Evidence-based nursing practice allows nursing students into developing an understanding of evaluation methods for healthcare research and integrating their findings into practice for he improvement of their practice, education and management of nursing practice. It is a learning method, which introduces nursing students into the process of using evidence in their practice. The nursing practice and handling of patients demand the best practices from nurses (Williams, & Wilkins, 2008). These are achievable through research and the research findings must be availed to nurses for use in their daily practices. However, the challenge of such results is that nurses and nursing students do not easily understand the terminologies used in researches, on most occasions (American Psychological Association, 2009). Therefore, it is important making sure that nurses and students gain adequate knowledge for understanding and critically appraising research for the identification of the best practices found within researches.
For the success of any research, there are governing research components. These help the researcher in deducing results for the research objectives set for the advancement of the practice of nursing (Williams, & Wilkins, 2008). Using evidence-based research at the workplace is the responsibility of every nurse. This is irrespective of the level of practice, and that makes it necessary for nurses of all calibers to make an effort in understanding new findings in research for their practice. There are theories, which nurses can use to guide their practice, for the main objective of providing quality healthcare to their clients. These theories guide their practice to remain ethical through research and handling of patients.
Evidence based interventions help in developing stronger and meaningful interventions for practice in nursing practice (Williams, & Wilkins, 2008). This is because, if it is deduced from a research that compared different theories, it deduces its findings from the phenomenon, thus, coming up with the most efficient basis of practice in the nursing field. Further, the refined ideas provide space for perfecting the nursing practice. Additionally, evidence-based nursing requires testing of the existing theories, this helps in the provision and improvement of existing theories and intervention strategies for human health through change of their behavior and attitudes towards given theories like the cognitive theory or any other nursing-based theory under study (American Psychological Association, 2009). Evidence-based nursing practice is also important in advancement of the nursing practice because it helps nurses with the means of integrating different theories whenever they handle situations requiring nursing intervention.
A phenomenon can be easily described using the descriptive theory, then, through the use of grand theories, large elements of phenomena gets described, while the middle range theories can later be used for sub-dividing the study into smaller portions for better understanding (Cronin, Coughlan & Ryan, 2007). A nurse in full understanding of how to integrate the different theories can also take into practice the use of different nursing models and conceptualizing them using the available theories of practice. This makes evidence-based practice a wholesome means of ensuring that any nursing practice is adequate for handling a situation and creating effective intervention for nurses. The nurse is capable of using both grounded theories as well as borrowed theories making sure that every conceptualized action of practice remains within the provided ethical limits of practice (American Psychological Association, 2009).
There are a number of literatures from past researchers and studies revealing information concerning the theories of ideas under study. The literature focuses on existing materials and information of models and theories relevant to practice. A nursing researcher or practitioner can find literature from past researches from medical journals, books and from experience at work. Research can further use different kinds of theories and models for developing a study and improving on their application in nursing (Griffin, Polit, & Byrne, 2007). These are such as, classical theory used abstractly for generalizing relationships in a phenomena. Descriptive theory on the other hand, is used for describing a phenomenon through observation. Grand theory is for making explanations of large experiences of human life, while middle-range theory is for focusing on specific aspects of human experiences. Conceptual models focus on abstractions coherently assembled to explain a phenomenon in an informal manner of study related to people, environment, health and nursing. The use of theories is for testing the theory, measuring competing theories, using the theories within organized structures, fitting problems into theory and developing original models or theories. Qualitative researches use grounded theory, substantive theory, ethnography and phenomenology (Williams, & Wilkins, 2008).
It is important that a researcher or nurse has adequate information regarding current researches and trends in the field for studying of a proposed research or healthcare practice. In every research, there are ethical guidelines for the cultural demands of every research for ensuring that every researcher does not infringe the rights of research participants or set standards of the research process. Every research must observe ethical practice when studying a topic for helping nurses in advancing their service provision (Williams, & Wilkins, 2008). This means that every researcher must always observe the beneficence principle trough the assurance of no harm, exploitation, maximization of benefits and maintenance of benefit / risk ratio to all beneficiaries. This observation must always ensure that every research has potential benefits for participants and that the benefits outweigh any risks, which may exist (Cronin, Coughlan & Ryan, 2007).
The use of classical theory helps in generalization of abstract information and making of systematic explanations on relationships existing in phenomenal studies. On the other hand, descriptive theory is a description of phenomena through observation. These and other nursing theories work in conjunction with models like the conceptual model for the handling of abstractions assembled coherently (Griffin, Polit, & Byrne, 2007). Both models and theories are concepts used as building blocks in research studies and nursing practice. The underlying concepts within them must have conceptual definitions, can be schematically depicted, are created by people and develop inductively. They also have no proof of great or less degrees; their use is for generation of hypotheses and stimulates the research process. The common nursing conceptual models are Roy's Adaptation Model and Orem's Self-Care Model. There are others developed by nurses such as the Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) and the Mishel's Uncertainty in Illness Theory. There are also non-nursing theories used by researchers like Becker's Health Belief Model (HBM), Lazarus and Folkman's Theory of Stress and Coping, Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Polit, & Beck, 2008).
This also helps then in nurturing the zeal for conducting research and making the nursing practice practical and quality. Similarly, nurses in advanced roles have the responsibility of adapting the new findings from research into the workplace (Cronn, Coughlan & Ryan, 2007).. It is their duty finding the best means of incorporating the findings for bettering of the nursing practice in their places of work. Given their positions, they have the responsibility for leading their teams in the manner through, which they can use the findings at work in an ethical manner (Williams, & Wilkins, 2008). Explanatory theory helps in the identification of various factors, which a healthcare giver desires to modify. Alternatively, change theory focuses on developing and implementing of interceptive strategies for intervention. The absence of a complete and rational appraisal of problems and solutions can make interventions to wrongly address inappropriate variables and that can lead to missing the relevant targets. Adequate use of theory also helps in tackling specific proportions of combinations of required variables for achieving desired effects. The use of theories and research designs help in the development of judgments of whether the elements of practice program are in place. Theory ensures that every program set in place have all required elements for the maximization of the desired effects. There are a number of nursing theory like the cognitive theory, explanatory theory, social cognitive theory, change theory and development theory among others. These define the nursing practice from personal, organizational, community and policy development all in the aim of creating reforms in the nursing environment. Difficulties that arise in practice are on most occasions resultant from insufficiency of skills for incorporating effective use of the theory in practice. This means that every health practitioner or researcher must have adequate skills for ensuring that they can integrate theories of practice in their service provision. It is also evident that just a single theory is not sufficient for providing adequate practice. This calls for adequacy of skills in selecting and utilizing available theories and putting them into practice.
It is also important that every research observe human dignity and respect for human life. This means that during a research, there should be no coercion and there must be respect for disclosure. There should also be justice giving way for fair treatment, privacy and anonymity for those participants under the research. It is also important to give advance consent to participants so that they have adequate information in good time for comprehension and free decision of whether to participate in the…