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Self-Esteem and Nursing
When I first began to study and learn about nursing, I never thought very much of what the concept of self-esteem meant to me. Self-esteem seemed like an abstract psychological concept, and I still was mainly preoccupied with the demands of nursing as a physical profession that required technical expertise. However, as I grew wiser, I began to see how my initial assumptions were fundamentally in error. People may know that certain health practices are required to improve their sense of well-being, such as quitting smoking, exercise, or eating a healthy diet. However, there are often vastly different levels of personal self-empowerment regarding the ability to make such changes. It is very common to speak of 'willpower,' but we must ask why certain people seem to have stronger willpower than others. Self-esteem is often the answer.
Self-esteem is not having a falsely high opinion of one's self.…
Chapter 15: Self-image. (n.d.). Cengage Learning. Retrieved:
Moody, R.C., & Pesut, D.J. (2006). The motivation to care: Application and extension of motivation theory to professional nursing work. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 20(1), 15-48
Nurses with low self-esteem please seek help. (2012). All Nurses. Retrieved:
The support of the individual is very important in developing self-esteem. The evaluation of the family and friends has a significant impact on how the individual feels about himself. This is because the individual trusts their opinion and tends to believe it is true. The workplace environment is another important factor that determines the self-esteem of the individual. If employees are appreciated by their colleagues, this makes them feel good about themselves and about working there.
Managers play a very important role in developing the self-esteem and confidence of their employees. Their appraisal system and performance evaluation strategy is likely to help increase or reduce the self-esteem of their employees. If they focus on positive motivation, employees are likely to become more confident in their professional activity and to improve their performance. If managers prefer to focus on negative motivation, they are likely to determine reduced levels of self-esteem and…
1. Mruk, C. (2006). Self-Esteem Research, Theory, and Practice. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=l7LofZoJJcUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=self+esteem&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=5gpnT43_N5HitQacvtTiBQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=self%20esteem&f=false .
2. Antcliff, L. (2007). Ten Quick Tips to Improve your Self-Esteem. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://www.lyndonantcliff.com/positive-thinking/ten-quick-tips-to-improve-your-self-esteem/.
3. Rogers, D. (2012). Self-Confidence More Useful Than Self-Esteem. Retrieved march 19, 2012 from http://confident1.com/self-confidence-more-useful-than-self-esteem .
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are linked traits, which are both connected with locus of control and emotional stability as well (Judge & Bono, 2001). According to Judge & Bono (2001), along with locus of control and neuroticism, self-esteem and self-efficacy can impact such behavioral counterparts as job performance, job satisfaction, communications effectiveness, and relationship stability. There is a bi-directionality in the relationship between self-esteem and self-efficacy, in that self-esteem engenders self-efficacy; while self-efficacy also helps stimulate a sense of self-esteem. Self-evaluation traits like these are also connected with both broad issues and specific tasks. For example, the individual will be continually judging and evaluating his or her own performance, which is then used as a sort of feedback mechanism that impacts future performance on the job or on similar tasks. Self-efficacy refers more specifically to the individual's view on how he or she can perform a specific activity; whereas self-esteem refers…
Frank, M.A. (2011). The pillars of the self-concept: Self-esteem and self-efficacy. Retrieved online: http://www.excelatlife.com/articles/self-esteem.htm
Judge, T.A. & Bono, J.E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits. Journal of Applied Psychology 86(1): 80-92.
Success over pretensions equals self-esteem." Albrecht (Ibid) cites that William James (1890) formulated the "simple" equation. Self-esteem, according to some psychologists qualifies as an answer for numerous individual and societal concerns. egarding this contention and accumulated self-esteem research, oy Baumeister, psychologist and professor, commissioned to survey American Psychological Society literature on self-esteem, determines: "These studies show not only that self-esteem fails to accomplish what we had hoped, but also that it can backfire and contribute to some of the very problems it was thought to thwart." He contends that self-esteem stems from, does not cause, of good schoolwork. Enhancing self-esteem is therefore a waste of time in the pursuit of health and well-being, Baumeister writes. ("Self-Esteem Causes..., 2006)
Alana Conner Snibbe, the eview's senior editor noted that Baumeister's article titled, "ethinking Self-Esteem: Why Nonprofits Should Stop Pushing Self-Esteem and Start Endorsing Self-Control,'" triggered heated controversy among Stanford Social Innovation…
Albrecht, K. (2002, November). Brain Power: People Can Be Trained to Use Their Brains More Effectively for Creativity, Problem Solving, and Other Thinking. T&D, 56, 38+.
Bartlett, John, comp. Familiar Quotations, 10th ed, rev. And enl. By Nathan Haskell Dole. Boston: Little, Brown, 1919; Bartleby.com, 2000.
A www.bartleby.com/100/.[28 October 2006].
Blackburn, Simon. "Epictetus," the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, January 1, 1996.
Self-Esteem and Stress
Life is a continuous journey, one that is filled with a rollercoaster of emotions and learning experiences. Throughout the journey of life, all individuals inevitably encounter potentially stressful situations, i.e., death of a parent, friend, or lover; divorce; drug and/or alcohol abuse; financial difficulties; traumatic breakup; unemployment; etc. Individuals generally react to stressful situations in one of two ways. First, some individuals use stressful situations as a motivator, a catalyst to accomplish their objectives and improve their situation. Next, other individuals use stressful situations as a depressant, a reason (consciously or unconsciously) to become "stuck in the mud" because of their inability to cope.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to self-esteem and stress. Part II discusses the effects that stress may have on self-esteem. In Part III, some possible solutions or stress busters that may be used in order to have a…
Abel, M.H. (1996). Self-Esteem: Moderator of Mediator Between Perceived Stress and Expectancy of Success. Psychological Reports, 79, 635-641.
Caruthers, Nyree D. "Stress and Self-Esteem." Available at http://clearinghouse.mwsc.edu/manuscripts/25.asp.
Chapman, A.J. (1996). Humor and Laughter: Theory, Research, and Applications. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Chubb, R. (1995). Humor: A Valuable Laugh Skill. Journal of Child and Youth Care, 10, 61-66.
Abstract for Gause, Simpson & Biggs (2009):
Within the United States, schools offer many opportunities for developing obesity-prevention strategies (Paxson, Donahue, Orleans, & Grisso, 2006, pg. 9). Many programs are offered in the schools, but most are single faceted programs targeting obesity through reformed nutritional programs or increasing physical activity within the schools. Minimal program offerings and research are available that have a multi-faceted approach to addressing the self-esteem of children who are obese. However, such programs are necessary as decreasing levels of self-esteem in obese children were associated with significantly increased rates of sadness, loneliness, and nervousness compared with obese children whose self-esteem increased or remained unchanged (Strauss, 2000, pg. 15). This article addresses the need to develop more thorough programs involving the collaborative efforts of individuals, including the social worker, skilled in designing effective fitness programs, teaching nutritional standards, and addressing the concerns of low self-esteem in adolescents,…
"Within the United States, schools offer many opportunities for developing obesity-prevention strategies" (Paxson, Donahue, Orleans, & Grisso, 2006, pg. 9). Many programs are offered in the schools, but most are single faceted programs targeting obesity through reformed nutritional programs or increasing physical activity within the schools. Minimal program offerings and research are available that have a multi-faceted approach to addressing the self-esteem of children who are obese. However, such programs are necessary as "decreasing levels of self-esteem in obese children were associated with significantly increased rates of sadness, loneliness, and nervousness compared with obese children whose self-esteem increased or remained unchanged" (Strauss, 2000, pg. 15). This article addresses the need to develop more thorough programs involving the collaborative efforts of individuals, including the social worker, skilled in designing effective fitness programs, teaching nutritional standards, and addressing the concerns of low self-esteem in adolescents, including those already identified as obese or overweight.
