufficient number of U.S.…… [Read More]
The company has many different levels of organization, and oversees the lives of the people it employs, in that they spend most of their lives there, and receive a wage in return. They are supposed to be loyal to the company, and stand behind it in times of stress. The company supports others in the community, as well, in the form of taxes, bribes, and workers spending their income in businesses throughout the community. Thus, the company is a political institution with community influence, and the power that goes along with that influence. Political institutions all have several items in common, from group membership to support and influence in the community, as well as representing a large aspect of that community, and the packinghouses all meet these requirements.
Finally, the theme of Socialism that the author weaves through the book is representative of politics and political institutions the world over,…… [Read More]
Social liberalism debates that beneficial liberty is indispensable for global human freedom, especially for the poor. Therefore, the government should involve themselves in economic matters for the sake of the unprivileged members of the society (Adams, 2001). Social Liberals equally support the enforcement of agricultural reforms and land leases and are also in favour of a solid and well-controlled state.
Were you surprised by the political ideology to which you belong? Why or why not?
In the United States, the general situation is in conformity to the ideals of social liberalism which I have no problems with, I have no reservations for and may even dare to say, I like.
What are the origins of that political ideology?
The sociologists, economists and philosophers who lived in the 1700s and the early 1800s created a political framework which guided social policy in England, later the United States, then Europe and finally…… [Read More]
The United Kingdom and Ireland have both enjoyed geographic separation from the continent of Europe, enabling both to develop unique political cultures and institutions. Ireland has been even more removed from the fray, having never been part of the Roman Empire, and systematically resistant to the same invasions that affected England throughout much of their respective histories. However, the proximity between Ireland and England—and later the United Kingdom—has caused the two countries to be “intertwined politically, economically, and culturally for over 800 years,” (The Republic and Politics of the Republic of Ireland 5). British hegemony has generally meant that Irish identity has been largely oppositional in nature. Divergent trends have emerged in the political cultures and institutions of the United Kingdom and Ireland, especially with regards to the relatively power of the Church. Ireland’s political structures, institutions, and cultures have been inevitably influenced by the British system, but the Catholic…… [Read More]
American Political Party
The biggest major parties in America is the Democratic party (DNC) and the Republican Party however the democrats regained control of the U.S. house and us senate in the 2006 elections and the White house in the year 2008 elections. This enables them to widen their congressional advantage and their ability to prove that they can improve on the national economy and health care.
Republican party (RNC) lost control of the big job in 2008:the presidency the party was swept out of office in response to the public's high disapproval rating of presidency .despite that the party is largely split into two ideological camps within the Republican Party, battling for control in preparation for the 2012 white house .
REPUBLICAN ON HOME LAND SECURITY: Bush together with the republicans in congress have put a great effort on home land security by taking action on multiple fronts .they…… [Read More]
My parents are epublicans, so I did not gain many political beliefs from them! My friends and significant other are a mix of parties. I have a lot of epublican friends, but I do have some Democratic friends, too. I think that I have looked at both parties, and I just felt more comfortable with the Democratic Party and its platforms, especially on women's rights, healthcare, and climate change. The Party Web site says, "That commitment is reflected in an agenda that emphasizes the strong economic growth, affordable health care for all Americans, retirement security, open, honest and accountable government, and securing our nation while protecting our civil rights and liberties" (Editors). I agree with that, and it pretty much states my beliefs. I could not align with the epublicans, because I do not agree with the war in Iraq, I support gun control, and I do not like their…… [Read More]
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…… [Read More]
4. Dr. Michael Hanchard. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Hanchard may be the most important contact in academia for any aspects of the study linked to race because Dr. Hanchard has done extensive work in both comparative politics and transnational politics. Furthermore, Dr. Hanchard may be able to provide insight into research methodology because he has done research on black political activists in various locales.
5. Dr. Wesley Skogan. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Skogan concentrates on citizens as consumers and creators of law, therefore he may have valuable insight on political involvement.
6. Dr. Dennis Chong. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Chong wrote Rational Lives: Norms and Values in Politics and Society, in which he examined the interrelationship between how people's individual choices effect their social and economic realms. Because choice of residence may be one of the most basic social choices, Dr.…… [Read More]
The political ideology I align with the most is libertarianism. A lot of Americans pay lip service to liberty, but I am not one of them. The libertarian political ideology is based on the fundamental principle of human liberty: that the government should not interfere in the lives of individuals unless their actions infringe on the rights of others. I believe that the founding fathers of the United States intended for a libertarian government, which evolved out of Enlightenment values and philosophies and made their way into the writings of luminaries like Thomas Jefferson, John Locke, David Hume, and Adam Smith (Boaz, 1999). While I am not surprised to recognize libertarianism as my own political ideology, I do not believe that the current Libertarian Party of the United States has sufficient support to replace either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party in terms of popularity or influence.
