Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Dementia and Normal Ageing
Old age comes with quite a number of complications and change of behavior as well as physical changes. On the other hand, dementia also comes in with several symptoms that are closely related or similar to those displayed by people in old age. This makes it quite tricky for the family members of an ageing individual to tell whether the person is undergoing normal ageing or has been affected by dementia. This is made even harder to tell apart by the fact that dementia is more frequent among people of old age than the young people. The research paper looks at the two aspects and strives to contrast the two taking into account the biological, psychological, physiological as well as the sociological perspectives towards the two concepts.
As we advance in years, the body gives way to several other signs that we did not have previously and these come at different rates for each person. It is indicated that the rate of ageing and the rate of the symptoms depends on genetics as well as the lifestyle that an individual used to live and/or lives in.
There are several symptoms that are expected to set in as an individual slides into the old age bracket as depicted below by Alistair B & Michael Z, (2002:2):
There are physiological signs that can be seen on looking at the person like the less elastic skin, slowing of fingernails growth and dryness of the skin. The hair turns grey and they develop scalp, there could also be change of height by losing as much as 5 cm through compression of joints and change in posture. There could develop hearing difficulties as well as change in tone and fluency in speech. Most of the ageing people will also develop presbyopia which is the need for reading lenses that sets in mainly at the age of 40s and above. Night vision may also set in accompanied by decline in visual sharpness and fear of glare (Rawan T & David M., 2012:2).
It is also noted that there could be change in sleeping patterns where the person will most likely sleep less during the night and not as deeply as the previous younger years. They are also prone to waking up early in the morning and also waking up haphazardly at night.
Old age also comes with natural bone loss where the bones get less dense and lose strength. This is due to the fact that in the course of adulthood, people lose some of the minerals in the bones consequently leading to weaker bones in old age. It is said that this condition known as osteoporosis can be slowed by regular weight bearing activities for instance walking, avoiding foods and drinks/smoking that will weaken bones and taking enough calcium and vitamin D
There are as well some internal changes in the body mechanism like slowing in the metabolism, the heart becomes generally less efficient with age hence slowing circulation particularly during heavy activities, the lung may also become less active hence depriving the body of oxygen particularly among inactive people. The kidneys are also noted to decline in size and function as the person ages. The ageing person can also display urinary incontinence as well as lesser sexual drive particularly among women after menopause.
However, despite the above, the most crucial in this case is the nervous system as the person ages. It is noted that in the third decade of an individual, there is a general decrease in the weight of the brain as well as the size of the nervous network on the brain. This is occasioned by lesser flow of blood within the brain. The best part is that as the person ages, the brain adapts to these changes within the brain and develops new patterns in the nerve endings. The memory changes are deemed part of normal ageing hence very much expected and at this stage, these people are expected to have less recall power of the very recent memories to a wider extent be slower in remembering details and names that it was during the younger years.
Such loss of brain activities can however be revived and revitalized regularly by constantly engaging in social activities, the person can also challenge oneself to do and learn new things. Being physically active is also part of the revival process as it helps increase the flow of blood within the brain.
At old age, the information processing generally slackens and they cannot multitask and it is noted that they develop a lot of variability in cognitive functions, it is quite normal to fins the older people beating the younger generation in their knowledge of the world in general.
Dementia and old age
It is true that each person will lose memory as noted above once the old age catches up with them. There is need therefore to have differences between normal loss of memory and the problem of dementia or Alzheimer among the aging people.
Of significance from the onset is to realize that dementia is not normal aging. Dementia comes with complications such as Alzheimer where the aging person develops cognitive problems due to the change in the brain functions. It is excusable for many to take it that old age and dementia are the same thing since it is one of the most predominant and conspicuous conditions that old people generate more than any other. In a research conducted by Barry W. Roney et.al (2005) they found out that of the 454 old people they observed in nursing homes, 67.4% of them had dementia as the psychiatric condition disturbing them.
There is a general agreement Alzheimer is caused by accumulation of toxic protein known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-4 allele within the brain (National Institute of Health, 2012). Heijer T. et al. (2012) further indicate that people with this type of protein are commonly associated with lower hippocampal volumes, which is a predisposing factor to early signs of dementia as well as Alzheimer's disease. A research to solidify this stand was conducted on 80 persons of old age and it was discovered that over 32.6 months duration, 27 of the 80 old persons who suffered mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to hippocampal atrophy, progressed to the Alzheimer's Disease type of Dementia as reported by Pieter J. Visser et.al, (1999:478).