Abstract for Menon, Tobin, Menon, Corby, Hodges, & Perry (2007):
Two hypotheses -- high self-esteem leads children to act on antisocial cognitions (disposition-activating hypothesis) and high self-esteem leads children to rationalize antisocial conduct (disposition-rationalizing hypothesis) -- were investigated in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 ( N= 189; mean age = 11.1 years), antisocial behavior was aggression; in Study 2 ( N= 407; mean age = 10.8 years) it was avoidance of the mother. In both studies, there was little evidence for the disposition-activating hypothesis but considerable support for the disposition-rationalizing hypothesis. Over time, aggressive children with high self-esteem increasingly valued the rewards that aggression offers and belittled their victims, and avoidant children with high self-esteem increasingly viewed their mother as harassing and uninvolved. For antisocial children, high self-esteem carries costs.
An Argument for Competency-Based Self-Esteem
In the study of human development, it is vital to understand one's self by determining an individual's self-concept of his or her self. Self-concept, defined as one's awareness of personal characteristics, attributes, and limitations, is also directly linked to the development of self-esteem. Self-esteem takes the idea of self-concept to a higher level in understanding human development: it is the evaluative component of self-concept. It has two kinds: the "loved and worthy" kind of self-esteem and competency-based self-esteem. The first kind, which is often referred to as "feel-good" self-esteem, provides a positive view of an individual's self-concept primarily because the individual "feels good" about himself or herself. Competency-based self-esteem, meanwhile, develops positively when an individual feels s/he has performed or behaved well in a particular task or endeavor; otherwise, negative self-esteem develops.
While in the present paradigm that American culture and society stands on…
Self-ESTEEM AS AN AFFECTIN FACTO IN SLA
Since the beginning of human civilization, language has played a key role in the learning process. It is an essential tool through which one expresses himself to another in a precise and comprehensive manner. With time, the number of languages grew and undergone many changes. Today, with the increasing need of globalization, there exist more than thousands of languages in the world which are shared and understood by different communities and groups.
Language can be categorized as first and second language. The first language or the native language is the one an individual starts learning from the very early stage of his life. However, the second language has to be acquired through hard work and consistent struggle. People usually learn second language in order to get a better know how of their surrounding and to adjust themselves among other social groups. Although, second…
Branden, Nathaniel (1969). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. Nash Publishing Corporation. pp. 1 -- 2
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman
Ricardo Schutz (2005). Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved October 6, 2005 from http://perso.univ-lyon2.fr/~giled/050801Stephen%20Krashen 's%20Theory.htm
Sandra Clyne. Psychological Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Why Your International Students are Sudando La Gota Gorda (Sweating Buckets). Retrieved October 6, 2005 from Bunker Hill Community College website:
These differences need to be explored and elucidated before drawing conclusions from a diverse sample size. A researcher would do well to investigate self-esteem among highly specific population samples to avoid confusion between variables.
Gender is an important variable to consider in self-esteem research. Girls and boys are socialized to express their self-esteem differently. Therefore, it would be nearly impossible to research self-esteem among a pre-adolescent population without taking gender into account. The ways girls express self-esteem will differ from the ways boys do, making it necessary to examine male and female populations separately. For the same reason, class and family background need to be taken into consideration as well as ethnicity and race.
Finally, the research questions related to self-esteem may pose problems. Finding comparable subjects may require investigating the specific impacts of environmental stimuli on self-esteem. In this case, the definition of self-esteem would be defined absolutely so…
e. his capacity to justly value and position himself correctly in society that helps him advance and evolve. Everyone needs something to rely on, and in many cases, this landmark is precisely the self, constantly changing, but always the same. Eleanor Roosevelt once said that "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent." It is very important to know and understand oneself. Actually, to be able to understand and positively relate to others, it is absolutely important to know who you are and what your values are. This, I think, is what Eleanor Roosevelt refers to. Her message is very clear and simple which makes it extremely effective. No one can berate or belittle you unless you allow them.
Nowadays society has found several ways that can help build self-confidence and increase self-esteem: yoga, public speaking, education, therapy etc. along with the old-fashioned methods of "self-training" such as…
The following research supported my hypothesis that there would not be a significant difference between the two. Demo & Parker (1987) conducted research on self-esteem among black and white Americans including elementary school and high school students. In the study, data on 298 black and white college students and an examination of the relationship between student's grade point average and self-esteem were presented. Several findings corroborate earlier research on school-age children. Self-esteem scores of blacks and whites were not significantly different, despite blacks having significantly lower grade point averages than whites. The relationship between grade point average and self-esteem, however, was negligible among blacks and among white males, suggesting that academic achievement is not critical to the self-concept of college students
Demo, DH, & Parker, K.D. (1987, August). Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem Among Black and White College Students. Journal of Social Psychology, 127(4), 345-356.
Thompson, T., & Perry, Z.…
Demo, DH, & Parker, K.D. (1987, August). Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem Among Black and White College Students. Journal of Social Psychology, 127(4), 345-356.
Thompson, T., & Perry, Z. (2005, October). Is the poor performance of self-worth protective students linked with social comparison goals?. Educational Psychology, 25(5), 471-490.
Self-Esteem at Work by Nathaniel Branden. Jossey-Bass, 1998
Nathaniel Branden, a California psychologist who worked with Ayn Rand for many years, has written a book about how the business environment has changed in the last century. His overall point is that today's work environment makes personal and psychological demands on workers at all levels, something that was not true at the beginning of the manufacturing age. His argument is that companies who have employees who function in a psychologically healthy ways will be the most competitive because of the many demands made on a person's intellect and personality in today's working world.
He lays out his view of the importance of self-esteem in the work place from the beginning of the book. He uses the often repeated phrase that we are now in the "information age" instead of a manufacturing, and points out some of the stressful elements of this…
Self-Esteem and Procrastination
There is a substantial amount of indirect evidence presented in the literature that suggests a strong negative correlation between self-esteem and procrastination, such that high levels of self-esteem are generally associated with lower rates of procrastination, less severe or extreme procrastination, and/or lower levels of adverse effects from procrastination (Wolters, 2003; Deniz, 2006; Steel, 2007). Though this research does not establish a causal relationship -- i.e., it does not determine whether a low self-esteem level leads to higher levels of procrastination or if the relationship works in the opposite direction (or indeed, if it works in both directions or if the correlation exists due to an entirely different relationship), the degree of correlation demonstrated is certainly worthy of closer inspection. An examination of the largely indirect information provided by research in the past decade regarding self-esteem and procrastination, as well an analysis of the few pieces…
Deniz, E. (2006). The relationships among coping with stress, life satisfaction, decision-making styles and decision self-esteem. Social Behavior and Personality 34(9): 1161-70.