Research…… [Read More]
Political or Social Problem
Racism has been a major social problem in American history going back to the colonial period of the 17th and 18th Centuries, and by no means only in the former slave states of the South. In fact, the condition of blacks in the United States has always been a central social, political and economic problem that resulted in the nation's most destructive war in 1861-65 and in its most important civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. As the moral and spiritual leader of the latter, Martin Luther King's place in American history is well-known: this was the central preoccupation of his life from 1955-68, and he died as a martyr to this cause. Karl Marx was merely a foreign observer of the U.S. Civil ar, but he understood the issues of slavery and racism very well and was an enthusiastic abolitionist and supporter of…… [Read More]
Until recently, my political awareness was limited to what I read about or heard around me. Young people are impressionable, and I formed my opinions as amalgamations of what my parents believed, and what I overheard my friends parents say too. The news media, and celebrities I admire also had a strong influence on how I would frame my thinking. All these agents of socialization—my family, the media, my teachers, and my friends—shaped my identity and self-concept, and how I viewed the world. As a young adult, I have deconstructed much of what I learned and realized that I need to carve my own path by thinking critically about what I read, not just by avoiding the pitfalls of fake news, but also by avoiding a sheep-like mentality. Instead of regurgitating what other people say, now I feel more confident in my own ability to articulate my political philosophies as…… [Read More]
No, I really do not tend to see a relationship between my values and my politics. My values are largely predicated on individuality. I do not generally see myself as part of a crowd, and I prefer autonomy and license over partisanship and consensus. In that respect, I truly feel alienated from most politics. Actually, I have a difficult time developing a conviction for which facet of politics is worse: the ultra-conservatives who have all the money and horde it proportionately, or the liberals who are always satisfied with some gesture and who never get around to actually effecting any sort of change. In fact, I would be willing to posit the notion that it is due to my values that I have a minimal involvement in politics. I suppose at heart I am a true cynic -- a skeptic of sorts who does not even necessarily believe…… [Read More]
One on the most hotly contested debates today is whether President Bush should invade Iraq. Though there are numerous experts arguing both side of this debate, most of the public's questions are left unanswered.
There are critics who believe the United States involvement in the U.N. sanctions provoked the terrorist attacks on September 11. They blame the sanctions for an increase in the death rate of Iraqi children due to starvation. Others, however, blame Saddam Hussein for the deaths, stating he is buying weapons and living a luxurious lifestyle instead of providing food and medical supplies to the Iraqi people (Sanctions, 2001).
An Argument Against ar
The terrorist attacks have lead President Bush to consider invading Iraq. Before he can make this decision, he must first address several issues such as how much threat does Iraq pose, the cost of war, relationships with Arab Community and…… [Read More]
Political & Economic Differences
The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.
As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…… [Read More]
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…… [Read More]
Political Machines: Politics as a Tammany Vocation
hen Max eber made a speech on politics as a vocation he defined the political machine as a creation of the modern, pluralistic democratic state. A political machine, unlike a purely charismatic individual leader, was a functional bureaucracy attempted, however imperfectly to serve the popular interest through the use of an institutional framework. A quick-voiced opponent of political corruption might protest the use of the political machine as a contemporary model for American democracy, as it has often been associated with corruption, specifically pork barrel politics in America's urban past. Yet, before the creation of political machines, the national apparatus of the state used physical force to ensure compliance with its actions, rather than bestowing any kind of favors to ensure popular compliance.
For example in eber's Europe, the result of this use of aristocratic force was a form of political tyranny over…… [Read More]
The newly independent states were generally rated according to high level of political, economic or social risk (not entirely untrue), which meant that the levels of interest were generally extremely high. Even more, the sums paid for interest would generally surpass the actual funds that had been received. This meant that, instead of focusing the country's resources on development and internal projects, most of it had to be spent paying off debts which were not even viable and extremely costly.