There is further indication that the onset of the condition can be of early onset (at the age between 30 and 60) but most commonly is the late onset coming at the age of 60 years and after (Sonia M. Rosso, et.al, 2003). Old age is not caused by this toxic protein and cannot have an early onset hence the clear deference between the two aspects.
The most significant way of telling the difference between normal aging and the onset of dementia is through looking at the symptoms and the daily social manifestations of both. According to Kevin R. & Anna M., (2007), there are varied symptoms that are distinct to dementia as noted below interchangeably with Alzheimer:
One of the most common symptoms noted among people with dementia is difficulty in remembering details and particularly new information that they have just come across for instance and appointment they have just made. This is different among the ageing people since in as much as they may forget some details, they will remember later on that actually they had forgotten which is not the case with dementia patients. These people will forget some piece of information and the piece of information does not come back at all, even if someone reminded them of the information, it will sound new to them.
It is also significant to note that the dementia cases will cause the person to suffer cognitive impairment as opposed to normal ageing which may be occasioned by loss of memory (Toshioki M. et.al, 2012:11). In the case of cognitive impairment, the person may for instance forget how to do some things like he may forget how to pay his bills, yet the old age case the person will forget to pay buy will still know how to pay and the entire process if reminded that they had not paid their bills.
The other symptom is developing sudden difficulty in completing tasks which hitherto they could easily accomplish such as driving to the grocery store that they had been driving to for the last 20 years. This is a different scenario from normal ageing where the person will still recall which way to follow only that they may need help in driving there due to traffic or strain of driving.
People with dementia will also portray difficulty with words where they will be seen to stop in the middle of a conversation or repeating the same thing over and over as well as calling an object by a wrong name, this is different from the normal aging where the person will occasionally have a problem in recalling…[continue]
"Dementia And Normal Ageing Old Age Comes" (2012, October 13) Retrieved October 24, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/dementia-and-normal-ageing-old-age-comes-75920
"Dementia And Normal Ageing Old Age Comes" 13 October 2012. Web.24 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/dementia-and-normal-ageing-old-age-comes-75920>
"Dementia And Normal Ageing Old Age Comes", 13 October 2012, Accessed.24 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/dementia-and-normal-ageing-old-age-comes-75920
(Transforming Care for People with Dementia across the Continuum) Dementia can be cured with a mixture of psychotherapy, environmental modifications, and medicines. Drug treatment can be problematic by forgetfulness, mainly if the advised drug is to be taken a number of times a day. Behavioral problems are due to irritation or over stimulation. Enjoyable activities, like crafts, games, and music, can give therapeutic motivation and enhance mood. Changing the environment
If anything, such a person may have regrets over having wasted too much of life on impersonal achievements and selfish pursuits. 6. Do you agree that in later life men become more nurturing and women more assertive? What do you think are the findings that could support or challenge that observation? The observation that men tend to become more nurturing, less competitive, less aggressive, and "gentler" in later life and that
It often means interventions opening the doors of our lives to strangers, healthcare providers, whose job it is to assist the elderly in achieving and maintaining the highest quality of life possible until the individual crosses from this existence into the mystery of the next one. Some of the physical conditions that are associated with aging are Alzheimers disease, which while associated with aging can manifest onset well before what
Some treatments may actually help with the disease. Diets and dietary supplements Eating vegetables like broccoli and spinach may help older women [and probably men] retain some memory abilities later on, while avoiding obesity in middle age lowers the risk of later Alzheimer's disease in both sexes, new studies suggest." The effect of the vegetables probably comes from the antioxidants and B. vitamins they contain (Ritter, 2004). Herbal remedies and other dietary
A driver came to the house and picked Robert up five days a week at 7:30 and brought him home at around 4:00 P.M. The couple received a grant from United Way to fund the service they received from the Respite Center, which cost around $200 per week. The Respite Center had well-thought-out activities designed for seniors with dementia and Alzheimer's, and those activities "helped slow down his Alzheimer's" (Claunch).
Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging
126). Although there are an increasing number of elderly in the United States today with many more expected in the future, the study of elder abuse is of fairly recent origin. During the last three decades of the 20th century, following the "discovery" of child abuse and domestic violence, scholars and professionals started taking an active interest in the subject of elder abuse. This increased attention from the academic