Di Fabio, A. (2006). Decisional procrastination correlates: personality traits, self-esteem or perception of cognitive failure? International Jourbal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 6(2): 109-22.
Farran, B. (2004). Predictors of academic procrastination in college students. ETD Collection for Fordham University Paper AAI3125010.
Ferrari, J., O'Callghan, J. & Newbegin, I. (2005). Prevalence of procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: arousal and avoidance delays among adults. North American Jourbal of Psychology 7(1): 1-6.
eligion is linked to self-esteem for two main reasons. The first reason why religion is related to self-esteem in empirical studies is that personal religiosity may increase what is known as locus of control: the sense that God and practices like prayer facilitate control over life events and personal psychological issues. Laoire (1997) conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind study in which 90 "agents" prayed for 406 subjects. The results showed that both subjects and agents of distant intercessory prayer improved on self-esteem self-assessments (O'Laoire, 1997). Agents, those who prayed, revealed the most significant improvements on self-esteem measures, indicating that locus of control may be a reason for the link between religiosity and self-esteem. The act of praying for other people may confer the sense of empowerment and social connection that are more important for raising self-esteem than the prayer itself or any supernatural element. The results of the O'Laoire (1997)…
Benson, P. & Spilka, B. (1973). God image as a function of self-esteem and locus of control. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 12(3): 297-310.
Biazek, M. & Besta, T. (2012). Self-concept clarity and religious orientations. Journal of Religion and Health 51(3): 947-960.
Commerford, M.C. & Reznikoff, M. (1995). Relationship of religion and perceived social support to self-esteem and depression in nursing home residents. The Journal of Applied Psychology 130(1): 35-50.
Gebauer, J.E., Sedikides, C. & Neberich, W. (2011). Religiosity, social self-esteem, and psychological adjustment. Psychological Science 22(2): 158-160.
Religious Participation Is Linked to Self-Esteem
Locus of Control
What is it? Locus of Control is the sense of being in control
Studies show that Locus of Control is related to Self-Esteem
Studies also show that praying can improve Locus of Control, probably because praying makes people feel powerful and it might also help people feel like they are doing good things for other people.
Locus of Control is part of the definition of self-esteem (Benson & Spika, 1973).
Believing in a deity might help improve one's Locus of Control because God is perceived of as powerful
Social Self-Esteem (Belongingness and Usefulness)
In many cultures, being part of a religious organization is something that is highly valued, even expected.
Therefore, being a member of a religious organization can improve one's sense of belonging in a community.
Belonging in a community can improve self-esteem, something that has been proven in…
Self-esteem and Academic/Intellectual Performance
The research on the relationship between self-esteem and intellectual performance places has a lot of emphases on the gap of achievement, and is concerned with identifying factors that bring about differential intellectual results among other categories of gender. According to Antonio (1999) much focus has been given in eliminating the gap between intellectualachievement in the academic life of various male and female students across the world. Research based on both Male and Female students has been able to show that, the expected rate of graduates from school for students with African origin studying in the U.S. is around 53% on average (Antonio 1999). This is in comparison to a percentage of around 78% for students in the U.S. with origin. American students with African origin in several colleges complete their studies, which normally takes a period of four years, at about 25% rate below their counterparts…
Antonio, A. (1999). Racial Diversity and Friendship Groups in College. What the Research Tells
Us. Diversity Digest.
Coleman, A.L. (2001). Diversity in Higher Education: A Strategic Planning and Policy Manual.
Washington, D.C.: The College Board.
Gender on Self-Esteem in China
VALID OR NOT
Effects of Gender on Self-Esteem in China
Six studies present varying results on the effect of gender on self-esteem. Watkins & Yu (1993) found gender to have little effect on self-esteem but much on self-concept and self-satisfaction, especially among Chinese women. Zhang & Leung (2002) suggested the moderating factors of gender and age in the connection between individual and collective self-esteem and life satisfaction. Their research concluded that the connection is stronger on the male, thus the genders require different tasks in order to be effective. Huang et al. (2012) found that the androgynous personality type as the ideal one and that gender and grade influenced the distribution of personality types. Yang & Xia (2006) listed the cognitive and social factors in condom use among Shanghai commercial sex entertainment workers. Zhao et al. (2011) established the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers…
Huang, X. et al. (2012). Relationships among androgyny, self-esteem and trait coping style of Chinese university students. Vol 40 # 6, Social Behavior & Personality
International Journal: Society for Personality Research
Li, X. et al. (2010). Parental behavior and psychological factors associated with cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Nanjing, China . Vol 19 Issue
3, Journal of Child & Family Studies: Springer Science & Business Media BV.
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
Test Title: The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES)
Publisher and Date: 1965 by W.W. Norton, New York and Princeton University Press.
Description and Purpose: The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was developed by sociologist Dr. Morris Rosenberg and is a self-esteem model and test used in social science research. The RSES is the most popular measure of global self-esteem and is the standard with which developers of other measures seek validation.
Professionals Qualified to Administer and Evaluate -- The test is available with keys for self-evaluation, although professionals caution against too broad of interpretation. The suggestion is that the interpretation of the results be done by a professional with at least a strong background in psychology and psychiatry, perhaps sociology. No actual credentials are required for the test.
Test Forms Available: After Dr. Rosenberg's death, his estate allowed the use of the model for educational and academic use. It…
Bagley, C., et al. (2007). Norms and Construct Validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 31(1), 82-92. Retrieved December 2013, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ553572.pdf
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
EMCDDA. (2008, July). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Retrieved from emcdda.europa.eu: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index3676EN.html
Guindon, M. (Ed.). (2011). Self-Esteem Across the Lifespan. New York: Routledge.
Development of Self-Esteem
As self-aware and self-reflective beings, numerous individuals instinctively identify the significance of self-esteem. Self-esteem is, therefore, more of perception instead of a reality. It alludes to an individual’s belief regarding whether one is whether appealing or competent, and it does not necessarily mean anything regarding whether the individual is appealing and competent. Conventionally, the majority of people consider self-esteem to be significant. It is hard, in not intolerable, for people to continue being unconcerned to information that impacts their self-esteem, for instance, being told that they are stupid, ugly, or deceitful. An escalation or decline in self-esteem usually generates significant emotional responses. Furthermore, these changes are usually corresponding with key successes and failures experienced in life. Therefore, self-esteem facilitates happiness, greater performances, and also improved standards of living.
By Maslow (1943), the actions of human beings are motivated to accomplish particular needs. Maslow delineates five various levels…
mental health is an ever-Expanding arena. The experts continue to debate many of the issues that impact self-esteem.