On the other hand, from an international perspective, international debt is something fundamentally essential to the financial markets. Money is made to circulate and move around, which means that entities need to be connected to the financial markets, borrow on the open markets and use that money to create added value and generate more cash flow. The fact that, in many cases in the developing world, this mechanism was in…… [Read More]
However, he steers relatively clear of muscular economic writing in Conscience of a Liberal, preferring the position the book as something of a call to arms for the liberal movement. While this approach allows him to cover a wide range of ground and be fairly convincing in doing so, it also hampers his arguments by removing what should be the key to his credibility. His economic arguments strike more as a recitation of facts and figures rather than the heavy lifting he of which he is obviously capable. As his credibility stems from his work as a prize-winning economist, and this book lacks that to some extent, it seems as though the book is a long-form blog or other such opinion piece.
There is an element of urgency in his work, however, best evidenced in the chapter about health care. Krugman ties the demise of conservatism to universal health care…… [Read More]
What will that lead to in future politicians? Will they conduct their entire campaigns online, with no need to reach out to real people on the campaign trail? That remains to be seen, but the technology of the Internet, and all it implies, is changing how we view political news and reporting, and it certainly could change the face of actual campaigns in the future, and that has implications for our society in general. Change is not always bad, and it can bring about necessary reform and legislation, and it is quite clear blogging is bringing about great change in how we get our political information. How that affects our society and us in the future remains to be seen, but it is certain that blogging, political campaigns, and the importance of valid information will all continue to be issues in the future.
How can candidates use blogs effectively in…… [Read More]
He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media support in the form of entertainment industry backing of the kind that appeals to the candidate's often young, white base. The musical group, the lack Eyed Peas recorded as song entitled "Yes We Can," that contains words from Obama's speeches as lyrics, and provides a powerful musical beat to his campaign while giving it the cachet of popular culture.
The media's love affair with arack Obama recently became a theme of the Clinton campaign when, beginning at the Texas debate, Hillary Clinton drew attention to a Saturday Night Live skit in which, during a simulated debate, arack Obama was offered a pillow to make him comfortable rather than asked the hardball questions that were hurled at his opponent.
The televised lampoon of…… [Read More]
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…… [Read More]
" The bill then goes on a calendar, so it can be debated, discussed, or amended. The bill then goes to the floor of the house where it is read, discussed, and voted on. If it passes by a two-thirds margin, it goes on to the Senate, where it goes through the same process. If it makes it this far, it is "enrolled," signed by the Speaker of the House and the Vice-President, and then it goes to the president for signature ("Ben's Guide"). Both legislative branches seem to have similar means of passing bills, Canada's follows about the same procedure in a different order.
In Canada, Canadians elect a Parliament, and the most the members can sit on Parliament is five years. The Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leaders of the two bodies are the Speaker of the House and the…… [Read More]
There is little or no public bidding on contracts, and contract arrangements are poorly spelled out, or not described at all. Furthermore, additional cost overruns are caused by the reliance on interagency contracts that actually demand an additional fee on the part of the Department of Defense. (GAO, 2007, p.9)
There is little difference in performance either before or after the awarding of contracts. Companies that were not checked into prior to contracting are barely supervised once they begin to perform the required work. Officials at the Department of Defense, and also those at the Department of the Interior acting for DOD, issue task orders that go "beyond the scope of underlying contracts;" commonly failing to justify non-compliance with regular procedures that ensure best value for the government. (GAO, 2007, p.10) it is as if Department of Defense officials see outside contractors as but members of the usual military command…… [Read More]
POLITICAL OVERVIEW: The former Persia became present day Iran on April 1st 1979 Before that Persia was a Monarchy and its last ruler was Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi He lost favor with the people and the religious clerics of the country The clerics chose to exile Pahlavi and establish a theocracy Theocracy refers to a government type where majority of decision making and political power is in the hands of a religious leader, in other words a country that adopts religious law as its legal system
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a Conservative cleric took over the reins of the nation
The government structure is complicated as its Parliament is a mixed bag of elected and unelected members At the top of the hierarchy is the 'Supreme Leader' military, judiciary and foreign policy fall under his command An interesting aspect of Iranian government is the amount of accountability attached to federal…… [Read More]
Conclusion: The Benefits of a Third-Party Friendly System
hile both proponents and those in opposition to a two-party system have well-founded arguments, the third-party friendly system is the system that most makes sense in today's modern democracy. As presidential candidates John McCain and Barack Obama have made clear, the American people are ready for change. They are tired of the same old formula Republicans and Democrats, and they want to be represented by candidates whom they can truly feel represented by. A coalition government consisting of third parties would accomplish that change. Although this government may take longer to arrive at decisions, it would ultimately come up with the decisions that the majority of the Americans want, while still including the opinions of the minority. These coalitions would pass laws that were more representative of what America wants. Instead of retreating into the old, tired formula of choice a or…… [Read More]
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…… [Read More]
Other factors include those as follows:
1) Differences in social background characteristics - this accounted for half of the turnout gap between the youngest two cohorts in the study of lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet (2002) which is attributed to a "weaker sense of voting duty."
