Objective of this paper is to explore the impact of globalization on the United States national security. The study defines globalization as the increasing global relations of people, corporate organization and government. There is no doubt that the globalization provides numerous benefits to the American economy. Despite the benefits derived from the globalization, the advent of globalization also provides some threats to the United States.
The study also reviews the previous literatures on globalization and identifies various effects of globalization on the U.S. national security. The study identifies the incidents of terrorist attack on American soil. The increase in the influx of illegal immigrants has also become serious security concern to some states in the U.S. The review of the literatures suggests various strategies that the U.S. should employ to safeguard the country national security.
The study provides data analysis and interpretation & findings. The study suggests that the U.S. needs to implement national security measure with caution. There is an evident that the United States derives net gain from globalization. In implementing the national security measures, the United States should balance the national security measure with the benefits derived from globalization.
The United States has long enjoyed the status of global power because of the country exerts immense economic and political influence globally. Since the end the Second World War, the U.S. has proved to be a dominant super power in term of economic, military, technological and scientific affairs. The U.S. has also successfully achieved a leadership role in technological development through its breakthrough in the information and communication technology (ICT). More importantly, the United has the largest economy in the world with the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) reaching approximately $14 Trillion in 2010 (See Table 1), and its economic development is ahead of the economy of all the countries of OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). The country not only enjoys the economy supremacy, the country has also established the political supremacy globally because many former communist countries have finally adopted the free market economic system. The extent of the U.S. powers was revealed when the country defied the UN and declared a war on Afghanistan and Iraq.
Advent of globalization has been one of the forces that make the United States to enjoy both political and economic influence over several nations. There have been an argument that globalization has major economic, political, social and strategic impacts on the United States. However, the negative impacts that the globalization brings on the U.S. economic and political landscape have become the national security concern for the United States. In the United States, there is influx of illegal immigrants, and it is estimated that there are more than 12 million immigrants in the United States. Under federal law, all states are obliged to provide some essential services to illegal immigrants, which include emergence medical service and public education. However, many states defy federal law by severely dealing with illegal immigrants. It is believed that increase in the number of illegal immigrants contributes to the social security problems in the United States. Typically, more than 30 states have already passed different laws to combat illegal immigrants. Many states in the United States believe that influx of illegal immigrants have contributed to the high unemployment rate. The threat of terrorism has also been another security concern to the U.S. government. Typically, the U.S. is a top country that has always been the target of attacks from the terrorists groups. On many occasions, the U.S. embassies around the world have been under the terrorist attacks, and the issue has made different U.S. governments to vehemently pursue war on terror. However, sequence of attack on U.S. On September 11 has been a major factor that makes the U.S. government to make national security concern as the major domestic and foreign policy. (Datamonitor, 2011).
Current rising of unemployment and corresponding increase in the social tension have also made the U.S. population to increasingly critical about the U.S. international politics. On several occasions, the intrusion of the U.S. government on domestic affairs of other countries has brought about the spread of anti-U.S. from some certain terrorist group, which often results in the attack of the U.S. national territorial integrity. Typically, the issue is threatening the U.S. national security. More importantly, the U.S. boasts on its ability to provide social security system for its citizen, however, the country is currently experiencing high unemployment rate and increase in the aging population. Data from the U.S. census reveal that half of the U.S. population is above 36.7 years old. The scenario makes the U.S. To face the risks of slower growth rate and serious labor shortage in the near future. The increase in the aging group will make more people to put a substantial pressure on government finance since social security benefits constitutes 90% of the income of the one-third of the U.S. population. (Datamonitor, 2011).
Fundamental objective of this thesis is to explore the effect of globalization on the United States National Security. The paper reviews the previous studies to enhance greater understanding on the impact of globalization on the U.S. national security.
This section reviews the previous studies on globalization. The study also explores both positive and negative effects of globalization on the United States. The study further demonstrates the effects of globalization on the national security concern of the United States, and the measures to safeguard the country territorial integrity by implementing a stricter national security measure. The study also explores other issues such as unemployment rate, and the declining level of education of U.S. population, which also constitute the national security concern.
Overview of the concept Globalization
Theodore Levit first used the concept globalization in 1965 that identified the vast change that took place within the international political economy. His argument shows that inter-relation of nation states has led to the economic and financial liberations of states. (Wahab, Shahbudin Abdul, 2002). Globalization refers to the increasing global interrelationship of economic, cultural and social activity. (Bhagwati, 2004, Rowman, 2004).
"Globalization provides individual national economies the means to create economic webs with other countries through the integration of markets and the unification of transportation and communication system. This process has effects on culture, political systems, economic development, and prosperity in societies around the world." (Travalini, 2009 P. 779).
Rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has assisted in making the world a global village where it is now possible to communicate and transact business without moving out of the country. With recent advent of internet technology, a country national boundary is no more a barrier to communicate and transact business around the globe. Globalization has led to the increasingly opening up of economies and country's national boundary, and these lead to the increase of transfer of capital, spread of information and ideas, and spread of knowledge & technology from one geographical region to the other. Typically, globalization has created a consolidated unified economy, which intensifies worldwide social relations. (Krishnan, 2009).
With reference to the impact of globalization on the political system, political action or decision of a country could have significant repercussions on other part of the world. Globalization has created the chain of political, economic and social interdependence. While globalization has assisted in the inter-linkages of people around the world, the globalization has also served as source of national security threats. State security is very critical for a state survival. A key aspect of state security is the ability to provide national security that may not be challenged by the current advent of globalization. Provision of national security is based on the ability of a state to protect its citizens from harm. However, ability of a state to provide effective national security has been challenged by the advent of globalization.
Different authors view the effect of globalization on nation state differently. Ripsman et al. argue that globalization has weakened the state's national security through the impact of the powerful social forces. Over the years, these forces have manifested into several forms which include the rise of international actors, proliferation of non-traditional security challenges which include transnational terrorism, and rise of non-state actors such as multinational organizations. United States is the most liberal countries in the world. Over the years, the United States has opened its national borders to enhance the influx of people from the different part of the world. More importantly, the United States is the leader in the application of technology for the betterment of population, and the country has used its technology to link other part of the world. However, rapid development of technology has undermined the state security of the United States. The United States is the most liberal country in the world. The country opens its national boundary to the influx of people, foreign direct investment and free exchange of information and communication. In the contemporary international economic systems, modern economies depend on the resources of foreign countries to…