Self-esteem is something that can create a confident productive life, or it can be a destructive insidious problem that plagues adult life. One of the things that has been examined for many areas of mental health is the order in which one is born within his or her family. Sibling birth order has been credited for how one lives their childhood, how they develop as adults, how various things impact them including parental alcohol and drug abuse and how much money one will make in a lifetime.
This paper presents a research proposal about sibling birth order and how it impacts the development of self-esteem. The proposal explains the importance of understanding the issue, some of the literature that has already been published in the area and a suggested methodology for conduction…
BIRTH ORDER AND EDUCATION http://clearinghouse.mwsc.edu/manuscripts/17.asp
RHONDA K. CLAYTON
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
MISSOURI WESTERN STATE COLLEGE
it's made me who I am, the reason is I have had to work so much harder. I would take it again, gladly. It has taught me to take good and bad, and to change the bad into good. It gives you a sense of motivation, fight for yourself, it gives you that perseverance to carry on. I have succeeded and am still succeeding" (Klompas & oss, 2004, p. 300).
Blood, G.W., Blood, I.M., Tellis, G.M., & Gabel, .M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28(2), 143. doi:10.1016/S0094-730X (03)00010-X
Daniels, D.E., & Gabel, .M. (2004). The Impact of Stuttering on Identity Construction. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(3), 200.
Greenberg, J. (2008). Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem. Perspectives on Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 3(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00061.x
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal…
Blood, G.W., Blood, I.M., Tellis, G.M., & Gabel, R.M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28(2), 143. doi:10.1016/S0094-730X (03)00010-X
Daniels, D.E., & Gabel, R.M. (2004). The Impact of Stuttering on Identity Construction. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(3), 200.
Greenberg, J. (2008). Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem. Perspectives on Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 3(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00061.x
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
Exercise promotes higher self-esteem in individuals of all ages and/or physical capabilities as long as the individual enjoys the particular exercise program or feels there are definite and measurable benefit to participating in the program.
Professional athletes are some of the most self assured individuals in our society. There have been many studies that have shown that these individuals are highly paid yet the majority of them would continue to work at their sport for free. One of the main reasons for these phenomena is that these specialists really enjoy what they do and they feel they get an obvious reward for doing what they do. They literally get paid for exercising.
Exercise provides many benefits. These athletes receive a unique benefit that many laymen simply are unaware that it comes with the turf so to speak. Professional athletes get the benefit of added self-esteem. "Speculation regarding the interactions…
Boyd, Michael and Yin, Zenong. "Cognitive-Affective And Behavioral Correlates Of Self-Schemata In Sport" Journal of Sport Behavior (1999).
Douthitt, Vicki L. "Psychological Determinants Of Adolescent Exercise Adherence" Adolescence 22 Sept. 1994.
Gavin, Jim, and Avi Mark Spitzer. "The psychology of exercise: studying recent trends in exercise psychology research gives clues on how to promote participation." IDEA Health & Fitness Source 01 Nov. 2002.
Guthrie, Sharon R. "Defending the Self-Martial Arts and Women's Self-Esteem [Part 1 of 3]" Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal (1997).
Managing an Employee with Low Self-Esteem
Within the workplace there are many influences which may impact on an employees' performance. While many texts focus in issues such as working conditions and perceptions of the employment relationship, the employees own self-perceptions and the manifestation of these perceptions in their self-esteem can also have a significant impact on their performance in the workplace (Kuhnen & Tymula, 2012). The aim of this paper is to look at the way in which supervises may manage individuals with low self-esteem.
Self-esteem is important part of any individuals' psychological make up. The concept of self-esteem is included in motivation models, such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs, where it is recognized as having a potential influence on an individual's level and source of motivation (Kuhnen & Tymula, 2012). esearch has demonstrated that when employees have low self-esteem they are unlikely to provide the employer with…
Janssen, Onne; Gao, Liping, (2013), Supervisory Responsiveness and Employee Self-Perceived Status and Voice Behavior, Journal of Management, DOI: 10.1177/0149206314546192
Kuhnen, Camelia M; Tymula, Agnieszka, (2012), Feedback, Self-Esteem, and Performance in Organizations, Management Science, 58(1), 94-113
Paige, A, (2014), How to Supervise an Employee With Low Self-Esteem, Houston Chronical, accessed at http://smallbusiness.chron.com/supervise-employee-low-self-esteem-24023.html
Smither, J. W; London, MR; Reilly. R, (2005), Does performance improve following multisource feedback? A theoretical model, meta-analysis, and review of empirical findings, Personnel Psychology,. 58-33 -- 66
" Young children are more likely to benefit from tasks and activities that offer a real challenge than from those that are merely frivolous or fun." (Katz) Children can help prepare meals, care for pets, and do other projects that are productive. The child will be able to translate that the parent trusts him or her with a truly important task -- not just a make-believe one -- into a sense of being trustworthy, useful, and able to accomplish things. When children show interest in a parent's activities, if that parent includes him or her in that activity and takes that interest seriously, it can be a strong self-esteem boost. Encouragement is vital, and it is important to acknowledge progress as well as rewarding achievement.
Parents also show trust in the child to accomplish things by setting a few reasonable rules for even toddlers to follow; "Knowing that certain family…
Hart, Louise. "Self-Esteem: The Best Gift You Can Give Your Child -- and Yourself." Mothering Magazine. Spring, 1989. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n51/ai_7512259
Henry, Sarah. "Ten Ways to Build Your Child's Self-Esteem." ParentCenter Medical Advisory Board. http://parentcenter.babycenter.com/refcap/preschooler/pdevelopment/65569.html
Katz, Lilian. "How Can We Strengthen Children's Self-Esteem?" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Summer, 1995. http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/strengthen_children_self.html
Specifically, deficient cae may esult in a child's being vulneable as a consequence of a low intinsic level of self-esteem and self-woth (Pake, Baett, and Hickie, 1992). It is clea that a numbe of factos ae likely to affect the teenaged individual esulting in depession and it is citically noted that this depession must necessaily be addessed, teated and esolved. The client in this instance has bodeline low blood pessue which should be monitoed seveal times each week and futhemoe the body mass index (BMI) of this individual is excessively low indicating that this patient needs to be counseled in egads to thei diet both in tems of quality and quantity of foods consumed.
Logsdon, Cynthia J.(nd) Depession in Adolescent Gils: Sceening and Teatment Stategies fo Pimay Cae Povides Jounal of the Ameican Medical Women's Association Volume 59, No 2.
Lemay, Edwad P. And Ashmoe, Richad D. (2005) the…
reference: Studies of occupational and recreational choice. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 11-18.
elationship Among Self-Esteem, Stress, Coping, Eating Behavior, and Depressive Mood in Adolescents
What is the research problem? Is the problem statement easy to locate and is it clearly stated? Does the problem statement build a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study?
The research problem explores the relationship between coping strategies, emotional problems and the tendency to overeat in adolescence. The problem statement is easy to identify and is contained in a properly labeled separate section located at the beginning of the study. The problem statement uses statistical data about the need to control obesity and adolescents as the key persuasive argument for the study.
