Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Changes in smoking and in the consumption of fruits and vegetables probably played a minor role in this decrease." (Disease Priorities in Developing Countries, nd) This information is shown in the following chart labeled Figure 1.
Source: Willet et al. (nd)
The work of Beblo and Lauer (2002) reports an analysis of the "intergenerational transmission of poverty from Polish parents to their children through children's educational attainment during the transition process of the 1990s." In an investigation of the relationship that exists between the background of the family and the education findings show that "children' education is strongly related to the structure of the household, the education of parents, the size of the city and the region of residence." However, the income of the household and the labor market situation of the parents are found to have only a weak, although significant effect on the education of children. (Beblo and Lauer, 2002; paraphrased) the work of Fratczak (2004) reports, in the work entitled: "Family and Fertility in Poland - Changes During the Transition Period" in the country of Poland, "among the three basic demographic processes, which are fertility, mortality and migration, it is fertility that has undergone the most dynamic changes in scale and range in Poland under transition." The following chart shows the change in fertility patterns between 1989-2001 in both urban and rural areas in Poland.
Change in Fertility Pattern 1989-2001 (female fertility rates in years 1989 and 2001 - live births per 1000 females)
Source: Fratczak (2004)
There are noted to be changes in the process of family formation and dissolution and specifically stated is that Poland is "one of the countries in which family model used to be a traditional one, based on the history of first marriages." The primary characteristics were that of "marriage universality and a relatively young age of spouses at marriage. Consensual unions were scarce." (Fratczak, 2004) Historically and traditionally marriages in the country of Poland were characterized as extremely durable due to the primary reason for dissolution of a marriage to be the death of one spouse at the rate of about 80% with divorce following second at 20%. Changes in family formation are stated to have emerged in the decade of the 1990s specifically in relation to "first marriage patterns, which turned into permanent behavior" and noted to be characterized by: (1) changed intensity of first marriages, which confirms diminished tendency to marry; (2) lowering values of partial coefficients, especially in age groups: under 19, 20-24, 25-29 and 30-34, which is a sign of diminishing intensity of first marriages; (3) increase in mean age at first marriage to about 24 for women and 26.5 for men in 2001. The family has become destandardized and the rate of those who stay single and never marry is growing while the rate of children being born is falling therefore the result is that the "distribution and sequence of events in family life cycle are changing" (Fratczak, 2004) in the country of Poland.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
The predominant religion in Poland is that of the Catholic faith however, as noted earlier in this study there is a great renewal of Jewish culture in this country, which originally was home to a great number of Jewish people. Also noted earlier in this study is what seems to be a general lack of acknowledgement in recent years in terms of religious faith among the Polish people who are still attempting to catch up to themselves after the impacts from the Holocaust in the country of Poland which apparently was brushed aside and characterized by a failure of the Polish people to acknowledge fully or to effectively cope, as a cultural society, with the implications and impact of the holocaust in terms of the effects upon the Jewish members of Polish cultural society. The Polish family was historically a very traditional model however, since the 1990's, the dynamics of the Polish family are changing with marriages taking place later in life, those who remain single growing and the number of children born in the country of Poland falling in number. Poland is a country with deep national pride and a country that has suffered through many political and economic difficulties including wars, the time perpetrated by Hitler, as well as many other difficulties noted in this study. There is a great wealth of culture and history in the country of Poland which is presently being preserved in its heritage by many sectors of culture and society. Poland is a country that everyone has heard of but a country of which few have taken the interest to explore. However, upon even a brief examination of Poland such as this present work in writing, it must be acknowledge that the cultural depth and history of the country of Poland represents a vast wealth should not be lost to history but instead preserved by the present population living in this country for future generations to appreciate.
Beblo, Miriam and Lauer, Charlotte (2002) Intergenerational Poverty Dynamics in Poland: Family Background and Children's educational Attainment During Transition. Centre for European Economic Research 15 June 2002. Social Science Research Network. Online available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=320980
Country Facts Baltic Sea Region: Poland (nd) Online available at http://bibl.sh.se/baltic/countryfacts.htm
Culture of Poland (2008) Every Culture. Countries and Their Culture. Online available at http://www.everyculture.com/No-Sa/Poland.html
Fratczak, Ewa (2004) Family and Fertility in Poland - Changes During the Transition Period. Institutes of Statistics and Demography. Warsaw School of Economics. The PIE International Workshop on Demographic Changes and Labor Markets in Transition Economies February 20 & 21, 2004 hosted by Institute of Economic Research (IER), Hitotsubashi University at Sano Shoin (President's Guest House of Hitotsubashi University) Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan
Grangier, Eva (2000) Concrete Effects of the EU's Eastward Expansion on the Cultural Sector. European Cultural Policy in Poland. Sept 2000. Online available at http://eipcp.net/transversal/1100/grangier/en/print
Lulek, a.F. And Paga, E.A. (1989) the Spheres of Inequality in Centrally Planned Economy: The Case of Poland. International Journal of Economics Vol. 16 Issue 1. Emerald Journal Online Abstract available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=ACC2C33167209839FB7074E7189EB19C?contentType=Article&contentId=846950
Newey, Adam (2000) a Coffee Break in Poland's Culture Capital. The Independent Europe. 22 Oct 2000. Online available at http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/europe/a-coffee-break-in-polands-culture-capital-621787.html
Poland (2008) National Cultural Sites - European Culture Portal. Online available at http://ec.europa.eu/culture/portal/sites/members/poland_en.htm
Secretary General of the World Congress of Families Allan C. Carlson presented President Lech Kaczynski with a diploma and extended his thanks for support and activities for families in Poland, Europe and the world (2007) World Congress of Families IV. Online available at http://www.worldcongress.pl/docs/en/doc/letter_of_president.doc
Smith, Craig S. (2007) Non-Jews Reviving Poland's Jewish Culture. International Herald Tribune Europe. 11 July 2007. Online available at http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/07/11/news/poland.php
Willett, Walter C. et al. (nd) Prevention of Chronic Disease by Means of Diet and Lifestyle Changes. Chapter 44. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Online available at: files.dcp2.org/pdf/DCP/DCP44.pdf[continue]
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