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Karina Ordonez discusses border security issues that relate to homeland security, specifically the Arizona/Sedona portion of the U.S. / Mexico border. Although it is only a small portion of the actual border, it is currently the most porous part of the border. Therefore, as strategies are implemented to deal with border security, they are going to have to deal with this border. Despite that fact, Ordonez cautions against focusing solely on the border when discussing the border and border security. She makes the point that the border is generally a transition area; people pass through border areas to other areas to find jobs in the interior of the country. Therefore, immigration reform that focuses solely on border security does not address the reason that many people are illegally immigrating to the United States, which is farm work in the interior states. In order to fix the issue illegal…
Oliver, W. (2006). Homeland security for policing (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/
Ordonez, K. (2012, August 12). Borders and immigration. Retrieved September 5, 2013 from YouTube website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1QfMXZ7ED4
Effective Ways to Measue the Efficacy of Bode Patols
Accoding to the Depatment of Homeland Secuity (DHS): "potecting ou bodes fom the illegal movement of weapons, dugs, contaband, and people, while pomoting lawful enty and exit, is essential to homeland secuity, economic pospeity, and national soveeignty… Though inceases in Bode Patol staffing; constuction of new infastuctue and fencing; use of advanced technology -- including sensos, ada, and aeial assets -- investments to modenize the pots of enty; and stonge patneships and infomation shaing, we ae ceating a safe, moe secue, and moe efficient bode envionment" (Bode secuity oveview, 2013, DHS). Howeve, some outside analysts have called into question the DHS claim that it has made substantive impovements to limiting access to the nation's bodes to authoized pesons alone. Thee emains consideable debate as to how best to measue the efficacy of bode secuity.
This pape will examine diffeent…
references, down from 18% 20 years ago. Family reunification should remain a cornerstone of immigration but needs to give way substantially to a more skills-oriented policy" (Kotkin 2012:1). A number of regions, including the Mid-Atlantic States and the West, despite high unemployment in many areas, have consistent employment deficits in technological professions, reflecting a 'skills gap' that must be addressed (Kotkin 2012:1). This idea, however, is often politically unpalatable to those who are advocates for current undocumented workers as well as those who are concerned that an influx of immigrants (highly-educated or not) raises potential security concerns.
Yet despite the political polarization of these various sides of the immigration issue, there is a certain amount of consensus in regards to specific policies. There is some agreement in Congress that unfettered immigration and a completely porous border are unwise, and an acknowledgement that immigration in some form can prove beneficial to the U.S. But how to honor these objectives in a cost-effective fashion remains an open question, as does the 'type' of immigrant the U.S. should allow to remain within its borders, legally. Does the U.S. seek new immigrants outside of those who have current undocumented status, or does the U.S. honor migrants who have made a substantive contribution to the U.S. (paying taxes in the case of some) despite their undocumented status?
Of course, in this controversy, there are those who suggest that focusing on border security is less effective than focusing on employer behavior. A number of states, including Arizona, have enacted legislation to penalize employers who knowingly hire illegal immigrants. "The goal on both the state and federal level is to punish egregious cases and convince farmers, restaurant owners, clothing manufacturers, meatpackers and other employees - employers to change their behavior" (Conan 2011). Rather than concentrating agents at the border, it is argued that a more effective strategy is to focus on employers -- if employers have a disincentive to hire illegal workers and the work dries up, than the numbers of illegal immigrants will naturally decrease.
The immigration debate is further complicated by the fact that actual figures about illegal immigration are highly contentious. According to an independent report by the bipartisan Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), the current methodology of assessing the success of current DHS policy is problematic because "the number of apprehensions is not self-explanatory…It could mean people are being deterred from crossing, but it could also mean a lot of other things. When you think about it, it could even mean Border Patrol is doing a worse job because they're catching fewer people" (Brown 2013). Another possible hypothesis is that decreased numbers of apprehensions are due to the softening of the U.S. economy and the dearth of attractive jobs for illegal migrants -- there was a notable influx of returnees immediately after the credit crisis of 2008.
Increased border security would keep this youngster at home where he belongs, and would also help do away with the smugglers (coyotes) who prey on the immigrants and charge them exorbitant sums to lead them across desolate deserts undetected.
Along with increased border security, it makes good sense to strengthen the Customs Department and streamline the immigration process for legal immigrants who choose to follow the rules when they enter the country. This would allow more productive citizens to enter the country, while increased security would stem the unchecked flow of illegal immigrants into the country. The main purpose of increased security at the borders should be to stop illegal and threatening activity, not to simply turn away illegal immigrants. Increased security should ensure that drug and terrorist activity is severely limited, and that Americans are safer in their country, rather than more vulnerable to terrorist activity and attack.
Coleman, Michael. "The Economics of Security - the Price of Preparedness." World and I June 2002: 20.
Editors. "Border Fence Project." BorderFenceProject.com. 2007. 28 April 2007. http://www.borderfenceproject.com/
Harman, Danna. "South of the Border: Fence is no Deterrent." Christian Science Monitor. 2006. 28 April 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0329/p01s03-woam.html
Nevins, Joseph. Operation Gatekeeper: The Rise of the "Illegal Alien" and the Making of the U.S.-Mexico Boundary. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Improvements in Border Security
Since the events of September 11, 2001 border security has been an increasingly contentious issue in United States politics and in everyday life. While most everyone in the country agreed that something must be done to stem the tide of illegal immigrants pouring into the U.S. seemingly unabated, there was some disagreement about the nature of the changes that needed to be implemented. While border security has vastly improved in terms of number of guards patrolling the region and the intensity with which they scrutinize border, the overall results have been mixed, with illegal immigration continuing to be a problem that confounds the authorities. The tightening of the border has also complicated the dealings of average, law-abiding citizens on both sides. The restrictions and regulations surrounding border security have complicated travel abroad for U.S. citizens while also, at times, impeding business dealings that straddle both sides…
Ahern, J.P. (2009). Secure borders, safe travel, legal trade. U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
US Department of Homeland Security. (2011). Border patrol overview. Retrieved from:
Border agents will be allowed to make arrests on city streets, by Gregory Alan Gross, San Diego Union Tribune, August 16, 2003.
An order that angered many San Diego-Based Border Patrol agents and caused a firestorm of public outcry from conservatives, anti-immigration activists, and "law-and-order" advocates, has been rescinded by higher-ups in Washington, D.C. It is now legal again for the 1,600 Border Patrol agents who work for the San Diego office to stop and question suspected illegal immigrants on city streets - in San Diego and in outlying suburban neighborhoods. On August 8, San Diego Border Patrol Sector Chief William T. Veal issued a memo which ordered the agents to cease their policy of stopping suspected illegal immigrants on the streets. The order stated that agents were barred from "any interior enforcement or city patrol operations in or near residential areas or places of employment." Why?
On August 2,…
Gross, Gregory Alan. "Border Agents will be Allowed to make Arrests on City
Streets." www.SignonSandiego.com:The San Diego Union-Tribune (2003).
Lipsky, Michael. Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public
Services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation,1980.
