The other components of DNI office operate under the guidance of heads of independent departments. The apparent organizational chart of DNI office is grounded on a middle link between confederated model and the intelligence department with line managers over different functions. This services resources with and not daily guidelines of the subordinate structures. This design was introduced by the 2004 Act that formed the office of DNI (United States, 2009).
The current model of DNI office has empowered the intelligence community in charge of strategic planning, budgets, and policy to have control over various elements of the intelligence community. The office of DNI is not directly authorized to control personnel within the various agencies of the intelligence community. The office has plans that focus on their role of integrating the intelligence community. The DNI office seeks to establish efficiencies by improving the effectiveness in services that are shared such as…… [Read More]
National Security Implications of Transnational Organized Crime
The paper deals with three important aspects, one the National Security, second the crime -- organized in many ways, and the third rogue nations that pose a threat. National security is to be understood in multiple contexts. Firstly the physical security of the nation from alien threats, and intrusions, secondly damages to vital infrastructure and thirdly anti-national activities by organizations that may lead to an emergency in the country or at an international level causing diplomatic problems. It must be remembered that the Al-Qaeda was also an organized crime syndicate that was funded by the drug trade from Afghanistan. Secondly organized crimes committed by the companies or organizations that commit crime like ENRON also have its own implications on the financial security. Thirdly rogue nations like Iran, China and Korea pose threats both on the security of the nation and it's infrastructure --…… [Read More]
National Security Council or NSC was created and established by the National Security Act of 1947 (The White House 2006). Later, it incorporated the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 and placed in the Executive Office of the President as part of the Reorganization Plan in the same year. Its chairman is the President and its regular attendees are the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, th Secretary of Defense and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (The White House, Longley 2007). The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is its statutory advisor, while the Director of National Intelligence is its intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff of the President, the Counsel to the President, the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, the Attorney General, the U.S. Representative to the United Nations, the Director of the Office of Management and…… [Read More]
This demonstrates that the state of heightened awareness can lead to quick decisions that are not necessarily misguided even if they ultimately turn out to be somewhat laughable and wholly necessary.
The Boston Police Department's value of neighborhood policing is strongly related to SLU's value of community, as the concept of both is that there is greater strength in the community as a whole through the more active involvement and awareness of each individual member of that community. The other values that are stated in the Boston Police Department's mission statement, such as the agency's commitment to improving the quality of life for all Bostonians, promote general goodwill for the force and for the city it protects, and also assist the agency in its provision of Homeland Defense operations and tasks. Creating a happier community that is truly better each day because it Is striving towards this betterment…… [Read More]
National Security Policies Concerning the President
In this post-911 world, the President of the United States has more concerns than ever regarding national security. Not only are we at war with terrorists, but recent events have shown this to be a much more dangerous world than was previously thought. In this paper we will address the two major national security issues on which the President should be focused.
The first policy the President should be focused is that of terrorism and homeland security. I include them together because we cannot do an adequate job of protecting the United States (U.S.) without taking the fight to the terrorists. "The ush administration's National Security Strategy (NSS) of September 2002 is built on three pillars: the right to take unilateral preemptive military action; the need to maintain global primacy; and the need to spread democracy throughout the world."
We are reminded daily of…… [Read More]
Therefore, in the context of contemporary threats, forward defence is not an oxymoron but an absolute necessity.
Military Security, Australian Defence Policy, and the War on Terror:
At the simplest level, the participation of ADF in the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan has increased the risk of terrorism against Australian military forces and civilian targets. On a more complex level, the Commonwealth's participation in the global war on terror is part of a long-term defensive effort to protect the entire Southeast Asian and Pacific region against the international terrorist threat.
Task 2 Question Raised:
The nature of the most significant contemporary threat to international security and the domestic security of the Commonwealth raises the question of whether the Second Wave in the historical evolution of strategic military thought is experiencing a resurgence that is largely incapable of being countered effectively by the most sophisticated military resources relied upon by…… [Read More]
We will continue to work regionally and with like-minded partners in order to advance negotiations that address the permanent-status issues: security for Israelis and Palestinians; borders, refugees, and Jerusalem. We also seek international support to build the institutions upon which a Palestinian state will depend, while supporting economic development that can bring opportunity to its people. Any Arab-Israeli peace will only be lasting if harmful regional interference ends and constructive regional support deepens. As we pursue peace between Israelis and Palestinians, we will also pursue peace between Israel and Lebanon, Israel and Syria, and a broader peace between Israel and its neighbors. We will pursue regional initiatives with multilateral participation, alongside bilateral negotiations." ("National Security Strategy," 2010) This is showing how the key in promoting peace, security and opportunity throughout the Middle East is to address the Arab-Israeli conflict.