Does the problem have significance for nursing? How might the research contribute to nursing practice, administration, education, or policy?
The study has significance for the nursing profession due to the health related problems that are caused by obesity. The problems do not end with…
Martyn-Nemeth, P., Penckofer, S. & Gulanick, M. et al. (2009). The relationships among self-
esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents. Res. Nurs. Heatlh. 2009 Feb;32(1):96-109.
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.
Followers - males and females of all ages who join sites to keep up with what their peers are doing.
Faithfuls - older males and females generally aged over 20, who typically use social networking sites to rekindle old friendships, often from school or Functionals - mostly older males who tend to be single-minded in using sites for a particular purpose. (Are you an…, 2008, ¶ 5)
Friends online, off-line
Dan Tynan (2008), a self-acclaimed expert on technology, contends in the article, "The etiquette of social networking: How to make friends online without alienating anybody," that friends on Facebook may not be exactly whom they claim to be. Tynan relates information regarding: "How to approach strangers online, handle unwelcome solicitations, or make real friends out of virtual ones" (Tynan, ¶ 1). Some individuals on Facebook only invite people they know well. Some invite people they know little about, while some…
"Are you an 'Alpha socialiser' or an 'attention seeker'?...Ofcom Research Identifies Social
Networking Profiles." (2008). M2 Presswire. M2 Communications Ltd. Retrieved May
02, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1177378076.html
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 02, 2009 from: www.bartleby.com/66/
bad about yourself! Self-Esteem may not be all it has been reputed to be!
Baumeister, Roy & Jennifer D. Campbell, Jochim I. Kurger and Kathleen D. Vohs. (20 December 2004) "Exploding the Self-Esteem Myth." Scientific American. Article retrievable in full text on the World Wide Web at http://www.sciam.com/print_version.cfm?articleID=000CB565-F330-11BE-AD0683414B7F0000
According to the popular science periodical Scientific American, a number of long-standing scientific studies on the correlation between high or low self-esteem and positive or negative forms of social behaviors shows that there is little indication that low self-esteem is at the root of individual and societal problems and dysfunctions. his flies in the face of a 1989 study whose results appeared in a volume entitled he Social Importance of Self-Esteem. his previous, influential study stated that "many, if not most, of the major problems plaguing society have roots in the low self-esteem of many of the people who make up society."…
The authors of the study stressed that they were mindful to avoid the assumption that a correlation between self-esteem and some desired behavior establishes causality, in contrast to studies of the past. For example, high self-esteem may seem to bring about certain positive outcomes, such as vocational success. But correlations between self-esteem and success may mean simply that a positive self-image is a result of success or good behavior. (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.2) In fact, in a literature review by the authors, self-esteem and high self-perception could not show that a link between good self-image leads to occupational success in terms of causality, and even hinted artificially boosting self-esteem may lower subsequent performance. In terms of relationships, the only positive correlation was that individuals with high self-esteem were more likely to leave relationships they found unfulfilling or did not reinforce their perceptions of themselves as competent. (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.3)
Even correlations between low esteem and drug use are inconclusive. Of course, on all of these measures "people with a healthy sense of self-respect" may be "lumped with those feigning higher self-esteem." Thus it is not surprising the results of studies of self-esteem investigations may always produce "weak or contradictory findings." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.4) The only statistically significant correlation found by the researchers was that "and high self-esteem emerged as the strongest factor in overall life satisfaction," but again it is "even possible that happiness, in the sense of a temperament or disposition to feel good, induces high self-esteem." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.5)
"We have found," write the authors little evidence to indicate that "indiscriminately promoting self-esteem in today's children or adults, just for being themselves, offers society any compensatory benefits beyond the seductive pleasure it brings to those engaged in the exercise." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.5) Yes, students enjoy self-esteem building exercises, but they do not necessarily benefit in the concrete, measurable terms that were once claimed for such programs, and an overall fostering of competence, rather than high self-esteem in the abstract may be equally as effective as the promotion of the value in the first place.
Learning and Self-Esteem
The main purpose of Alfie Kohn's article "The Truth about Self-Esteem" is to provide a critique of existing literature and prevailing beliefs about the importance of self-esteem on children's learning. The author points out key problems with the debate between pro-self-esteem educators and the more traditional, "old school" view that self-esteem is irrelevant. Kohn asserts that neither position is totally satisfactory and offers some ideas for more constructive approaches to the subject. The literature review, which is arranged and presented more like an essay than a proper literature review, deals with the limitations of scientific research, with the problem of focusing on self-esteem as opposed to selflessness, and with the problems with Old School education as well. After presenting a review of the literature concurrent with his personal stance on the issues, Kohn concludes that more fruitful research should be conducted if the goal is to improve…
Anxiety and depression are the most commonly witnessed psychiatric disorders in adolescence. The prevalence of both anxiety disorder and depression increase in the adolescence period and progresses to young adulthood. The final result of these developments is low self-esteem. General prevalence measures for depression stand between 2 to 4%. Recurrence rates are placed at 70% in a span of five years. Point prevalence rates for anxiety disorders stand at 20% and show stability across one's life. Furthermore, anxiety and depression highly co-occur. They also occur along with other psychiatric complications (Lee & Hankin, 2009).
Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety
The CBT (2006) center describes self-image as a circus mirror which remolds the shape and size of a person into one that departs from the way one really looks like. These are perceptions of how we see and think of ourselves, how we think others see us, the beliefs about ourselves, our…
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…
Bailer UF, Frank GK, Henry SE et al. (2005). Altered brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1032-1041.
Bloks H, Hoek HW, Callewaert I et al. (2004). Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 129-138.
Bulik CM, Klump KL, Thornton L. et al. (2004). Alcohol use disorder comorbidity in eating disorders: a multicenter study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1000-1006.
Byrne, B. (2000) Relationships between Anxiety, Fear Self-Esteem, and Coping Strategies in Adolescence. Adolescence. 35. 137.
Peer tutoring was found to be an effective tool for teaching those with learning disabilities to read (Fuchs, Fuchs, and Saenz, 2005). This research supports the use of struggling readers in the first grade for the group that receives the tutoring. First graders that are enrolled in the program are already labeled as learning disabled. Whether their difficulty in reading is caused by an organic deficiency, or an emotional problem, intervention by way of peer tutoring will help to reduce its effects.
Strengthening mentor programs is an essential part of the equation when it comes to academic performance (King, et al., 2002). A strong mentoring program has many benefits for individual students, but it also has benefits for the school as well, including improved overall academic perforce and a decrease in school violence.
Peer mentoring programs were found to be better than intervention programs that used a teacher, especially if…
Chard, D.; Kameenui, E.. (2000) Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading. Journal of Special Education, 34 (1), 128.
Dufrene, BA., Duhon, G.J., Gilbertson, D.N., & Noell, G.H. (2005). Monitoring implementation of reciprocal peer tutoring: Identifying and intervening with students who do not maintain accurate implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74.
