As the world has penetrated into the age of advancements and innovations, it has given rise to increased globalization, which has resulted in intense and fierce competition in the marketplace on a universal platform. Companies and firms on a broad spectrum are now confronting numerous new challenges because of the competition that has rapidly grown within the marketplace. Therefore, it has become significant for the companies to be vigilant so that they can develop and implement the systems that meet the requirement of innovation of the current market and have the potential to act promptly in response to the new changes (Ritzer 2011).
A general perception has been developed that multinational corporations were the widespread firms that extensively practiced the dispersed knowledge. The globally dispersed locations of the firms confronted a need to assimilate geographically dispersed knowledge in order to create value to the firm. Nevertheless, with the passage of time, the exercise of dispersed knowledge has become a necessity for all sorts of organizations that include local and international firms because the market has shifted to the global arena (Ritzer 2011).
However, it has been noticed that the firms and companies that demonstrates their continued devotion to the older approach of mass production techniques are having problems to a great extent with the dispersed knowledge because the market demand is changing at a rampant pace. This is predominantly due to the reason that older systems and approaches practiced top-down directions that hampered them to make spontaneous decisions and it became one of their weaknesses with the current market situation (Goldsmith 2003).
As time passed by, the marketplace has become more flexible and increased elasticity has become one of its crucial demands where the companies and firms ought to take impulsive and instant decisions. With the market development and demands, the role of workers was transformed as they became the knowledgeable workers and decision-making power was leveraged by them to a large degree (Goldsmith 2003).
The companies and firms that were adaptable to change, used their strength of immediate decisions, and considered their workers as knowledgeable workers were better able to manage the new changes and demands of the market became successful and flourished. Knowledge has evolved and progressed as one of the principal idea not only in the economics but also play a vital role in strategies and organizational research (Goldsmith 2003).
Considering the characteristics of knowledge that is essential of the firms, it has been analyzed that three dynamic qualities add to knowledge: empirical, tacit and source of surprises. Knowledge at many occasions is tacit because it cannot be communicated or transferred to other individuals. The exploration of knowledge engages surprises, which defines the ideas and insights. Since ideas develop and originate instinctively, thus one cannot plan its value or usefulness in advance. The diverse utilization of knowledge in the form of empirical, tacit, and surprising aspects elucidate that the knowledge is dispersed. In other words, the agents are either acquainted with many things or strive to determine and realize the things that are not easily expressed or communicated (Foss & Klein 2012).
However, dispersed knowledge has also been termed as partial knowledge. In the field of economics, dispersed knowledge refers to the information that is diffused and scattered all over the marketplace. This denotes that the knowledge or information is not stored or kept with any particular agent and all the agents of the market possess imperfect or partial knowledge. Price is one of the common indicators that are with all the agents, which keeps a track record of others' knowledge and intentions. In this regard, majority of the knowledge used is tacit because usually people are partially aware of the knowledge that is being shared or disseminated. In fact, it has been perceived that people do not even distinguish or use the knowledge at the time of making a price decision (Foss & Klein 2012).
The transfer of knowledge is a slow and costly process because the outcome of the knowledge transfer is relatively uncertain to define. This means that many of the researchers declare in harmony that the process of perfect and complete knowledge transfer within the organization is being hampered and obstructed by numerous barriers (Foss & Klein 2012).
Empirical studies bring the fact to the forefront that the firms that have been slower in accepting the change, fails to meet the requirements of being competitive with other firms and lose the chance of gaining competitive advantage over others present in the market. It has been observed from various researches that the firms that lay key emphasis only on product innovation rather than concentrating process innovation on equal basis has progressively deteriorated the capabilities and competence of the organization. This typically happens because the organizations are not ready to accept the change of escalated global competition and adapt the new approaches and techniques of manufacturing mass production (Foss & Klein 2012).
While looking at the other hand, the firms that are abandoning their obsolete and outmoded strategies and approaches have proved to cope up with the dispersed knowledge and exhibited flexibility with change. These firms have made their workers accountable for the identification of new technologies that are required to meet the demands and needs of consumers. In addition, these workers were also held responsible for carrying out the training sessions regarding the new technologies and even the maintenance of the machineries. Therefore, it means that the firms have provided their workers with the opportunity to enhance their skills in order to understand production process to a wide extent and make valuable contributions in problem solving (Doz, Santos & Williamson 2001).
A wide range of studies has exposed the fact that many of the firms that are aware of and recognize the significance of dispersed knowledge provide a cooperative and supportive environment to the employees that is a motivating force that drives the workers to perform productively. These firms have demonstrated to practice a flat hierarchy within the organization and employs teamwork, where participation from the workers is considered a key to success. Due to this reason, the workers on a continuous basis have been a substantial part in almost all stages of the decision-making process. With the power of decision-making, the workers are also held answerable and responsible for their actions. The organizations practice such a strategy with the prime intention to develop an environment that promotes commitment, loyalty and ideas that can become the industry best practice (Doz, Santos & Williamson 2001).
The exercise of dispersed knowledge in association to the cooperative environment has resulted in innovation, which has been verified from a number of sources. Even though the fact cannot be ignored that dispersed knowledge is imperative to change, yet the process of acceptance to the change process is relatively slow. The culture of managerial authority has been identified they key loop hole, as they only believe in the manager's proficiency in accordance to the need of an expert for decision-making process (Doz, Santos & Williamson 2001).
Taking into account the aspect of dispersed knowledge experts have suggested that companies and firms reflect the image of a depository arena that is full of collective knowledge and skills, where the production is the core focal area for the firms. Indeed, the company has the ability and capacity to perform activities that cannot be easily explained because of the knowledge (which is tacit in nature) that they possess (Kirzner 1996).
Since the performance of the organizational structure is the vital with reference to the different economic situations, thus concentration needs to be placed on how organizational structures would imply the dispersed knowledge. The increase in globalization has given rise to prompt change and uncertain conditions in the global market, thus it has become pivotal to evaluate the organizational structures of the firms that has enabled the aspect of flexibility in their manufacturing techniques. This flexible nature particularly refers to the firm's capability that can be developed and enhanced with reference to various situations over time, rather than making the manufacturing process firm in every circumstance (Kirzner 1996).
Records have revealed the piece of information that the firms that would rely on their previous accomplishments would witness a declining pattern to their success. While the organizations and firms that are open towards change and progress their capabilities explicitly such that it enables them towards innovation would flourish and prosper. In other words, the economists have correlated the organizational capabilities (appropriate utilization of dispersed knowledge) with innovation. Dispersed knowledge is closely related to the organizational capabilities that focus on the significance of knowledge that is tacit in nature (Kirzner 1996).
In the traditional and older manufacturing systems, where the organizational capabilities and dispersed knowledge was not the highlighting aspect, the potential positions of workers were also overlooked on the whole that regarded an essential source of knowledge. The older systems also depicted that many of the firms involved in the mass production gave all the skills to the managerial…