If this were to occur, everyone could begin working together as…… [Read More]
These include agencies such as the CIA and OS, or Operations Coordinating oard.
The growth of these three coordinating mechanisms -- NSC, CIA and OC -- has contributed in some ways to strengthening Presidential leadership in policy-making and to increasing cooperation of agencies under ambassadorial leadership on "country teams" in the field.
The NSC is vital in today's Government to determine foreign Policy. "NSC staff continue to be key foreign policy advisers"
Kurian 6) the importance of the NSC can be gleaned from the following statement:
From the 1970s through the 1990s the National Security Council and its staff have overshadowed the Departments of State and Defense in formulating national security policy. The domestic policy staff in the White House is more important than any of the domestic cabinet departments on most domestic policy issues.
The function of determining foreign policy requires the coordination of various…… [Read More]
Finally another aspect on which the Security strategy will be focused concerns the idea or promotion of democracy. The United States has always been a front runner in terms of human rights, democracy, and freedom. However, at the moment it is rather difficult to intervene in a country invoking human rights abuses. Indeed, the United Nations is the responsible body for authorizing such interventions. Still, there are other means through which the U.S. can intervene in support of human rights. If the former presidency considered such interventions to be legitimate and justifiable, for the current presidency, the key point will be negotiations and talks. This is one of the main reasons for which it is foreseen that new relations with countries such as Iran or North Korea could be based on talks. It is difficult to say whether these talks will be successful. In any case, as stated above, the…… [Read More]
The systems that were earlier adopted to enhance security deterrence were ignored in the post war era, leading to a paved way for international relations that included policy development and other positive security measures (Huebert 3).
Measures taken by Canada after the war
The military power existence was now fully diminished. The ancient paradigms, which based on military influence, were long gone, and many alternatives were realized, which better procedures and processes had compared to military forces. There was a different approach to matters of security and the states no longer protected themselves only, but also their citizens. Nations and analysts started to consider environmental threats in the Arctic. The argument was that nuclear weapons could lead to an intense destruction of the environment and the physical destructions would be unbearable to a certain extent. The analysts continued to note that the nations that insisted on nuclear weapon development would…… [Read More]
The strength of the trade industry, the need for the United States to stand by as a "big brother" as Vietnam rebuilds under China's nose and the American traditions and ideas that are filtering into the nation all bring purpose to that country.
The third purpose of Vietnam is to avoid China's attention. hile it continues to build and grow it becomes more valuable. This is a positive thing for Vietnam however, it also draws more attention from China.
There are many ideologies within the nation of Vietnam. ith the relatively new constitution and the trade industry growing as quickly as it is there are several that stand out.
The constitution of the nation provide benchmarks for the ideals of the nation. One of the first ideals that the people of Vietnam strive to live by is the right to enjoy life and pursue happiness without harming others. It…… [Read More]
Organizations in the perspective of political systems: in organizations, influence and power are derived from various sources and could be vested in teams of people more than in individuals. Sometimes, teams with a common interest form an alliance and become a coalition to exert a further influence. For example, individuals asserting civic rights by the power of majority used labor unions as traditional approaches. Nevertheless, influential teams are a source of intergroup conflicts that promote a destructive adverse relationship or a helpful competition (Dunphy, 2010).
Power could be applied to gunner control of crucial resources, initiate policies, control technology and establish organizational mission. The ethical values of individuals in power will determine the direction of control or influence. It could be for personal or institutional purposes. This also depends on the presence of balances and checks ingrained in formalized regulations and rules. In the presence of a very diffuse power,…… [Read More]
Political Stability & National Security in Nigeria: Challenges & Prospects
Method of data analysis
Strategies for political stability to enhance national security
Political stability and national security in Nigeria: Challenges and prospects
The research will focus on the effects of political stability and national security in Nigeria. The time span of the study is between 1999 and 2010. This period was chosen to enable the researcher examine the effects of political stability on national security in Nigeria's Fourth Republic which has witnessed peaceful civilian to civilian transition.