Emler, Nicholas (2002) the costs and causes of low self-esteem. Youth Studies
Australia, 21(3) 45. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from the ULV Academic Search
In turn, I began to change and grow.
Some of the patients, I learned, worried about most things in their lives. Others had experienced terrifying traumas that left them afraid of any unexpected sound. Some of the individuals were so depressed; they wouldn't look me in the eye when I first met them. Some struggled with drugs and/or alcohol, which may have created or complicated their mental battles. Sadness taunted most of them. Each person, I learned, had never developed a healthy sense of their worth; of who they were, or had, somewhere in life, lost their ability to treasure themselves.
When I left my best job in 1993, I took away more than I had at the start. To this day, I treasure lessons those I cared for, taught me. As I reflect on those who "made it," and how some remembered how to smile, I smile, knowing that…
Hart, L. (1987). The Winning Family. (The Columbia World of Quotations, 1996) Retrieved on June 3, 2006 at http://www.bartleby.com/66/76/26976.html .
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.
Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
Many people, including myself, can coast through life, without giving much thought to personal goals or planning. However, after taking this course I realized the value in thinking deeply about my future, especially in relation to my talents, dreams, and desires. The lessons have opened my mind and broadened my horizons in many areas, as I can apply the lessons to almost every aspect of my life, from relationships to personal finances. Moreover, I have begun to appreciate more fully the meaning behind much of the rhetoric I often hear. For instance, while I always heard that a college education could be beneficial for me, I never truly grasped what a higher education actually entailed. After taking this course, I will pursue a degree not only because I feel I "should," but because I genuinely desire to experience college life. In addition to the networking and social opportunities college…
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Communication
Does the full moon really effect one's behavior? Does Friday the 13th really deserve extra precaution? Is a Harvard professor wiser than say an Appalachian hermit? Or is someone who abandons their life of wealth and fame, suffering from mental illness? Is one race or gender more adept at a particular profession than another? There is no scientific evidence that proves the full moon has any effect on a person's personality or behavior, yet those in law enforcement and the medical profession often say that crime, accidents, and psychotic behavior are higher during the full moon, moreover, many people say they feel more anxious or nervous during a full moon. Henry David Thoreau lived in the woods for several years, St. Francis of Assisi abandoned his wealth and military position for a life of poverty, and many people regard Friday 13th as a lucky day. Self-fulfilling…
Barsoux, Jean-Louis. "The Set-Up-to-Fail Syndrome." Harvard Business Review. March http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Harvard_Business_Review&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.hbsp.harvard.edu&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Jean%2DLouis+Barsoux+%2D+INSEAD+%28France%29&title=The+Set%2DUp%2Dto%2DFail+Syndrome++&date=03%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=3.(accessed 10-30-2002).
Bushman, Brad J.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Stack, Angela D. "Catharsis, Aggression, and Persuasive Influence: Self-Fulfilling or Self-Defeating Prophecies?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Volume 76. No. 3 January 1999. http://www.apa.org/journals/psp/psp763367.html.(accessed 10-30-2002).
Feingold, Alan. "Gender Stereotyping for Sociability, Dominance, Character, and MentalHealth: A Meta-Analysis of Findings From the Bogus Stranger Paradigm." Genetic, Social & General Psychology Monographs. Volume 124. August 01, 1998. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Genetic,_Social_~A~_General_Psychology_Monographs&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.heldref.org~S~mono.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=FEINGOLD%2C+ALAN&title=Gender+Stereotyping+for+Sociability%2C+Dominance%2C+Character%2C+and+MentalHealth%3A+A+Meta%2DAnalysis+of+Findings+From+the+Bogus+Stranger+Paradigm+%2E++&date=08%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=24.
A accessed 10-30-2002).
Self-Perceived Oral Malodour Among Periodontal Patients:
One of the most common dental consultations is perceived oral malodour that suggests that thorough evaluation of oral malodour in dentistry. Generally, oral malodour is considered as a widespread, horrible, medical condition that is characterized with emergence of unpleasant odour from the mouth because of gram-negative anaerobic bacterial putrefaction of proteinaceous substrates containing sulfur. According to Azodo & Umoh (2013), oral malodour is basically caused by hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, volatile sulfur compounds, and methyl mercaptan (p.125). These elements have also been associated with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease because of their toxicity to oral tissues.
Based on this background, the authors agree that oral malodour is a huge concern to the general population since it has unfavorable consequences on both the private and professional life. Therefore, it's a significant health issue with negative effects on the quality of life, especially with regards to…
Azodo, C.C. & Umoh, A.O. (2013, August). Self-perceived Oral Malodour among Periodontal
Patients: Prevalence and Associated Factors. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research, 2(2), 125-132. Retrieved from http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijmbr/article/download/92813/82237
Indeed, Bandura (1997) writes, "The way in which adolescents develop and exercise their personal efficacy during this period can play a key role in setting the course their life paths take" (pg. 177). Because society is made up of people, people who have higher levels of self-efficacy in large numbers tend to change society, making it more proactive, productive, and progressive. In addition, the opposite of this is also true. Indeed, larger groups with lower levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to create societies that are less motivated to change, or at least pockets within this society who have motivated the laissez-faire mentality. Furthermore, one's self-esteem, self-concept, and self-efficacy help determine how one sees one's self in society. Those who see themselves as unproductive and who believe they will be burdens to society can account for many of those who make up society's prisons and areas of social assistance.
Alvarez, J.M. (2009). Self-Concept. Retrieved August 2, 2009, from Child Development
Reference Volume 7: http://social.jrank.org/pages/554/Self-Concept.html
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. Retrieved August 2, 2009, from Emory University: http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy. New York: Macmillan.
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
Self and Others
The manner in which people view themselves has been shown to be an important predictor of their behavior, achievement, and physical and psychological health. There has been a growing trend in recent years to promote a positive self-view in young people through the avoidance of failure. Increasingly, positive reinforcement is provided for merely taking part and trying rather than succeeding or failing, with little regard to the long-term consequences of such practices. To help identify the long-term implications of such practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine whether keeping children from having to face failure provides them with an accurate view of themselves as they relate to the people around them and others around them. A discussion concerning how, as these children grow and mature, they will likely deal with cognitive dissonance and failure in their lives is followed by a summary…
Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., Demoulin, D.F. & Reiger, R.C. (2000). Identifying high school freshmen with serious atypical behavior and mental health problems for delinquency prevention purposes. Education, 121(2), 257.
Cryder, C.E., Lerner, J.S., Gross, J.J., & Dahl, R.E. (2008). Misery is not miserly: Sad and self-focused individuals spend more. Psychological Science, 19, 525-530
Nielsen, D.M. & Metha, A. (1999). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem in clinical and nonclinical samples. Adolescence, 29(115), 525-527.
Pierce, G.R., Sarason, BR. & Sarason, I.G. (1996). Cognitive interference: Theories, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
It therefore follows that if a young woman has a poor sense of self-esteem as a result of prescribed ideals about body image, then this will also affect self-representation and even behavior patterns; for example, the woman may react negatively in an attempt to meet social norms about self-image and become Anorexic.
