Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Gender on Self-Esteem in China
VALID OR NOT
Effects of Gender on Self-Esteem in China
Six studies present varying results on the effect of gender on self-esteem. Watkins & Yu (1993) found gender to have little effect on self-esteem but much on self-concept and self-satisfaction, especially among Chinese women. Zhang & Leung (2002) suggested the moderating factors of gender and age in the connection between individual and collective self-esteem and life satisfaction. Their research concluded that the connection is stronger on the male, thus the genders require different tasks in order to be effective. Huang et al. (2012) found that the androgynous personality type as the ideal one and that gender and grade influenced the distribution of personality types. Yang & Xia (2006) listed the cognitive and social factors in condom use among Shanghai commercial sex entertainment workers. Zhao et al. (2011) established the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers to vulnerable Chinese children. Most caregivers are female. Li et al. (2010) enumerated the parental, behavioral and psychological factors to smoking among Chinese teenagers, including female. Other studies (Somislo & Ortho, 2013; Mak et al., 2012) say that gender does not significantly affect low-self-esteem or depression and that Chinese teenage boys tend to have a higher body esteem than girls.
Gender Affects Self-Concept and Self-Satisfaction
A 1993 study conducted with male and female students in mainland China found little difference in the effect of gender on their level of self-esteem (Watkins and Yu, 1993). But it supplied evidence on the effect of gender to their self-concept and self-satisfaction. Respondents to the study were 99 male and 90 female undergraduates. The results indicated the necessity for conducting multidimensional measures of the self and to preserve the distinction between self-concept and self-esteem (Watkins and Yu).
Stronger in the Male
A 2002 study drew on the findings of earlier studies on the effect of both individual and collective self-esteem on life satisfaction (Zhang & Leung, 2002). When these earlier studies found a connection, it suggested further study on the influence of other conditions, this present study sought to discover the moderating effects of gender and age on that connection among the Chinese. The respondents were 1,347 mainland Chinese, aged 14 to 88 from three generations, 52.3% of whom were female. Their responses were taken from the General Life Satisfaction Scale, Life Domain Satisfaction Scale, Self-Esteem Scale, and Collective Self-esteem Scale. Analysis showed that the connection was stronger among male than female respondents. The results suggested different tasks between the genders (Zhang & Leung).
Personality Type, Coping Style and Self-Esteem
Another study investigated the connection among these factors in Chinese university undergraduates (Huang et al., 2012). Sampling consisted of 434 volunteers possessing four gender role types, namely masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated. An androgynous person is one with a combined masculine and feminine types of personality. Results revealed that the respondents' personality types were mainly androgynous and undifferentiated and that gender and grade largely influenced the distribution of gender role types. Those with androgynous personality types had the highest self-esteem level, used positive coping approaches, and was considered the ideal gender role type as compared with the other three (Huang et al.).
Gender, Work and HIV Risk
Another study looked into the influence of cognitive and social factors in the use of condoms in commercial sex, HIV education and prevention intervention, self-efficacy training and the promotion of social support (Yang & Xia, 2006). It delved into women's unequal power in sexual relationships along with information-motivation-behavioral skills, group norms, peer influence, and interventions that can raise self-esteem and reduce the social stigma among women entertainers. Data were gathered from 159 female entertainment workers from 15 establishments in Shanghai who were surveyed on the cognitive and social influence of these factors on the consistency of condom use. Approximately 21% of the respondents reported using condoms. The study found that individual cognitive and social influence significantly lead to condom use, with the perceived access to condoms as the strongest determinant. It helped translate information on HIV into knowledge and prevention motivation into behavior. The study recommended the introduction of prevention intervention that will focus on providing self-efficacy training and in creating supportive social and working milieus (Yang & Xia).
Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in China
Another study provided further support to the general assumption…[continue]
"Gender On Self-Esteem In China Valid Or" (2013, April 13) Retrieved October 24, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/gender-on-self-esteem-in-china-valid-or-89444
"Gender On Self-Esteem In China Valid Or" 13 April 2013. Web.24 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/gender-on-self-esteem-in-china-valid-or-89444>
"Gender On Self-Esteem In China Valid Or", 13 April 2013, Accessed.24 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/gender-on-self-esteem-in-china-valid-or-89444
Especially in a country where the fastest growing minority group is Hispanic, and there will always be a need for bilingual speakers. In conclusion, humans without social support -- whether it is older people or a newborn baby -- cannot function up to full capacity. Those individuals that are survivors of a deadly earthquake, or who have bipolar or other serious mental disabilities, are desperately in need of social support
Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature Chapter Introduction This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter. Hypnosis In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have been proposed to account for the effect of
The acculturation model developed by Schumann (1978) consists of a taxonomy of variables that were developed based on the concept that both social (group) and affective (individual) variables are the primary causative variables as shown in Table __ below. In this regard, the term "acculturation" is used to refer to the learner's positive identification with, and hence social and psychological integration with, the target language group. For instance, Schumann
Consultant Pharmacists Impact on the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia What is Cholesterol, and Why is it of Concern? Guidelines for Treating Hypercholesterolemia Management of Hypercholesterolemia Management of Hypercholesterolemia By Different Health Care Workers. Practical Management of Hypercholesterolemia Community Pharmacists and the Management of Hypercholesterolemia Economic Impact of Pharmacists' Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia This paper will look at the impact of consultant pharmacists on the treatment of hypercholesterolemia by physicians. Pharmacists have now assumed responsibilities outside the dispensing counter and have
Approximately one in six students enrolled in a college or university, or over 3 million individuals, participated in one or more online course in 2004. This was despite the fact that a leveling off was expected. Another report for 2005 by Sloan showed that 850,000 more students took distance courses in the fall this year than 2004, an increase of nearly 40%. Once again the slowing or leveling did not
Human trafficking is defined as "the recruitment and movement of people by force, coercion or deception, for the purposes of exploitation" (Abas et al. 2013: 1). However, according to a 2013 study by Abas (et al.), current literature on the subject of human trafficking is somewhat problematic, given that research studies have focused on victims at different stages of trafficking and combined the perspectives of a wide range of persons
When dealing with students from a wide variety of cultures and levels of ability, enhanced self-consciousness on the part of all members of the classroom can promote tolerance within the learning environment. The awareness of the classroom's 'hidden' assumptions can foster greater self-consciousness and compassion regarding those who are less fluent in the norms of the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum of social assumptions thus is least harmful when it