Accordingly, the Lower Rio Grande Valley National ildlife Refuge, the former Sabal Palms Audubon Sanctuary, and the Nature Conservancy's Southmost Preserve would all be subjected to direct environmental auditing. Comparative figures measuring current findings against archived findings will provide a quantifiable understanding of the impact being levied by the wall in these specific areas. The sanctuaries have been selected for a number of reasons, specifically owing to the claim that these have been directly impacted by the construction of the Border all and based on the assumption that these sanctuaries will already possess a significant set of archived data on environmental features such air, soil and water quality, wildlife migration habits and the environmental safety of human habitation.
It is thus that the proposed study here seeks to support the claim that the border wall constructed in the LRGV is a both a poor response to the immigration crisis and…
Daily KOS. (2010). Walling off the Nature Conservancy. m.dailykos.com.
Mattei, E. (2009). Borderline: When it Comes to the Texas/Mexico Wall, No One's Sitting on the Fence. A Nation Divided. Online at http://blogs.swarthmore.edu/borderwall/?tag=rio-grande-valley
No Border Wall (NBW). (2010). Texas Politicians Ignoring the Danger That the Border Wall Poses to South Texas Levees. No Texas Border Wall. Online at
Security and Co-Operation in Europe
The topics before the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE) are: Combating Human Trafficking; Supporting Post-Conflict Stabilization and Institution- Building in Kyrgyzstan; and Energy Supply as a Factor of Instability. Greece is dedicated to assisting the OCSE to combat human trafficking, to supporting OCSE initiatives to stabilize and build democratic institutions in Kyrgyzstan, and I. Combating Human Trafficking
As a committed member of the United Nations and the European Union, Greece supports the objectives outlined by both organizations to combat human trafficking. . Accordingly in an effort to combat human trafficking, Greece has increased its efforts to disrupt major human smuggling rings and arrest the individuals involved, and coordinated these efforts with similar efforts by both the European Union and the United Nations. The delegation from Greece signals that its enforcement has been stepped up, which is reflected in the increased number of…
Economic entities can be influenced by the area they are located in, with the entities positioned in the vicinity of economic blocks like NAFTA or the European Union being advantaged and thus more likely to engage in trade. People in North America and those in Western Europe are advantaged because of their position, meaning that the trade business they get involved in is normally more intense in comparison to the trade performed by economic entities that reside further away from economic blocks.
Security has always been a crucial matter when it came to freight transportation. However, this topic has not been given special attention until the 9/11 events, which marked the beginning of great changes in transportation policies. It previously seemed perfectly normal to check freights for illegal substances, undocumented immigrants, and piracy. Even with that, the World Trade Center events brought forward a new set of security concerns. The…
Improving the United States Custom and Border Protection Agency
Alden, E. W. (2012). Immigration and Border Control. Cato Journal, 32(1), 37-46
Like Polner, in Coordinated Border Management: From Theory to Practice, the author of this particular article identifies the need to ensure that border security benefits the economy of the country. In so doing, he seeks ways of making "border security compatible with a sensible immigration system that strengthens the U.S. economy rather than weakens it." Unlike the other authors listed in tis text, Winter also gives a brief history of U.S. border patrol. This article will come in handy as I seek to highlight the consequences of the border security enforcement approaches in place currently. The article also outlines the various strategies that could be utilized in seeking to further enhance the flexibility as well as effectiveness of border security in the future. Its relevance cannot, therefore, be overstated.…
The CBP (Customs and Border Protection) is a unit in the homeland security department and is the agency responsible for regulating, monitoring and facilitating flow of products at the points of entry. CBP policy formulation is done is such a way as to ensure that there is smooth movement of cargo through the border line. CBP enforces the customs and trade rules which are put in place with a view of protecting businesses and customers in the U.S. and collect revenue. CBP also enforces security laws for imports formulated with an objective of preventing illegal drugs, mass destruction weapons and contraband commodities from accessing the U.S.A. The U.S. congress is charged with the duty of defining and authorising the functions of international trade within CBP, allocation of funds for conducting program CBP oversight. The current laws authorising facilitation of trade and enforcing CBP functions are centred on a…
One of the largest issues between the two nations is the issue of truck passage. In the past trucks carrying goods or cargo had enjoyed a cursory glance as they crossed into the other nation however, after the World Trade Towers came down border agents on both sides of the border began to investigate trucks with much more scrutiny than ever before.
Historic allies, Canada and the United States agreed following 9-11 to a plan for a "secure and smart border" both U.S. And Canadian officials said would protect against terrorist attacks while facilitating this vital stream of trade. Seventy percent of the trade with Canada is truck-borne, with a truck crossing the border every three seconds in a stream of 200,000 vehicles each day (Canada, 2002).
The essence of that agreement was that the United States and Canada would devise ways to identify regular, unthreatening traffic in people…
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Accessed 10-22-06)
Danna, Anthony and Oscar H. Gandy 2002 All that glitters is not gold: Digging beneath the surface of data mining. Journal of Business Ethics 40: 373-386.
Ericson, Richard V. And Kevin Haggerty 1997 Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Principal Directorates of Department of Homeland Security
Border and Transportation Security
The largest component of the Department of Homeland Security is the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security (BTS). This division is responsible for maintaining the security of the nation's borders and transportation systems. BTS employees about 58% of DHS's total employees, has nearly half of its operating budget, and includes what was formerly TSA, Customs, the border security functions of INS, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and FLETC. Just like the other directorates of DHS, it is managed by an undersecretary of homeland security (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2012).
This department brought together several agencies from such departments as the Treasury Department, the Department of Justice, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Agriculture. The mission of this directorate is to secure the borders and transportation systems of the United States and to…
About the Directorate for Management. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0096.shtm
About the Science and Technology Directorate. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0530.shtmUnited States Department of Border and Transportation Security. (2010). Retrieved from http://homelandsecurity.uslegal.com/department-of-homeland-security/components -
Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.gov.com/agency/dhs/
Regarding Border ecurity, "the Department of Homeland ecurity prevents and investigates illegal movements across our borders, including the smuggling of people, drugs, cash, and weapons" (DH.gov. Border ecurity. 2012. PP. 1). Customs, Coast Guard, and Immigration (IN) are working departments in this area.
Preparedness, Response, Recovery refers to "providing a coordinated, comprehensive federal response and mounting a swift and effective recovery effort" (DH.gov. Preparedness. Response. Recovery. 2012. PP. 1). FEMA is the direct provider of government action and coordination in this realm.
On Immigration, "the Department is responsible for providing immigration-related services and benefits such as naturalization and work authorization" (DH.gov. Immigration. 2012. PP. 1). IN is the primary vehicle in this context however, cross-over with Border ecurity functions are common.