This study is divided into five chapters in which the first chapter is the introduction part followed by the second chapter for literature review and research methodology. The third chapter spells out the findings from the research, while the fourth chapter looks at the strategy for political stability to enhance national security; the last chapter concludes the research with some few…… [Read More]
Global Trends and National Security
The National Intelligence Council's 2008 report Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World attempts to provide policymakers with a summary of the probable, possible, and plausible changes most likely to affect global governance and stability over the course of the next decade and a half. The report covers a wide range of topics, but perhaps the most salient predictions included in the report, which ultimately serve to reveal the shortcomings of the United States' most recent National Security Strategy, are those predictions discussing the United States' assumed continued dominance as a global power even as the next fifteen years see the rise of countries like China and Brazil, the disruptive potential of developing energy technologies, and the geographical expansion of the social, economic, and political issues most conducive for the emergence of terrorist groups. Both the NIC report and the National Security Strategy are flawed and…… [Read More]
Smart bombs or laser guided bombs are capable of striking a target that is hidden under the bridge by tracing the necessary trajectory which destroys the target by does leaves the bridge intact. Similar technology is stored in unmanned aircrafts or bomb sniffing devices. It saves the loss of life of innocents in the target areas and also helps the safety of U.S. armed service personnel. Bunker buster bombs, for example, were used to target the caves of Afghanistan where the Taliban were hiding. These were able to penetrate and explode only at specified depths, leaving the landscape unscathed. With this kind of covert warfare, come the issues of propaganda. Political issues often cloud the effective management of war. The less innocent casualties on both sides of the issue, the easier the President can make the case for warfare.
ace recognition technology also a useful advance. Consider this: Mohammed Atta…… [Read More]
Regulation of National Security Contracting
Contract soldiers have been used by nations and states since early history. Ancient kings would contract knights to fight with those loyal to them, warlords made pacts with neighboring states and paid for the services of their soldiers, the Hessians, who fought for the British in the Revolutionary ar, were German mercenaries. It is a tradition to hire out the security of a nation when its force is inadequate.
In the second Gulf ar and Afghanistan, the United States and private interests have hired security companies to work in combat zones. The duties of these private soldiers include "services such as information technology and equipment maintenance, operational support such as facilities management and logistics, and actual armed 'security' in conflict zones" (Perlo-Freeman & Skons). Unfortunately, the use of these security firms has caused some legal problems, and it is difficult for the U.S. court system…… [Read More]
The courts found that the FBI had shown a marked tendency to issue gag orders arbitrarily -- "a March 2008 Office of Inspector General (OIG) report revealed that, among other abuses, the FBI misused NSLs to sidestep the authority of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). In one instance, the FBI issued NSLs to obtain information after the FISC twice refused its requests on First Amendment grounds. The OIG also found that the FBI continues to impose gag orders on about 97% of NSL recipients and that, in some cases, the FBI failed to sufficiently justify why the gag orders were imposed in the first place" (Courts, 2008, ACLU). Its use of NSLs thus showed cavalier disregard for the First Amendment and made itself unaccountable to the public
Benjamin Franklin once said that those who would sacrifice their liberty for their security deserve neither. This temptation can be seen in…… [Read More]
FBI National Security Operations
The National Security operation is a service that is provided within the FBI whose mission is helping protect the people, children, the community and businesses from the dangerous threats that face U.S.A from both international and local terrorists as well as spies that are located within the U.S. It realizes this mission through investigation of threats to national security, provision of information and analysis to other agencies that deal with law enforcement and coming up with capabilities of ensuring that the nation remains secure.
