This may be explained partly by the fact that methamphetamine is the only drug where the number of women using the drug is roughly the same as that of men (Cohen et al., 2007) and partly due to the fact that one's status in these groups is dependent on one's involvement in the production process rather than on cultural perceptions of gender.
Question 4 Answer 4
Deviant acts can be categorized into three forms: individual, cooperation, and conflict. Individual deviant act is an act that can be accomplished by one individual. Many individuals can participate in the same act or accomplish it separately from each other, but in essence individual deviance "can be committed by one person, to that person, on that person, for that person" (Adler & Adler, 2012, p. 460). An example of individual deviance is alcohol addiction. The goal of such a deviant is to satisfy himself/herself with alcohol and the structure of the act involves the causes, process, consequences, and duration of addiction since use and conception of time can distinguish a deviant act from other conventional acts (Reese, 1989).
Cooperative deviance involves at least two voluntary participants. These include transfer of illicit goods, exchange of money, trading reciprocal acts, and other forms of cooperation where both parties gain and act consensually (Adler & Adler, 2012, p. 460). An example of cooperation is sex by two consensual adults in public space. The goal of such an act is to get gratification and feel the excitement. The structure includes the duration, the extent the participants try to hide from others, the nature of act, and consequences.
Conflict is characterized by domination of one participant over the unwillingness of another or others. At the core of conflict is "hostility, with one person getting the more favorable outcome (Adler & Adler, 2012, p. 461). Rape is an example of conflict. The goals include domination and gratification of sadistic ego. The structure of this act would be the process, the nature, the use of violence, duration, and consequences.
Question 5 Answer 5
The concept of "deviant career" refers to an analysis of deviance from a career perspective. This may offer fruitful analysis because "[w]orking in deviant fields holds many similarities to the skills, professionalism, connections, and attitudes needed for conventional jobs" (Adler & Adler, 2012, p. 524). A deviant act such as prostitution is also a career for many individuals.
Although the textbook suggests that most people become involved in deviance by conforming to others, research shows that women enter prostitution primarily to earn money and the entrance to this career is relatively easy but involves significant risks (Oselin, 2010). There is no formal training and socialization for this deviance, as participants gain experience through direct participation. Socialization may consist of emotional crisis, frustration, or sometimes gratification thanks to financial gains and companionship with other participants in this deviance.
Involvement in prostitution leads to participants' changes over time. A research conducted on Taiwanese prostitutes concluded that these changes include resistance, development of interpersonal connections, self-injury and loss of hope, and acceptance of prostitution (Shu-ling & Bedford, 2004). The same study identified difficulties associated with exiting prostitution. The deviants remained in their careers due to financial, emotional, drug-related, and identity-related reasons. Post-deviant features of prostitution involve the challenges of returning to conventional life, and is generally hard for most because of the past association with deviance and stigma (Oselin, 2010). In a few countries like Netherlands, prostitution is not a deviant career but a legitimate one.
Adler, P.A., & Adler, P. (2012). Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction. (7th edition). Belmond, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Cohen, J.B., Greenberg, R., Uri, J., Halpin, M., & Zweben, J.E. (2007). Women with Methamphetamine Dependence: Research on Etiology and Treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 347-351.
Farrell, R.A., & Nelson, J.F. (1976). A Causal Model of Secondary Deviance: the Case of Homosexuality. Sociological Quarterly, 17(1), 109-120.
Oselin, S.S. (2010). Weighing the consequences of a deviant career: Factors leading to an exit from prostitution. Sociological Perspectives, 53(4), 527-550.
Reese II, W.A. (1989). UNTIMELY ACTS: Extending the Interactionist Conception of Deviance. Sociological Quarterly, 30(2), 159.
Shu-ling, H., & Bedford, O. (2004). Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution. Psychology…