Lastly, DH engages in cyber security "keeping our federal civilian networks secure, and secure the cyberspace and critical infrastructure on which we all depend" (DH.gov. Cyber ecurity. 2012. PP.…
Succinctly, no! The encompassing mission of the DHS is so broad as to incorporate far too many active departments, agencies directorates, and components for the structure to effectively work. The flow chart itself is complex in its reporting and layered approach. The unification which is necessary to protect the U.S. from threats is not possible under the auspices of a broad tent approach to control and information dissemination. As an example, a recent report indicated "86 reported attacks on computer systems in the U.S. that control infrastructure, factories, and databases between October 2011 and February 2012" (Schmidt, M. March 13, 2012. PP. 1); yet no one Federal agency "has the authority to compel businesses that run the nation's infrastructure to improve their security" (Schmidt, M. March 13, 2012. PP. 1). If the DHS were to assume control of this task, the assumption would be that economies of scale in resources and scope would allow for greater efficacy. The counter is that the nimbleness and coordination necessary to prevent such hacking is anathema under a monolithic structure. Decentralization would be a more logical method of countering the multiple risks to homeland security.
2. Are there any federal, state, and/or local agencies present in DHS that do not belong? If so, explain why / if not, explain why. Be detailed.
The best example, and most obvious is FEMA, the
At the same time, officials report an uptick in corruption-related investigations. Since October 2004, 136 Customs and Border Protection employees have been indicted on or convicted of corruption-related charges." (Becker, p. 1)
And on a broader institutional level, there is significant evidence that DHS, constructed to respond to threats of terrorism, has been used to justify the use of military and federal resources for preventing immigration along our shared border with Mexico. According to Sols (2010), "Through Sept. 7 this fiscal year, 176,736 criminal immigrants have been removed from the U.S. By Immigration and Customs Enforcement. That surpasses the total for all of last year, when 136,343 were removed." (Sols, p. 1) These figures suggest that Homeland Security's focus is highly susceptible to the political pressures of the time as opposed to the prevention of potentially catastrophic terrorist attacks.
Beyond this, because DHS is so generally unaccountable, it possesses an…
Becker, a. (2012). Homeland Security Office Accused of Faking Reports on Internal Investigations. Huffington Post.
Cordes, J.J.; Yezer, a.; Young, G.; Foreman, M.C. & Kirschner, C. (2006). Estimating Economic Impacts of Homeland Security Measures. George Washington Institute of Public Policy.
Martinez, C. (2008). Homeland Security's new border-crossing rules prompt concern over economic impact. The Monitor.
Sols, D. (2010). Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano: Focus is on criminal immigrants. Dallas News.
Integrated agreements will assist in targeting the maximum federal funding at the greatest risk counties, cities and states where through the addition of more funds, security of citizens will be increased (U.S. Congress 2010). U.S. Department of Homeland Security should uphold on what it considers being right. It should be firm on actions vital to the country's ability to respond to such issues. It should issue a mandate on funding for the activities, interoperable communications and should not ignore its own requirements. As a result, local and state governments will succeed in achieving interoperable communications (Studeman, 2002).
The DHS must ensure that localities and states attain a certain degree of appropriate interoperable communications. Activities and actions should be given proper funding. In addition, Department of Homeland Security should allow local and state governments to be flexible and make decisions on how they intend to achieve the standard. The DHS enterprise…
Pincus, W. (2007). An Admonition on Intelligence. New York: ProQuest
US Congress (2010). Congressional Record, V. 153, Pt. 1, January 4, 2007 to January 17, 2007.
New York: Government Printing Office
Studeman, M. (2002). Strengthening the Shield: U.S. Homeland Security Intelligence. Kingston:
The DHS is consistent with the larger social trend on a global scale concerning institutional security measures insofar as Risley (2006) reports that "the securitization of an ever-expanding number of realms is a distinguishing feature of the contemporary political landscape." (1) This is to argue that in addition to the events such as 9/11 which can be seen as a clear catalyst to the changes in structure which have been underway since the end of 2001, there is also something of a broader sociological pattern which is reflected in the merger undertaken in the national security sector. The diminishing lines between commerce, governance and military engagement are perhaps best reflected in this parallel between the security community and the corporate world. The sociological implications are therefore rather significant in coming to understand why certain changes have been sought and in producing reasonable expectations as to what these changes may produce.…
Ball, H. (2005). U.S. Homeland Security. ABC-CLIO.
LeClerc, P. (2006). Review: The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online.
Noakes, J.A. (2000). Official Frames in Social Movement Theory: The FBI, HUAC, and the Communist Threat Hollywood. The Sociological Quarterly, 41(4), 657-680.
Risley, S.H. (2006). The Sociology of Security: Sociological Approaches to Contemporary and Historical Securitization. Annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Online at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p105192_index.html
Their casualties go uncounted, their actions largely unmonitored and their crimes unpunished." Scahill relates that four years into the Iraq occupation "there is no effective system of oversight or accountability governing contractors and their operations, not is there any effective law - military or civilian being applied to their activities." (2007) According to Scahill's report: "Since the launch of the "global war on terror," the administration has systematically funneled billions of dollars in public money to corporations like lackwater USA, DynCorp, Triple Canopy, Erinys and ArmorGroup. They have in turn used their lucrative government pay-outs to build up the infrastructure and reach of private armies so powerful that they rival or outgun some nation's militaries." (2007)
III. The EFFECTIVENESS of DHS
The work of Ahlers (2007) entitled: "Auditor's: Homeland Security Gets Mixed Grades" reports that congressional auditors gave "mixed grades to the Department of Homeland Security on its efforts to…
Labott, Elise (2004) U.S.: Probe into Iraq Trafficking Claims. CorpWatch 5 May 2004. Online available at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14174
Miller, Steven E. (2003) After the 9/11 Disaster: Washington's Struggle to Improve Homeland Security." Axess Stockholm, Sweden 2 (2003 Mar): 8-11. Online available at http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/254/after_the_911_disaster.html
Phinney, David (2006) AU.S. Fortress Rises in Baghdad: Asian Workers Trafficked to Build World's Largest Embassy. 17 Oct 2006. CorpWatch. Online available at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14173
Scahill, Jeremy (2007) the Mercenary Revolution: Flush with Profits from the Iraq War, Military Contractors See a World of Business Opportunities. The Indypendent 15 Aug 2007. Online available at http://www.indypendent.org/2007/08/10/the-mercenary-revolution-flush-with-profits-from-the-iraq-war-military-contractors-see-a-world-of-business-opportunities/
Beginning in October of 2005, organizational arrangements for emergency management functions on a federal level were put into place, in the reorganization begun by Secretary Chertoff.
Pros and Cons about the Homeland Security Program
There are good things about the Homeland Security Program in the U.S. A list of positives would include the fact that some safeguards must be implemented in order to keep the country safe. Local and national law enforcement efforts to this effect might keep thousands or millions of people in the U.S. from being wounded or killed. Counterintelligence efforts, legal or otherwise have turned up some plots by terrorists to wreak havoc, though the equal potential for abusing this privilege is omnipresent. Likewise, the prosecution of terrorists has instilled an awareness and deterrence of like crimes, though the potential for abuse has been raised as a legal issue. The people have come to rely on the…
Center for Defense Information. (2001). Organization for Homeland Security: issues and options. CDI Terrorism Project. 21 Dec 2001. Retrieved April 29, 2008 at http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/homelandsecurity.cfm .