2) The voters conceived there was little or no actual competition in the political race. (lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet, 2002)
3) Low level of interest and information of those born after 1970. (lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet, 2002)
The authors, lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet (2002) conclude their work by stating that: "The decline in turnout since the 1988 election does not bode well for the country's democratic health." (Ibid) The work of Dietlind Stolle and Marc Hooghe (nd) hold that each civic generation which is replaced by cohorts of a younger age causes the social capital stock of American communities to slowly…… [Read More]
The founding fathers of the United States were initially opposed to the formation of political parties considering them as "quarreling factions" that would hinder the public from freely judging issues on merit. The complex structure of the U.S. government with its elaborate system of checks and balances and division of power among the state and federal governments, however, makes the formation of permanent political organizations necessary for effective functioning of the system. Over the years, a two-party system has evolved with two major political parties fielding their respective candidates in most state and federal elections. Third parties take part in the elections occasionally albeit with limited impact. It is a common observation that third parties in the U.S. go only as far as their candidate; if a candidate fades out of the spotlight so does the party. In this paper, we will discuss why third parties have traditionally…… [Read More]
ink dried on te U.S. Constitution, political parties began emerging in te United States. Despite te adamant argument of early party members tat tey were against suc parties becoming commonplace in American politics, te division amongst tose in power became clear almost immediately after te Constitution was drafted in te late eigteent century. Te differences in opinion between te two parties in te U.S. government elped maintain a sense of "ceck and balances" for every politician, as well as eac party itself. Between 1790 and 1814, tere were several opportunities for te different factions to compete for te loyalty of te American citizens, all wic elped saped our political system today.
Te Federalist Party was one of te first two parties to arise after te Constitution. Te Federalist faction was founded primarily by te Secretary of te Treasury, Alexander Hamilton and by Vice President, Jon Adams. (Burke) Te Federalists desired…… [Read More]
Two distinct political movements influence the course of modern Taiwanese history: groups that are pro-independence and those that favor eventual unification with mainland China. In the year 2000, the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party came into power in Taiwan, taking over from the well-established Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party). The official websites of these two major Taiwanese political parties display different approaches to the independence issue as well as to Taiwanese history and culture. The tone of writing, content, and design layout of these websites also distinguish the attitudes of these opposing political parties.
The Kuomintang enjoys the honor of being the most well-established and historically popular political party on the island of Taiwan. Started by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the Kuomintang savored relatively unchallenged political dominance until the year 2000. The Kuomintang website at http://www.kmt.org.tw/e_index.html, which only offers one page of information in the English language, only briefly mentions the peaceful…… [Read More]
The original inhabitants of Jamaica are long forgotten, their name barely a footnote in Caribbean history. The main legacy of the Arawak Indians has been the word "Xamayca," meaning "land of wood and water," ("A Brief History of Jamaica"). Xamayca gradually became rendered as Jamaica, an island nation with a tumultuous but vibrant history. The first non-native settlers on Jamaica were the Spaniards. Christopher Columbus included it in Spain's territorial acquisitions in 1494. Soon thereafter, a small Spanish settlement existed on the island until 1655. The Spaniards killed every last Arawak, either via use of force or exposure to disease. Moreover, the Spaniards bought African slaves and brought them to Jamaica to work on the budding sugar plantations. Growing interest in sugar was fueling the Age of Imperialism. Britain was poised to strike the Caribbean.