However, the literature also makes a clear distinction between personal self-image and esteem and group esteem and expectations. One would expect that groups that are discriminated against in society would have low level of self-esteem. This is not always the case. In fact as a study by Verkuyten ( 1989) shows, high levels of personal self-esteem may result in groups that have a low social level of esteem and acceptance. "The presumption of lower self-esteem among minority youth, given their confrontation with discrimination, disregards the perspectives of minorities themselves" (Verkuyten, 1998, p. 479). This refers to "The…
Bornman, E. (1999). Self-Image and Ethnic Identification in South Africa. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(4), pp.411-425
Fiske S.T. (2004) Social Beings. Ho Boken, NJ: Wiley.
Klein, H.A. (1995). Self-Perception in Late Adolescence: An Interactive Perspective. Adolescence, 30(119), 579+.
Monteath, S.A., & McCabe, M.P. (1997). The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(6), pp. 708-727. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97807666
Cheesman (2002) conducted a study on Karen identity in the Union of Myanmar with regards to historical and social conditions. The study found that Karen identity is a relatively difficult identity because individuals from this ethnic background do not have a common language, material attributes, religion and culture. While most of the existing assessments of this ethnic identity have been carried out in Thailand, it is largely influenced by historical and social conditions in the Union of Myanmar. Based on a review of contemporary Myanmar, people of Karen identity are seemingly virtuous, illiterate (uneducated), and oppressed. Many aspects relating to this identity appear to emphasize inferiority and subordination mostly because of mythology and modifications by the elite. Similar to the Union of Myanmar, Karen identity was brought by political dynamics and created by elite groups in the society.
The information provided in the article is accurate with regards to the…
A person with high self-esteem is a (6) risk-taker (DuBrin 2004: 86-87). Nothing is more risky yet more fulfilling than learning something new.
Explain how they can help you strengthen your self-confidence
Self-acceptance of who I am right now gives me knowledge of where I want to go in the future. Self-esteem means being confident that my learning and personal investments will pay off, that I am truly 'worth it' in terms of the ventures I attempt. In all of the above-cited examples, education seems like the key to building self-esteem. Education shows a sense of personal confidence in one's ability to advance (and is reinforced by positive self-talk and building upon one's core skills).
Analyze how self-confidence can affect job performance and how inter-office relationships are affected by differing levels of self-confidence.
Everyone has been in an office setting where a 'bullying' boss has dominated his or her employees.…
Burton, James P. & Jenny Hoobler. (2006). Subordinate self-esteem and abusive supervision.
Journal of Managerial Issues. Retrieved July 19, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6703/is_3_18/ai_n29301186/
Denton, L. Trey & Constance Campbell. (2010). Dementors in our midst: Managing the highly productive but morale-killing employee. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. Retrieved July 19, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5383/is_200901/ai_n31513452/
DuBrin, A. (2004). Applying psychology: Individual and organizational effectiveness. Pearson.
Self-Worth and the Need to Belong
Juvenile Delinquency Paper
The self-help author Wayne Dyer once wrote that, "Self-worth comes from one thing…thinking that you are worthy." This quote captures the functional role of gangs: they exist because they serve a purpose. Gangs are attractive to recruits because they promise a variety of benefits. Though many members reap material benefits from joining, it is the psychological benefits which play a critical role in the decision to join a gang, particularly as it relates to self-worth and the need to belong. While some gang members often portray themselves with great machismo, think highly of themselves and are proud of what they have become, the majority of youths who join gangs suffer from a negative self-image (Miller, 2001). Opportunities to feel good about themselves in their family or at school are few and far between. Yablonsky (1997) tells us "The gangsters'…
Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Miller, J., Maxson, C., Klein, M. (2001). The Modern Gang Reader. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M.S. (1991). Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Shelden, R., Tracy, S., Brown, W. (1997). Youth Gangs in American Society. Ann Arbor, MI: Wadsworth Publishers.
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…
Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.
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Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
second and fourth chapter of the book. Specifically, the topics that will be covered are self-esteem, self-motivation and emotional intelligence. There were related and ancillary themes in each of those chapters but those three will be the primary focus. Indeed, those three items are the linchpins of living and operating effectively. However, having those metrics and facets of one's psyche out of whack in either direction can lead to problems with perceptions and outcomes and thus they are worth of some specific and measured review.
The True & ealistic Self
It is undeniable that people that have strong self-esteem, self-motivation and emotional intelligence are much stronger people in terms of perseverance, overall performance and how they deal with adversity. However, there would seem to be a good amount of people that are a bit over-inflated in terms of self-esteem, are a bit underwhelming with personal motivation and they perceive the…
Banks, J., & Coutu, D. (2008). How to Protect Your Job in a Recession. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 113-116.
Blain, A. (2008). The Millenial Tidalwave: Five Elements That Will Change The
Workplace of Tomorrow. Journal Of The Quality Assurance Institute, 22(2), 11-
This article provides the findings of a study that sought to examine how leadership and follower characteristics influence self leadership behaviour in followers. Two hypotheses were formulated: H1) empowering leadership positively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy; and H2) directive leadership negatively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy. Longitudinal data was collected from a large defence company with operations in the U.S. The data was collected at two points in time with an interval of 10 weeks. At Time 1, the sample comprised 404 followers in 75 groups, while Time 2 involved 313 followers in 72 groups.
Employing hierarchical linear modelling, the study found that follower self leadership behaviour was substantially influenced by both empowering and directive leadership styles as well as follower’s desire for independence. More specifically, a leadership style in which the leader empowered followers was…
Self-Control Theory and ADHD
Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Crime Theory, now referred to as the theory of self-control, remains one of the most well-known theories (Tibbetts & Gibson, 2002). Low self-control remains the main component of their theory. The time-stable individual difference that regulates behavior is low self-control. From what I learnt, individuals who have low self-control are mainly due to poor or ineffective parenting techniques during the early years-before they reached the age of eight. Particularly, parents that lack the consistency or effectiveness to form an emotional attachment with their children will find it hard to monitor the behavior of their children. The difficulty experienced in monitoring the child's behavior minimizes the possibility that the children's deviant behavior will be noticed by the parents. This will minimize the chance for the parents to administer non-corporal punishment for deviant behavior. Therefore, such persons would prefer easy and…
Higgins, G. E. (2007). Digital piracy, self-control theory, and rational choice: An examination of the role of value. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 1(1), 33-55.
Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Tibbetts, S. G., & Gibson, C. L. (2002). Individual propensities and rational decision-making: Recent findings and promising approaches.
In: A. R. Piquero and S. G. Tibbetts (Eds.), Rational Choice and Criminal Behavior: Recent Research and Future Challenges. (pp. 3-24): New York, NY: Routledge Press.