Committee on Homeland Security. (2007). Homeland Security failures: TWIC examined. U.S. House of Representatives. 31 Oct 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2008 at http://homeland.house.gov/hearings/index.asp?ID=98 .
Grant, a. (2007). Remarks at the 2007 Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Law Enforcement Conference. U.S. Department of State. 15 Jun 2007.
Hall, M. (2004). Ex-official tells of Homeland Security failures. U.S.A. Today. 12 Dec 2004.
Technology changed Security and Terrorism?
Terrorists have evolved in their warfare and now they exploit modern technologies to facilitate every stage of their operation such as recruitment, training, planning and attack. Counter terrorism efforts therefore require more effort, continued research and high tech solutions to prevent, protect and to safeguard innocent citizens. The key to victory is not just the volume of information at our disposal but more importantly how effectively the information is analyzed and disseminated among anti-terror vigilance networks in different nations. Only a coordinated approach to counter terrorism would yield fruit, and for this, standardization of security measures across the international checkpoints is indispensible. There is no one solution to solve the problem of terrorism but with the development of newer technological solutions such as iometric identification, iosensors and terahertz imaging systems and other software solutions we can look forward to achieving the objective of a safer…
1) Bruce W. Don, David R. Frelinger & Scott Gerwehr et.al, 'Network technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication technologies to Modern Terrorists Organizations', Dept of Homeland Security, 2007, Accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR454.pdf
2) Paul Cornish, 'Technology, Strategy and Counter Terrorism', International Affairs, Vol 86, Issue 4, Accessed March 14th 2011, available at, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2010.00917.x/pdf
3) Emily Turrettini, 'Handsets' Deadly Use: Detonators', (Aug 27, 2005), accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/cat_cell_phones_used_by_terrorists.htm?p=2
4) Emily Wax, 'Gunmen Used Technology as a Tactical Tool', The Washington Post, Dec 3, 2008, Accessed Mar 15th 2011, Available at,
Strategies to improve collaboration and cooperation between the Homeland Security agencies
The department of homeland security (DHS) controls the territorial, local, state, tribal, and federal government resources (DHS, 2018). The DHS coordinates various programs and agencies into one single and unified effort that is given to protecting the American homeland and the people. The first QHSR (Quadrennial Homeland Security Review) was completed in the year 2010 with an objective of establishing an incorporated strategy for the goals and missions of homeland security (Homeland Security, 2005). Following this, DHS carried out a BUR (Bottom up Review). The objective was to synchronize organizational structure and programmatic activities in order to effectively achieve the goals and missions of homeland security.
The primary duty of homeland security is to protect the U.S. from any terrorism. The counterterrorism duties of the DHS are concentrated on these three goals i.e. First goal is protecting and resisting…
It provides the starling figure that private industry spends $150 billion dollars fighting the war on terror.
More money has been made available to entrepreneurs to address computer security demands, and the government has found itself in a kind of game of catch-up, often mimicking the security protocols already installed in businesses across the globe. here is 'big money' to be made, profiting off of the federal government's need to fight the war on terror on a variety of new fronts, suggests the author, as the government contracts R&D in the private sector. Although the article is told from an undeniably 'pro- business' slant, despite its inclusion in a journal of international affairs, it is also an important reminder that the war on terror is fought on a variety of 'fronts,' including that of industry, and that the development of new technology is a vital component to the nation's homeland…
The U.S. 9/11 Commission on Border Control." (Sep., 2004). Population and Development Review, 30, 3. 569-574.
Border security is one of the most critical and passionately debated issues in the question of how best to fight the war on terror. Before 9/11, border security was primarily seen as an issue of stemming drug trafficking and illegal immigration, not one of fighting terrorism. This reprint of a commission report on border control contains the surprising fact that as many as 15 of the 19 hijackers could have been intercepted by border authorities and better monitoring of travel documents and travel patterns ("The U.S. 9/11 Commission on Border Control," 2004: 571).
However, the article advances a controversial recommendation, namely that Americans should not be exempt from carrying biometric passports and to ensure that certain individuals are screened with greater care, frequent travelers should be able to enroll in prescreening programs, for 'fast' check-ins at the airports. Although some of these programs have begun to be instated at most major airports, their fairness and security is still in dispute. Regardless of whether one agrees with the article, however, it is a portrait of how the U.S. government views border security and how it thinks it best to fight terrorism through screening measures. Thus it can be useful to read, to gain insight into how the government views it must protect our borders, and where technology to screen passengers should progress in the future.
It is difficult to assess whether the creation of the Department of Homeland Security has been effective in protection national security. The most obvious issue is that there are a lot of variables at play, and "protecting national security" is a hopelessly vague concept that would have to be operationalized before making such an assessment, in any meaningful empirical way. The DHS was created in 2002 in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The prevailing sentiment at the time was that there were communication failures among different agencies that created gaps in national security, gaps that the terrorists exploited. Agencies that were rolled into DHS included the U.S. Customs Service, INS, the TSA, FEMA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the Secret Service. In that sense, DHS is an amalgam of existing resources, and the main benefit of its creation should have been improved interagency communication (DHS, 2016)
DHS.gov (2016). Website, various pages. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved May 13, 2016 from https://www.dhs.gov/
New America.net (2016). Deadly attacks since 9/11. New America.net. Retrieved May 13, 2016 from http://securitydata.newamerica.net/extremists/deadly-attacks.html
But there is a need that the success of the products is followed by satisfied and committed workers rather the workers whose life is in danger as they clean and process the iPads and iPhones.
Globalization and International Trade
The second chosen article has been taken from a journal of trade. The article "Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of Globalization" written by David Hummels has mentioned the importance of trade in the modern days (Weiss, 2010, p. 65). Globalization has important impacts on the economy of the countries but these days, trade has become more costly. Based on an increase in the fuel prices, there has been a great increase in transportation prices. The article has mentioned that more than 23% of the goods move between countries that are joined by land-based borders (Durdu, Mendoza, and International Monetary Fund. esearch Dept, 2006, p. 78). Ocean and…
Duhigg, C., and Barboza, D. (2012, January 25). In China, Human Costs Are Built Into an iPad. Retrieved April 24, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/business/ieconomy-apples-iPad-and-the-human-costs-for-workers-in-china.html?pagewanted=all
Durdu, C.B., Mendoza, G.E., and International Monetary Fund. Research Dept. (2006). Are Asset Price Guarantees Useful for Preventing Sudden Stops?: A Quantitative Investigation of the Globalization Hazard-moral Hazard Tradeoff, Volumes 6-73 of IMF working paper, Issues 2006-2073 of Are Asset Price Guarantees Useful for Preventing Sudden Stops?: A Quantitative Investigation of the Globalizations Hazard-moral Hazard Tradeoff. International Monetary Fund.
Hummels, D. (2007). Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of Globalization. Journal of Economic Perspectives 21 (3), pages 131 -- 154.