In May 1655, a convoy of British ships arrived and startled the Spanish settlement.…… [Read More]
Two New Jersey State Legislators -- Biographies and Legislative and Ideological Histories of Democrat John D. Adler and Republican Joseph Palaia
This paper is a biographical paper on two state legislators from two different political parties, illustrating how the two of them compare on issues pertaining to judicial ethics and the environment of the state. The member of the majority party, Democrat Senator John D. Adler of the New Jersey State Legislature currently represents Cherry Hill, New Jersey, one of the southernmost counties of the state. Adler studied government at Harvard University, earning his A.B. In the subject, and later going on to earn his law school degree from the same university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Adler is particularly noteworthy for his work on the New Jersey Israel Commission from 1995 to the present. He thus takes a strong interest in international as well as national affairs, although part of…… [Read More]
Social capital increases in the presence of the church hence numerous connections and relationships come into existence in the church. In the modern setting of the church, there is extensive application of contemporary technology. Contemporary technology in the church helps bring religious members together as they communicate on the common religion. Church has a significant impact on the political behavior of the nation. Politicians associate with churches in order to solicit votes from the religious members. eligious groups vote in relation to their interest in the political arena thus have a greater say during elections. Churches also have the capacity to produce potential and actual leaders to serve the nation (Putnam, 2000).
Workplace enables the development of bridging social capital. This is to serve the interest of diversity within the workplace. Workers come from different background, thus experience unique cultures. This makes it necessary for companies to initiate social capital…… [Read More]
Anti-Federalists and the Constitution in the Development of Political Parties
The Development of Political Parties
The Constitution and Political Parties
The Changing Ideology of Political Parties
Even before the adoption of the Constitution, political parties were beginning to form. Those who favored the Constitution were called Federalists, and were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Another group, led by Thomas Jefferson, opposed the adoption of the Constitution and was known as Antifederalists. The Antifederalists broke up after the Constitution was ratified, but they set the stage for the development of other political parties, resulting in the two party system that we have today.
The Development of Political Parties
The debate over the Constitution split people into two groups. Those who favored ratification believed that a strong federal government that would dominate the individual states. Hamilton particularly argued that the future of the country depended on the development of a…… [Read More]
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…… [Read More]
The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…… [Read More]
The definition of democracy intensifies the ideals of the individual, as it regards the individual as a very important cog in the wheel of representation. In fact as the work points out the collective idea of social unrest lies not in individualism but in the fact that the individual ideal was to strong for third world political institutions to bear up under. (30) Yet, the individualistic ideals of today's society, are incongruent with true representation. We as members of "democratic" nation are taught to celebrate our differences and yet the human ability to celebrate any differences but our own is inherently flawed as individuals cannot recognize value in an "other" without much exposure and ideological challenge to themselves as a valuable individual defined by their differences. The self is, by its very nature associated with the ideal of better than, simply by the virtue of its separateness.
The stanch democratic…… [Read More]
Numerology and the Political Overtones of 'Inferno'
There are many layers contained within Dante's "Inferno." There is a spiritual layer, a literal layer, a political layer and many other subtle, underlying themes. One of the key elements in "Inferno" is the use of chronology and numbers to express certain ideals about his foes and political views. Numbers play and important symbolic role in the Catholic Church and their use as symbols cannot be ignored, especially that of the chronological placement of his foes on the road to Hell. Many authors of the time used a standard numerology system to express certain viewpoints or ideals (Guzzardo, p. 7). The following research will support the thesis that Dante's experiment was successful in the use of allegory to hide underlying political ideas, that were otherwise dangerous in his time, and that chronology and numbers played an important role in his ability to do…… [Read More]
rise of fascist states in Germany and Italy during the post World War I era was accompanied by similar movements in nations across the world; but most of these never achieved the same prominence. Great Britain saw the emergence of the British Union of Fascists, which gained thousands of supporters, but the organization never came to power. Largely this was for economic reasons: Britain did not suffer as severe an economic downturn after the First World War as many other nations did. Another explanation is the general rejection of the violent methodology employed by the British Fascists. It is tempting to argue that fascism was fundamentally opposed to the overall democratic nature of the British populous, but it is more likely that the failure of the fascist movement in Great Britain had economic origins.
There had never been a war quite like World War I. In its aftermath it was…… [Read More]
There are several patterns and outcomes that are fairly common in the realm of political science. Similarly, there are some subjects and points of study that are more common than others. Just a few that come to mind include the ethics of congressional staff, whether third party candidates could or should be a viable option and the demarcation that could or should exist between federal and state authority. For each of these three major examples, there will be an example given of such a thing and an analysis of the overall paradigm and question. While there are some ideas and concepts that make a lot of sense to the common voter, the people in Washington seem to be less than inclined to listen.
One member of Congress that has been accused of ethics violations would be Charles Rangel, the former Democrat member of the House of Representatives. It…… [Read More]