However, in the case of this study it is a term that is applied to those children who exhibit successful adaptation even though their personal/home environment places them at heighted risk for maladjusted behaviors (141). It would then make sense that those individuals who either had a biological predisposition, or some sort of nurturing behavior outside the home, to retain increased resilience to adversity would be better prepared for emotional maturity and thus perform better with both cogitative and behavioral tasks. These skills, according to this study, are a defining feature in the child's emerging competency level and, if activated at an early enough age, carry through to adulthood. Further research is necessary, though, to understand how educators and psychologists can actively aide individuals in increasing their resiliency levels.
Buckner, et.al. (2003 and 2009) are clearly interested in the demographic and psychographic effects of poverty on behavior and cognition. In…
Blair, C. (2002). "School Readiness- Integrating Cognition and Emotion in a Neurobiological Conceptualization of Children's Functioning at School
Entry." American Psychologist. 57 (2): 111-27.
Blair, C. And A. Diamond. (2008). "Biological processes in prevention and intervention:
The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure." Development and Psychopathology. 20 (3): 899-911.
They perceive their self-worth mainly in connection with those achievements and their confidence in social situations is largely dependent on the knowledge that others recognize them for those attributes (Branden, 2007).
The Shift from False Confidence to Self-Efficacy
I experienced a period during my later childhood and adolescence where I now realize I had substituted unjustified fears and apprehensions with unjustified confidence and positive beliefs about myself that exceeded my actual abilities. My parents meant to instill in me a sense of self-esteem by inflating my self-image. However, in doing so, they actually infused me with what I have more recently learned to recognize as false confidence. Because I was taught to "be confident" I became equally confident in situations where I knew almost nothing as I was in situations where I deserved to be confident. On several occasions, I allowed myself to become argumentative even after realizing that I…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., and Akert, R. (2008). Social Psychology. New York:
Branden, N. (2008). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam.
Myers, D.G. (2010). Social Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
One of the crucial elements towards the realization of organizational success and profitability is creating a suitable working environment for all employees to thrive as they carry out their respective responsibilities. In essence, employees' contributions towards the achievement of established business goals/objectives is largely influenced by the nature of the working environment and working conditions. However, employees' behaviors also play a crucial role in determining their productivity in the workplace. Self-defeating behaviors in the workplace contributes to stress, which in turn affects employees' input to work processes and the overall profitability of an organization. This paper examines the management of stress brought by self-defeating behaviors in the workplace. The evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior.
The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards…
This scale would indicate participants' positive feelings between themselves and the examiner. The wording of several items on the questionnaire was changed slightly, for example, "therapist" was changed to "examiner." A different subscale was used to test the hypothesis that assessment feedback accelerates rapport building. Another subscale asked questions regarding participants perceptions about themselves were reaffirmed and they felt proud, secure, or important after the testing experience. The final subscale was used to further understand how assessment feedback enhances a sense of self-enhancement, particularly a sense of self-discovery. The results supported the authors hypotheses that providing assessment feedback results could have some therapeutic value. I though the study was positive because very few studies have systematically attempted to identify the processes or mechanisms underlying the observed outcomes.
The study concluded that personalized feedback was associated with processes related to initial establishment of rapport and to the enhancement of intra-individual states…
Interrelationship of Self-Perceptions, Culturally-Based Perceptions, Impressions, and their effects on Leadership Abilities
Humans have the most highly organized social structure of any creature on earth. In an attempt to ascertain our relative position in a complex social hierarchy, we constantly evaluate and re-evaluate ourselves. e do this by comparing ourselves to other human beings. e use this information to establish our opinions of ourselves, the various social groups to which we belong and our opinions of others. e belong to many social groups, our family, our group of friends at school, a community and a culture that includes our ethnic backgrounds. e must make decisions about our place in each of these groups. These opinions constitute what we think of ourselves, and gives us our self-esteem, or self-worth.
Our attitudes and beliefs regarding ourselves and others effect our ability to learn our acceptance of subordination to authority figures and our…
Baron, R. And Kenny, D. (1986). "The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic and Statistical Considerations." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173-1182.
Bugental, B., Blue, J. Cortez, V., Fleck, K., Kopeikin, H., Lewis, J.C., & Lyon, J. (1993). "Social cognitions as organizers of autonomic and affecitive response to social challenge." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (64)1: 94-103.
Christopher, A. (1998). "The Psychology of Names: An Empirical Reexamination." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, (19): 1173-1195.
Feldman, J., and Lynch, J. Jr. (1988). "Self-generated validity and other effects of measurement on belief, attitude, intention and behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, (73): 431-435.
Conversely, those who are psychologically insecure, mistrustful of others without cause, and who regularly project negative expectations onto social interactions tend to make other uncomfortable and to provoke negative responses from others (Maxwell, 2007; Fitch, 2010).
This point can be illustrated by the following example. A male Soldier (PVT John Doe) arrives to his first unit after graduation from basic training. He hasn't taken any initiative within his team, does only what he is told, and fails to show any leadership qualities. A female Soldiers reports to the same unit during the same time and is promoted ahead of her peers because she take the initiative and gets the mission accomplished.
Those who lead with anger does more damage than the good they were hoping for. It tears down the fabric, the pride that unite an organization are costumed to having. The command climate of an organization is a true…
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Searching for One's Self
The rigors and difficulty associated with finding the self-presented by Robert Thurman and Azar Nafisi contrast with the idea of selfhood presented by Jean Twenge in markedly different ways. This fact is underscored all the more clearly by reading Thurman's "Wisdom," Nafisi's "Selections from Reading Lolita in Tehran" and Twenge's "An Army of One: Me." Specifically, Thurman and Nafisi are actually concerned with an exploration of the self to discover a unique identity within an individual. Twenge, on the other hand, is writing about the self in relation to the concept of selfishness, and largely posits the notion that the preoccupation with the self that typifies contemporary society is innately limiting in this regard. Quite simply, there is no difficulty associated with the sort of selfish selfhood that Twenge writes about, whereas such difficulties dominate the writings of Thurman and Nafisis because they are about finding…
Middle ange Theory of Self Transcendence
There are several nursing-related theories and these have the function of explaining, evaluating and applying the field in order to enhance quality of treatment. These theories are divided into three classes; low rang theories, middle age theories and grand theories. All these classes each have their specialized roles towards the improvement of the nursing practice dependent on the various treatment types they are concerned with. Middle range theories possess a number of well-defined models which are applied for experimental testing on a concept in order to determine if it is useful and effective in the nursing profession. Several active forms of middle range theories exists and they include those which are concerned with self-efficiency, empathy, human interactions, carrying out of nursing duties, reasoned action, adverse symptoms, self-transcendence etc. Generally, the benefits of these theories are evident when nursing challenges, especially those concerned…
Coward, D. D. (2003). Facilitation of Self-Transcendence in a Breast Cancer Support Group: II. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30(2), 291-300.
Masters, K (2012). Nursing Theories: A framework for Professional Practice. Sudbury, MA: Joones & Bartlett, LLC
McEwen, M. & Wills, E. M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Reed O (2008). "The Theory of Self-Transcendence." In M.J. Smith & P.R Liehr (Eds.). Middle Range Theory for nursing (2nd ed.). New York, Springer.