Weiss, J. (2010). The Economics of Industrial Development. Taylor & Francis.
security of the U.S. And Canadian border is in peril. There is an unprotected route allowing the free-flow of terrorists from around the world into Canada and then into the U.S. This is a national security situation that threatens our way of life. hat are our options for eliminating this threat?
By definition a liberal is a man or a woman who believes in liberty. Liberalism as a philosophy has evolved as a defense of individual citizen's liberties against the potential tyranny of his or her ruling state. Liberals such as John Locke have typically maintained that humans are naturally in 'a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions ... As they think fit ... without asking leave, or depending on the ill of any other Man," In other words, unless the individual's liberty impinges upon the liberty of another individual, than that individual should do as he or…
Gaus, Gerald. "Liberalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001. Available online November 3, 2004 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberalism/
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
Magarinos, C. (2001) Human Security and Science and Technology. Inauguration Statement of the UNIDO Director-General, 10 October, 2001. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
security crisis that is plaguing e-commerce as it transforms into the epitome of global business. It attempts to analyze the possible repercussions of this problem and then put forward various possible solutions to rectify the biggest obstacle limiting the path of e-commerce progress. The ideas and references used in this proposal have been cited from five different sources.
E-commerce has changed the way the world do business, plain and simple. It has single-handedly brought more people, countries, enterprises and governments together to the same world market than all other forms of conducting methods, combined. This name, given to the electronic method of executing business, has made the task of buying every available merchandise exponentially easier and has therefore made all the more products accessible to the general population as well as businesses and industries. The boom in online trade is gaining alacrity and is destined to become the method of…
1) Ghosh, AK, 1st edition - January 21, 1998, E-Commerce Security: Weak Links, Best Defenses, John Wiley & Sons.
2) Raisinghani, M, (editor), January 7, 2002, Cases on Worldwide E-Commerce: Theory in Action (Cases on Information Technology Series, Vol 4, Part 3), Idea Group Publishing
3) Hills, R, 23 April 2003, Key risks to e-commerce security, "My IT Adviser," Retreived on 20th February, 2004, from:
Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Security and Control: A White Paper
Protecting Health-Care Data
The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure. Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession. Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. (IO Press)
This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…
A WWW implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health
Accessed 21 September, 2005
IO Press. Retrieved from http://www.iospress.nl/loadtop/load.php?isbn=9051992661
To understand domination, then, demands two levels of analysis, one that recognizes the corporate, unified dimension of the state - its wholeness - expressed in its image, and one that dismantles this wholeness in favor of examining the reinforcing and contradictory practices and alliances of its disparate parts. The state-in-society model focuses on this paradoxical quality of the state; it demands that students of domination and change view the state in dual terms. It must be thought of at once (1) as the powerful image of a clearly bounded, unified organization that can be spoken of in singular terms (e.g., a headline stating, "Israel accepts Palestinian demands"), as if it were a single, centrally motivated actor performing in an integrated manner to rule a clearly defined territory; and (2) as the practices of a heap of loosely connected parts or fragments, frequently with illdefined boundaries between them and other groupings…
Allnutt, Luke, and Alex Znatkevich. 2002. Belarus Plays Catch-Up. Foreign Policy, January/February, 98.
Campbell, James E., and Thomas E. Mann. 1996. Forecasting the Presidential Election: What Can We Learn from Them Models?. Brookings Review, Fall, 26.
Gibson, Susan S. 1998. The Misplaced Reliance on Free and Fair Elections in Nation Building: The Role of Constitutional Democracy and the Rule of Law. Houston Journal of International Law 21, no. 1: 1.
Migdal, Joel S. 2001. State in Society: Studying How States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Physical Security Controls
To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime
Background information on the identification and authentication of people.
With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.
The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization
Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.
C. Brief overview of the paper.
i. The remainder…
1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.
2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.
They include the use of stealthy tactics, tools and techniques in order to avoid detection by antimalware software. The second goal is to create a backdoor that allows the attackers to gain greater access to the compromised software especially if other access points are discovered or patched. The third goal is to initiate the primary mission of the attackers which may be to steal sensitive information, monitor communications or simply to disrupt operations. The last goal is to leave the compromised computer without being detected McAfee, 2010()
Effect of APT on the National Security
Advanced persistent threats are designed to steal sensitive information by stealthily innovatively and tactically evading the detection by common malware software. Advanced persistent attacks are usually targeted to be large-scale attacks. The main goal or objective of the attack is to steal intellectual property from the compromised computers. There have been cases reported where organizations have…
Andress, J. (2011). Attacker Sophistication Continues to Grow? ISSA Journal, June (2011), 18-25.
Knapp, E.D. (2011). Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
McAfee. (2010). Advanced Persistent Threats. Santa Clara, CA: McAfee.
Surhone, L.M., Tennoe, M.T., & Henssonow, S.F. (2010). Advanced Persistent Threat. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller AG & Co. Kg.
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…
Accardo, J., & Chaudhry, M. A. (2014). Radiation exposure and privacy concerns surrounding full-body scanners in airports. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 198-200.
Alberto, V., & Bogatz, D. (2015, November 10). Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening
System ("Capps Ii"): National Security V. Civil Liberties. Retrieved from maxwell.syr.edu: ww.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/campbell/events/AlbertoBogatz.pdf
Bajoria, J. (2010, December 28). The Debate Over Airport Security. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/border-and-port-security/debate-over-airport-security/p23673
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…
Cox, A.B., & Posner, E.A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 809+.
Dillin, J. (2006). How Eisenhower solved illegal border crossings from Mexico. Christian Science Monitor.
Green, T.C., & Ciobanu, I.M. (2006). Deputizing - and then prosecuting - America's businesses in the fight against illegal immigration. American Criminal Law Review, 43(3), 1203+.
Headley, B. (2006). Giving critical context to the deportee phenomenon. Social Justice, 33(1), 40+.
In this sense, White has underlined the fact that "the Social Security Administration remains solvent in large part due to deductions taken from the paychecks of illegal immigrant workers, yet Social Security will never pay benefits to those workers. The workers pay in, but they never receive back" (White, 2010). Therefore it can be said that the illegal immigration has a win-win situation.
Overall it can be concluded that the present administration is clearly focused on a hard core policy planning which incurs extremely high expenses. However, the Mexican legal migration system also takes into account the benefits of Mexican immigration. Thus, as stated above, they represent a source for income, for cheap labor, and the availability of Mexicans to come tot he U.S.. Finally in analyzing the matter, it is clear that their eventual contribution reaches levels of social accounts and state accounts. Overall, the migration of Mexicans is…
Barack Obama.com. Organizing for America: comprehensive immigration reform. 2010. Available at http://www.barackobama.com/issues/immigrationreform/index.php
Global Security.org. "U.S.-Mexico Border Fence / Great Wall of Mexico
Secure Fence." Homeland security. 2010. Available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/mexico-wall.htm
Migration information center. The U.S.-Mexico border. MPI Staff. 2006. Available athttp://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=407
Homeland Security isk Management
isk Management in Homeland Security
This paper provides a brief examination of the role of risk management within the homeland security operations. The discussion first addresses issues related to risk assessment, which is a necessary, prudent step for publicly funded activities, and particularly so given the national scope and the potential consumption of resources. The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) serves as a vehicle to link policy -- the Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD 8) and the National Preparedness System. The core capabilities of the National Preparedness Goal are mapped to the hazards and threats identified in the SNA (SNA 2011). This tactic enables additional core capabilities to be identified, and provides a resource to inform the establishment of priorities needed for making decisions about future investing in capabilities (SNA 2011).
