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His study includes the following;
The U.S. government through the executive to provide appropriate leadership to steer the country in the domain of cyber security.
The state to conduct immediate risk assessment aimed at neutralizing all the vulnerabilities.
The creation of an effective national security strategy as well as the creation of an elaborate national military strategy.
Molander (1996) uses a qualitative research approach and methodology .The method used is constructive. The constructive method used is used whenever there is a need to come up with ways of solving various problems. The significance of this technique is due to the fact that there is a need of coming up with general steps that are aimed at the identification and creation of an elaborate strategy that is aimed at reducing all the negative effects of information warfare. The objective is to come up with appropriate methods of. As a result, this is useful in helping, to provide an initial first step for identifying and controlling the problem.
Freedman (1998) comes up with a discussion of the rapidly changing facets of military warfare. The amount of conflict is noted to be dependent on the ability of the various nations trying to prevent the super powers from intervening in their various areas of interests. In such a situation, the smaller nations that are rogue may decide to use information warfare in order to achieve their ulterior motives. It is the nature of the smaller nations to engage in various tactics in order to perpetrate their evil causes. What the do is to launch attacks on the information technology infrastructure of the larger nations in order to cause confusion. The disruption caused can result in a lot of disruption that can result in military conflict. The information acquired can also be used by the smaller nations in enticing the major nations into coming into conflict with each other. This is usually through the provision of false information. The techniques used by Freedman are qualitative as well as empirical. The significance of this is that the information acquired can be used to confirm and corroborate other highlighted sources regarding the possible causes as well as effects of information warfare. The information acquired can be beneficial to the smaller nations since it might prevent them from going into war with major nations. The phenomenon of information according to this study has several beneficial effects to the smaller nations.
Arquilla (2001) discusses the various methods that terrorists organizations can use the power of information technology in order to improve both their recruiting process as well as enhance the way they control, their various cells . This is mainly due to the fact that technology has improved the away groups such as Hezbollah and Al Qaeda operates. Through technology, the terrorist groups are able to effectively reach out to various new followers and members in various countries. The terrorist networks are able to effectively encrypt their messages and also deliver various instructions to be used to effectively transport and use various encrypted disks. This in turn has resulted in various terrorist organizations being able to easily breach the counter terrorist measure put in place by various governments and institutions. This is through the use of technology in coming up with an effective technique of communicating with each other as well, as to reach out to several sympathizers and new members. The method used here is qualitative. The methodology used in this study is historical. The study involved an analysis of how the various terrorist organizations are using technology in order to commit acts of information warfare. The significance of this is to show how various terrorist organizations are turning to technology in order to perpetrate acts of cyber terrorism as part of their overall terrorist strategies. The information acquired from the study can therefore be used to effectively establish a pattern/recognize a plan necessary to combat future cases of information warfare in the terrorist domains.
Devost (2005) focuses on the potential impact of information warfare on the United States of America. This according to him is due to the fact that the country relies on the use of technology in carrying out several of its activities. This fact alone explains the rise in the number of points of vulnerability. The article focuses on the way the U.S. is exposed to various forms of cyber attacks emanating from various other nations. In such situations, the possibilities of cyber attacks are usually reduced. This is because of the fact that both retaliation and interdependence of these nations are kind of low as a result only serves to their disadvantage. Devost does believe that the various terrorist organizations can instead attempt to carry out cyber attacks since they believe that they can cause both psychological and economic damages on their targeted countries. The approach discussed here is very popular due to the following facts.
The terrorist are able to plan and execute their plans undetected.
There is a large number of young persons who are joining the terrorist networks and coupled with the rise in the number of youth who are involved in the use of technology makes the threats widespread.
The carrying out of information warfare involves the use of very little financial resources.
The planning and execution of cyber terrorism requires very little physical resources.
The method used by the author is quantitative and involved the use of empirical techniques in the examination of the various subjects. The significance of the study was to come up with an identification of the most likely use of information warfare by cyber terrorist in order advance their aims. This paper point out the fact that the larger nations are most likely not going tom participate in information warfare in order to advance their options. This is due to the fact that they may be fearful of the potential damage this could bring to them as a result of negative implications. This therefore makes the chances of such attacks low. The use of information warfare in order to advance ulterior motives against other nations therefore remains with smaller terrorist organizations who end up using it in order to result to negative economic implications as well as to create fear in these countries.
Yoshihara ( 2001) discusses the various effects that Chinese information warfare can pose to the United States of America. He identified the various threat levels and sources that the threats can pose to the country in the future. This according to him is due to the fact that United States has it attention focused somewhere else. The author points out that the Chinese government can most likely use the information they acquire in order to cause harm to Taiwan. In such a situation, China would utilize the information they have acquired through information warfare to launch hack attacks and disable various integral systems during conflicts. This would result in attack of Taiwan with the usually military resources in an effort to create a crisis in the country. Another reality is that the United States military is continuously dependent / reliant on technology. The possibility or scenario is that should China launch an attack through the disabling of the early moments of the attack/conflict, then they can effectively delay the arrival of the other reinforcing military aids such as that of the United States and NATO forces. Should this occur, there is a high chance that China would easily succeed in attacking their enemy Taiwan. This would mean that the response from other nations would arrive late and China would have succeeded in capturing Taiwan. The method employed by Yoshihara is quantitative and used an empirical technique. The significance of this study is to highlight the possibility of trouble that can be caused by China by means of information warfare. The study can be used in I the formulation of the future military policies by various governments.
Lewis (2002) studies the various forms of cyber attacks and their effects on both the national security and public policy making. The paper studies looks at a certain set of issues that are related to the way information technology can be used in carrying out cyber attacks as well as cyber terrorism on various critical public and private infrastructure as well as the possible implications of such attacks on the national security. The paper clearly describes how a hostile group of individuals or nations can come together to exploit the various vulnerabilities in the information technology infrastructure as well as the way such attacks and breaches can affect the national security. The author point out that the fact that the rapid rate of adoption of and its use in the various aspects of the economy points out the reason why it is wise to assume the assumptions of risks to be real. The paper does not however provide a full assessment .The paper does however provide four integral elements that must…[continue]
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Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) The Federal Information Security Management Act places emphasis on the importance of training and awareness program and states under section 3544 (b).(4).(A), (B) that "security awareness training to inform personnel, including contractors and other users of information systems that support the operations and assets of the agency of- information security risks associated with their activities; and their responsibilities in complying with agency policies and procedures
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