Essay question Review contemporary theory research literature critically evaluate SHRM aspect impact organisations competitive advantage Human resources management unit a business economic degree The aspect SHRM I reviewing employee performance impacts organisation's competitive advantage

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Management by exception refers to the practice of monitoring employees principally for good and bad performance at the far ends of the performance spectrum and largely ignoring performance monitoring closer to the center (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). Management by the exception can be narrowed even further by focusing exclusively on under-performing employees. It is closely related (in the context of performance appraisal) to critical incident management (CIM) because it focuses on particularly good or bad (or just bad) outcomes. As between the two approaches, management by exception is more proactive and often safer because CIM is, by design, retroactive. More precisely, both are retroactive approaches because they address poor performance after the fact; their principal distinction is that CIM applies to and is determined by operational outcomes; meanwhile, management by exception is only retroactive with respect to the individual employee and includes intervention before outcomes necessarily materialize (Russell-Whalling, 2008).

Management by objectives is a process whereby management and staff collaborate to establish quantifiable benchmarks in advance that are used as a map to success of each employee (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). In addition to providing a mechanism for objective appraisal, the advantage of management by objectives is that it pre-empts some of the most common sources of organizational inefficiency at the staff level: miscommunication between management and staff or between supervisors and subordinates and poorly understood operational objectives and responsibilities (Kinicki & Williams, 2005). Management by objectives provides a means of ensuring communications clarity and greatly facilitates the development and sharing of uniform expectations among and between employees, supervisors, and organizational management (Maxwell, 2007).

The 360-degree performance appraisal concept also involves input from the employee, but retroactively instead of prospectively (Russell-Whalling, 2008).Whereas management by objectives includes the employee in the performance goal-setting phase, 360-degree performance appraisal focuses on review after the fact. On the other hand, the 360-degree approach typically provides much more information to assess performance, because it includes input from coworkers, supervisors, vendors, clients, and (often) from the employee as well. In principle, 360-degree performance appraisal is consistent and compatible with management by objectives as well as with management by exception and critical incident management (Russell-Whalling, 2008).

Behavioral observation-based employee…[continue]

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"Essay Question Review Contemporary Theory Research Literature Critically Evaluate SHRM Aspect Impact Organisations Competitive Advantage Human Resources Management Unit A Business Economic Degree The Aspect SHRM I Reviewing Employee Performance Impacts Organisation's Competitive Advantage" (2011, April 06) Retrieved August 31, 2015, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/essay-question-review-contemporary-theory-50360

"Essay Question Review Contemporary Theory Research Literature Critically Evaluate SHRM Aspect Impact Organisations Competitive Advantage Human Resources Management Unit A Business Economic Degree The Aspect SHRM I Reviewing Employee Performance Impacts Organisation's Competitive Advantage" 06 April 2011. Web.31 August. 2015. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/essay-question-review-contemporary-theory-50360>

"Essay Question Review Contemporary Theory Research Literature Critically Evaluate SHRM Aspect Impact Organisations Competitive Advantage Human Resources Management Unit A Business Economic Degree The Aspect SHRM I Reviewing Employee Performance Impacts Organisation's Competitive Advantage", 06 April 2011, Accessed.31 August. 2015, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/essay-question-review-contemporary-theory-50360

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