As with any major projects of risk management, the initial stage is focused on assessment.…
The White House. National Security Strategy. (2010, May). Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. Retrieved National_Security_Strategy.pdf
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Secure Boarders, Safe Travel, Legal Trade. U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection Fiscal Year 2009-2014 Strategic Plan. Retrieved CBP_Strategic_Plan.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan. Fiscal Years 2012 -- 2016. (2012, February). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved DHS_Strategic_Plan-2012-2016.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. DHS Risk Lexicon. Risk Steering Committee. (2010, September). Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-risk-lexicon-2010.pdf
Loss of jobs: though most Americans are skilled unlike the unskilled Mexican population, there is a small number of Americans estimated at 10 million who lack high school degree who are under threat from job losses due to availability of cheap unskilled labor from the immigrants.
It is worth noting however, that the immigration issue does not only cover the Mexicans alone but also the Canadian immigrants into the U.S. As well. A good number of these are educated and skilled. What that portends for USA is that there would be someone who may take up a skilled job, at equal salary since they have same qualifications and education as an American. This may not benefit the community since it brings about the unfair competition for jobs between immigrants and the native-born Americans. Then again the issue of money circulation comes up since the Canadians will send the cash…
Centre for Immigration Studies (CIS) (2001). Immigration from Mexico
Study Examines Costs and Benefits for the United States. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from www.cis.org/articles/2001/mexico/release.html
Seattle Post, (2002). Dropout rates highest among Mexican immigrants, study says. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from http://www.seattlepi.com/national/57060_dropout05.shtml
The Boston Tea Party, (2011). Concerns about an Immediate Open Borders Policy. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from http://www.bostontea.us/node/907
(Cattelain, 1997; paraphrased) the work of Cattelain additionally states that as of the beginning of "...July, 1997, approximately 66,000 children born to couples of which one is a Hong Kong resident and one is a mainlanders were waiting to come to Hong Kong, and around 2,000-4,000 children who had entered the territory illegally or overstayed visit permits were estimated to be in Hong Kong." (Cattelain, 1997) Marriage between individuals and the resulting bearing of children has proved problematic to the mainland in terms of regulations and it is stated in Cattelain's work that "One of the first issues that the newly created Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has had to dealt with his pitted an individual right against a community's capacity to absorb large numbers of new immigrants at one time." (1997)
VII. asic Law Regulating Children orn Outside of Hong Kong with Parent in Hong Kong
Tu, Edward Jow-Ching (2007 Cross-Border Marriage in Hong Kong and Taiwan. International Marriage Migration in Asia. 2007 Seoul. PAK/IPAR Conference.
Chen, Yu-Hua (2007) the Rise of Cross-Border Marriages and Its Impact on Fertility in Taiwan. Comparative Workshop of low Fertility organized by Asia Research Institute and Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. 22-23 February 2007. National University of Singapore. Online available at http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/showfile.asp?eventfileid=265
Cattelain, Chlo (1997) Family vs. Society: Hong Kong's Battle Over Right of Abode for Mainland-Born Children. HRIC. 30 June 1997. Online available at http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article-revision%5fid=4156&item%5fid=4155
Chan, Bernard (nd) Post-1997 Hong Kong: The Social and Environmental Impact. Asia Financial Group and Asia Insurance Co. Ltd. And the Hong Kong Council of Social Service.
The United States Department of Homeland Security was formed in response to the growing threat of international terrorism. Since its official inception in 2002, the Department's mandate has expanded to encompass immigration law enforcement and bolstered response to natural disasters affecting the United States. The DHS represented a significant restructuring of several American federal government agencies.
The stated mission of the Department of Homeland Security, indicated on the Department's Web site, includes five core areas: the prevention of terrorism, the security of national borders, the enforcement of immigration law, the safeguarding of cyberspace, and the ensured resilience to natural disasters (DHS 2011 "Department of Homeland Security Missions and esponsibilities").
The Department of Homeland Security operates as a coordination body, which "leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their…
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department of Homeland Security Missions and Responsibilities. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/responsibilities.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department Six-Point Agenda. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/editorial_0646.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). History.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Mature and Strengthen the Homeland Security Enterprise. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240838201772.shtm
UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…
AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,
Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.
Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.
And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.
"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.
One of the causes of the failure of the United…
Casteel, Philip. (2011, Feb. 24). "Mayor Reacts to Terrorist Arrest in Lubbock." KCBD
Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.kcbd.com/story/14136417/mayor-reactas-to-terrorist-arest-in-lubbock?redirected=true
"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University
"Lubbock Police Department swears in 13 New Officers." (2011, Sept. 9). Lubbock
limitations and capabilities of intelligence for corroborating homeland security efforts?
Sharing of intelligence and extensive threat analysis
There are quite many intelligent agencies working round the clock analyzing the data yet no single agency is working on analyzing the incoming data regarding terrorism in United States of America. No agency is presently working to gather intelligence and look for trends (DHS, 2002). Under the United States' president, a new department was formed which analyzed the data taken from government reserves such as DOE, DEA, INS, FBI, NSA, CIA and DOT along with public records. The department has the task of looking for trends keeping the big picture in mind. It is ready all-the-time to counter any probable terrorist activity underway (DHS, 2002).
An Example: Distribution of important pharmaceuticals
Potassium Iodide (KI) is quite a drug assisting in countering thyroid cancer when exposed to radiation. The drug needs to be taken…
Department of Homeland Security (2002). The Department of Homeland Security as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
Kate Martin. (2004). Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties. SAIS Review 24, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 8.
Logan, K. (2010). Homeland Security and Intelligence. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International.
National Security Strategy (2010). National Security Strategy as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
The management of large organizations is a very crucial issue, whether they are government-related or not (Argyris, 1993; Argyris & Schon, 1978; Broom, Jackson, Harris, & Vogelsang-Coombs, n.d.; Brown & Brudney, 2003; Hatry, 1999; Haynes, 1999). Often, however, the government does not seem to realize that it must manage itself in the same way that a business would in certain aspects if it is to succeed and therefore it does not market itself to the public.
The spending that has been involved with the Department of Homeland Security is also crucial, because it has changed over time to reflect the needs and the realization of what it takes to make the Department work (Eggen & Mintz, 2003). This spending is important to discuss, because it indicates how much of the government's money - and by extension how much of the tax dollars of Americans - is going toward funding this…
Argyris, C., (1993). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Argyris, C. & Schon, D.A. (1978). Organizational learning, a theory of action perspective. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Broom, C., Jackson, M., Harris, J., & Vogelsang-Coombs, V. (n.d.). Performance measurement: Concepts and techniques (3rd ed.), workbook. Washington, DC: American Society for Public administration.
Brown, M.M., & Brudney, J.L. (2003). Learning organizations in the public sector? A study of police agencies employing information and technology to advance knowledge. Public Administration Review. 63(1), 30-43.
The Congressional report card for 2007 goes on to say that an important part of leading an organization is to "provide clear statements of principles, priorities, and vision." But that said, it is unfortunate, according to the report card, that "...in spite of its mandate in the Homeland Security Act, neither the national policy nor the strategic plan...has been produced." During the fiscal year 2005 independent financial auditors reported that there were serious financial reporting difficulties for S&T that included "serious difficulties maintaining accurate financial records"; and moreover, the GAO has identified the same kinds of problems in 2007. So given that series of flaws, and the overall shaky management structure of DHS and S&T within the DHS, one can only conclude that the citizens of the U.S. should not feel safe, because they probably are not being protected as well as they could be.
Government Accountability Office.…
Government Accountability Office. "Department of Homeland Security: Science and Technology Directorate's Expenditure Plan." June 22, 2007. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2007, at http://www.gao.gov/news.items/do7868.pdf .
House Committee on Government Reform - Minority Staff Special Investigations Division.
The Growth of Political Appointees in the Bush Administration." May 2006. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2007 at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20060503.pdf .
House Committee on Homeland Security. "The State of Homeland Security 2007: An Annual
This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.
While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…
Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,
With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.
Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, 1991. Common Responsibility in the 1990s. Stockholm: Prime Minister's Office.
Timothy, K., 2004. "Human Security Discourse at the United Nations," in Peace Review, 16(1), pp. 19-24.
United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report, 1994. http://hrd.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en/.
In September 2002, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) formed the Pipeline Security Division to manage pipeline security at the federal level. The Department of Transportation also operates the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. These homeland security teams help to prevent disaster and offer protocols for response. However, pipeline security requires astute public-private partnerships. According to the TSA, virtually all of the country's critical pipeline infrastructure is owned and operated by private entities (Transportation Security Administration, "Pipeline Security"). Pipeline security is a matter of financial importance to industry stakeholders, but also integral to national security and environmental integrity.
Pipelines transport about 75% of all crude oil, and 65% of its refined petroleum products, natural gas, and other liquids in the United States (Parfomak "Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs," Transportation Security Administration, "Pipeline Security"). The full extent of the pipeline network in the United States, including the pipelines…
Fielding, Adrian. "Pipeline Security and Monitoring: Protecting the Industry." Pipelines International. March 2012. Retrieved online: http://pipelinesinternational.com/news/pipeline_security_and_monitoring_protecting_the_industry/067023/
Fielding, Adrian. "Pipeline Security: New Technology for Today's Demanding Environment." Pipeline and Gas Journal. Vol. 239, No. 5, May 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.pipelineandgasjournal.com/pipeline-security-new-technology-today%E2%80%99s-demanding-environment
Parfomak, Paul W. "Keeping America's Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress." CRS Report for Congress. Jan 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41536.pdf
Parfomak, Paul W. "Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs." CRS Report for Congress. Feb 18, 2010. Retrieved online: http://pstrust.org/docs/CRSRL33347_000.pdf
Breadth of Responsibilities
All of the DHS responsibilities relate back to the primary jurisdiction and mission responsibilities listed above. Information sharing and analysis, prevention and protection, preparedness and response, research, commerce and trade, travel security, and immigration all are functions of keeping our country safe from terrorists and responding to both manmade and natural disasters.
The auxiliary functions of the department such as the Secret Service, U.S. Coast Guard, FEMA, Immigration and Customs, the Transportation Security Administration, and the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) all add to the breadth of DHS functionality, and fall under the primary mission statement of the department. Even the OIG, which is responsible for auditing the internal functioning of DHS including fraud and abuse indirectly operates as a function of ensuring this primary mission is carried out effectively.
Is the DHS Effectively Organized?
After a couple of re-organizations over the years, yes, it is,…
he other major component of the Department of Homeland Security that doesn't belong is FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency. his is the only component of the Department that is not involved in preventing security threats that human in nature; its main purpose is to aid citizens and local governments in times of natural disaster. Again, communication with the Department would be necessary, but involving the response agency's involvement in a department whose main goal is detection and prevention of criminally threatening or destructive acts against the nation seems a very inefficient way to handle emergency situations.
here are also several agencies not represented in the Department of Homeland Security whose role in the protection of our nation and its citizens has long been a vital part of the United States' defense system. Most notable among the missing are the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National…
There are also several agencies not represented in the Department of Homeland Security whose role in the protection of our nation and its citizens has long been a vital part of the United States' defense system. Most notable among the missing are the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. The functions of these three independent government are often nebulously defined and seem to be rather redundant. All are involved in the detection and prevention of acts against the United States; though the FBI tends to be more involved in home-soil affairs and the CIA and NSA are known -- at least in the popular folklore -- for their infiltration of foreign governments and other international activities, they ostensibly share the same collective goals of keeping the people of the United States safe, which is also the primary function of the Department of Homeland Security. Again, the creation of this Department was to in large part to create a consolidation of the information and powers that could be effectively used in the protection of our national security. The exclusion of these organizations from under the umbrella of the Department can only have been politically motivated, and makes no practical sense.
In it's brief history spanning slightly less than seven years, the Department of Homeland Security has undergone several massive reorganizations. It's first proposal by President Bush in 2002 was a stated attempt to consolidate the patchwork of office concerned wit national security into one centralized and coordinated department, and the 2003 organization structure did much to accomplish that, with approximately nine offices and three directorates -- Border and Transportation Security, Emergency Preparedness and Response, and Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection. This set-up seems far more streamlined and efficient tan the current system, which was set up in 2005, though many of the redundancies and inefficiencies that exist today were problems then, too. The 2005 reorganization was a further attempt at centralization, but meant to accomplish this through the creation of new offices such as the Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the Office of Operations Coordination. A more effective way to streamline the Department would have been to consolidate current offices under more direct leadership, rather than the creation of new ones.
The current structure of the Department of Homeland Security is not as well equipped to handle issues of national security as its older incarnations. The increased division and redundancies of the component offices and agencies makes the operation of this Department far less efficient. Specifically, the various offices meant to handle information gathering and sharing, and those devoted to day-to-day operations of law enforcement personnel in multiple agencies, ought to be consolidated into single office to maximize synthesis of information and action. The ever-increasing number of components at each tier of the Department's organization increases the inefficiency of the Department, which could lead to an unawareness of vital information or a hindrance of necessary action.
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
COUNTE-TEOISM AND THE DEPATMENT OF HOMELAND SECUITY
Counter-terrorism is popular as antiterrorism and incorporates techniques, practices, strategies, and tactics that militaries, governments, corporations and police departments adopt in attacking terrorist threats and acts either real or imputed. Both governments and insurgents use terror tactics. It is clear that some insurgents do not terror as tactics while others opt not to apply as other tactics have better outcomes for their particular contexts. Individuals may engage in acts of terror, as it was the case with Oklahoma City bombing (Katherine, Darmer & osenbaum, 2004). Where the terrorism acts are part of broader insurgencies, counter-terrorism forms an integral element of security doctrines. However, economic, political, and other measures focus on insurgencies as compared to specific terror acts. The United States uses foreign internal defense doctrine in its military programs to support other nations while attempting to suppress lawlessness, insurgency, or subversion and…
Katherine, M.B., Darmer, R.M., & Rosenbaum, S.E. (2004). Civil Liberties vs. National Security in a Post9/11 World. Amherst NY: Prometheus Books.
Nacos, B.L. (2012). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. New York: Longman/Pearson.
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…
Bowman, M.E. (2007) Law Enforcement Technology Intelligence, and the War on Terror. JFQ. Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9dfc7c9b-537f-44b9-a461-ed45b8fa1a76%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Cowper, TJ and Buerger, ME (nd) Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
Edwards, John B. (2012) Intelligence Led Policing Connecting Urban and Rural Operations. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1afefbff-3d5c-4282-bcda-00e357218031%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=12
If the country is safe, then that is all that matters to the department. If any group was to be considered as a form of competition, drug traffickers and terrorists may be the closes groups to fall into that category.
In the economic arena, the Department of Homeland Security does not have the best standings. There were 30 reportable internal control weaknesses in the department, 18 of which were considered material weaknesses. The four inherited component agencies did not even conform with the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act. It has been recommended that the Department of Homeland Security improves its financial management. It is important to keep in mind that making a profit is not the goal of this department, though it is also important that the department follows the financial improvement laws (http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-04-774).
I can bring dedication to this position. My strong sense of patriotism is what drives me…
United States. Department of Homeland Security. .
United States. USA Jobs. 22 Apr. 2010. 12 May. 2010.
Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).
Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…
Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com
Retrieved September 7, 2011, from http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .
Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
Perl (2008), the goals of terrorists are economic as well as political in nature. In addition to protecting high-profile political targets of the kind that were the focus of the 9/11 bombers, it is also essential to prioritize economic targets in a security policy. Perl argues that terrorism is given a relatively low ranking in terms of threats to energy infrastructure, it is often listed behind such factors as political instability and organized crime. Yet one could argue that many of these factors, particularly civil unrest, are critically linked to the risks posed by terrorism. In terms of recommendations, Perl suggests pursuing a more sustainable energy strategy regarding green power as the ultimate long-term 'back up' solution to the risks posed to sources of fossil fuels.
In the short-term, given the critical interdependence of the energy structures of the world on one another, cooperation between different nations is vital for…
Dhakal, S. (2011). Political anthropology and anthropology of politics. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 5: 217-34. Retrieved from:
Galimberri, K. (2015). Impending monsoon season creates dire situation for Nepal's post-
earthquake tent cities. Accuweather. Retrieved from:
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…
The Anti-Terrorist Fence - an Overview." 9 July 2005 http://securityfence.mfa.gov.il/mfm/data/48152.doc.
Bregman, Ahron. A History of Israel. New York: Palgrove MacMillan, 2003.
Chomsky, Noam. "A Wall as a Weapon." The New York Times 23 February 2004. 9 July 2005 http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0223-02.htm .
Crock, Stan. "Israel's Wall: A Step toward Peace?" Business Week Online 18 July 2002. 9 July 2005 http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jul2002/nf20020718_1722.htm .
Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border
Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border
The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…
Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.
BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm
Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.
S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…
Borja, Elizabeth. "Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security
2001-2008." Department of Homeland Security History Office. 2008. Print.
"DEA History." Drug Enforcement Adminstration. 3 February 2011. Web.
Ethical Considerations for the Use of Technology to Meet Selected Homeland Security Objectives
The Digital Age has transformed the way the world works for better or worse. Technology exists to bring down nations’ infrastructures without ever firing a missile (Ten, Manimaran & Liu, 2010). New technology has been developed that can allow agencies to spy, snoop, monitor, and retrieve conversations had online, through email, on cell phones, or via text messaging. To meet security needs, using this technology has very real and practical advantages. At the same time, there are privacy rules and regulations that have to be considered as the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution clearly gives people the right to privacy. Nonetheless, Homeland Security requires that the nation consider the evolution of terrorism and view it not just as an external threat but also as an internal threat. In other words, terrorism is not just a…
Homeland Security and Justice Administration
In this paper, we are going to be studying the impact of the relationship between: an emergency operations plan (EOP) with a real time incident action plan (IAP). This will be accomplished by focusing on: the strategies that can be used by first responders and the relationship between an EOP in comparison with an IAP. Once this takes place, is when we provide specific insights as to how these areas can address the challenges that are impacting different stakeholders.
Over the last several years, the issue of first responders in dealing with terrorist related events has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because they are expected to go into areas where they may have to save lives. Yet, they are also must preserve evidence and protect any kind of possible crime scene. This is illustrating the constant amounts of planning and training that…
Emergency Operations Plan. (2011). Rollins University. Retrieved from: http://www.rollins.edu/safety/documents/EOPRev03122012.pdf
FEMA Incident Action Planning Guide. (2012). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/FEMA%20Incident%20Action%20Planning%20Guide%20 (IAP).pdf
Bennett, G. (2010). Cross Training for First Responders. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Kirkorian, M. (2007). Are Immigrants a Homeland Security Risk? CFR. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/immigration/immigrants-homeland-security-risk/p14660
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…
Andreas, Peter. "The escalation of U.S. immigration control in the post-Nafta era." Political Science Quarterly v113, n4 (Winter 1998):591
Art, Robert and Jervis, Robert. International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Bush, George H.W. "Address to the Nation Announcing the Deployment of United States Armed Forces to Saudi Arabia," The White House, Washington, D.C., August 8, 1990 and George H.W. Bush "Remarks and an Exchange With Reporters on the Persian Gulf Crisis," Kennebunkport, Maine, August 11, 1990 http:bushlibrary.tamu.eduWeb accessed on 10 April 2003.
Global Warming Information." Global Warming. 2004. http://www.globalwarming.org
However, just how one is supposed to recognize future threats is difficult to determine. After all, if one imagines that excessive support in intervention, arms supply, technology, and financial backing is a key factor, combined with a strong religious motivation of the recipient nation, group, or organization, Israel or at the very least the Israeli right wing may one day be as dangerous as any Islamic threat may pose today.
Although much thought can be devoted to the necessary international, political and military strategies employed by the United States as a world power, it remains clear that of foremost concern to American families is their safety at home. Of course, war is never easy, particularly for those deployed in battle, or for their families. However, when a nation is attacked on its own soil it not only faces a "real damage," but it also suffers greatly in morale (Schweitzer, 2003).…
Camarota, Stephen. "The Open Door: How Militant Islamic Terrorists Entered and Remained in the United States, 1993-2001." Web site. Retrieved on April 25, 2005