History of its formation
This national security Branch of the FBI came about in September 2005 as a response to a directive given by the president and recommendations by weapons of mass destruction commission.it brings together the resources and missions of the agencies counterterrorism, counterintelligence their weapons of mass destruction and the element of intelligence and is led by senior Bureau official…… [Read More]
The behavioral sciences can also be used in more subtle and less direct ways to help combat the war on terror. First, populations prone to terror attacks -- or believed to be prone to such attacks -- could be reassured and strengthened by some techniques of behavioral science. Terrorists received their name because their hope is to inspire terror, and though it chaos. This war is not exactly a military venture, but a psychological one. For that reason, it should be combated psychologically as well, and if the population targeted by the terrorists is immune or at least prepared and desensitized to this fear, terrorist attacks will simply be less effective, and therefore will occur less often. Such psychological techniques can also be used "against" the terrorists themselves, and the populations that tend to produce them. Such efforts would probably be less effective, as they must spring from the belief…… [Read More]
alancing National Security and Internet Freedom
The Four Factions of the National Debate
This paper analyses the dueling philosophies of the pro-National Security vs. pro-Internet Freedom debate that has been a hot topic since the uprisings of the Arab Spring in January of 2011. On one side of the debate are the cyber security agencies, and the media property organizations that represent Hollywood; on the other are piracy advocates worldwide, along with hackers and hacking groups like Anonymous. The two extremes frame the debate we are having, and the average politician and citizen must decide where they stand on the subject in order to have a more structured civil discussion.
The latest development in the ongoing debate grew into the two Congressional bills supporting greater Internet censorship, SOPA and PIPA, and the merits of both sides are discussed. Ultimately, Washington in 2012 sided with Silicon Valley and the…… [Read More]
Part I – Regional Security Issue within the Indo-Asia-Pacific Region
The National Security Strategy (NSS) focuses on promoting the security of the United States on the premise that a safe environment is critical toward enhancing the prosperity of the nation. This strategy goes beyond promoting the interests of America and includes safeguarding the interests of partners/allies around the world. Through the strategy, the United States responds to the increasing military, political and economic competitions encountered worldwide. As part of ensuring suitable response to these competitions, NSS includes a regional context strategy through which the United States tailors it approaches to various regions worldwide to protect her national interests.[footnoteRef:1] The United States requires integrated regional strategies that acknowledge the nature and extent of threats, intensity of rivalry, and potential opportunities across all regions. Such strategies become the premise of International Relations and U.S. foreign policy. [1: The White House, “National Security…… [Read More]
Identify the analysts and the policymakers
It is not possible for one individual to collate and possess all necessary information required to make good decisions regarding national security and foreign policy issues. Indeed, the higher up one goes up the hierarchy of policy making ladder, the more complicated it becomes. Therefore, senior policy officials rely on their juniors and others for information and proper processing of the same[footnoteRef:1]. In effect, in such countries as the US, it means that such senior officials cannot afford to ignore advice from the US intelligence fraternity. [1: Ford, Relations between Intelligence Analysts and Policymakers]
Unlike information, intelligence is a filtered form that is responsive to stated needs and specified policy requirements. The intelligence community members are experts charged with the responsibility to analyze relevant data. Information is converted to intelligence by linking it to specific issues of national security importance; hence infusing it with…… [Read More]
The various factors that influence both the definition and the perception of private security are typically environmental but can be internal and external to the issue of security itself. In most developed nations, the state provides security forces that are paid for by tax payers (local, municipal, state and federal police, and military forces); however, private security forces, typically operated by ex-military officers who bring their training and experience into the private sector to fill gaps in the market where demand cannot be satisfied by state security apparatuses alone, do exist and do operate both in developed and developing nations. Private security contractors like Academi, GRS, and Aegis look like military forces and often work with military forces when political factors require governments to apply to them for assistance (as has been the case with the U.S. government in the Middle East (Elsea) as well as with Middle…… [Read More]
One of the largest issues between the two nations is the issue of truck passage. In the past trucks carrying goods or cargo had enjoyed a cursory glance as they crossed into the other nation however, after the World Trade Towers came down border agents on both sides of the border began to investigate trucks with much more scrutiny than ever before.
Historic allies, Canada and the United States agreed following 9-11 to a plan for a "secure and smart border" both U.S. And Canadian officials said would protect against terrorist attacks while facilitating this vital stream of trade. Seventy percent of the trade with Canada is truck-borne, with a truck crossing the border every three seconds in a stream of 200,000 vehicles each day (Canada, 2002).
The essence of that agreement was that the United States and Canada would devise ways to identify regular, unthreatening traffic in people…… [Read More]
Russia's National Security Strategy
According to Isabelle Falcon, in Russia's view, it was necessary to update its national security strategy following the events that unfolded in Ukraine and the crisis that followed in Moscow. Russia adopted a new military doctrine on 25th Dec 2014, was signed by the president a year later and Russia adopted the new foreign policy concept on 30 of November 2016[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Isabelle Facon, "Russia's national security strategy and military doctrine and their implications for the EU," European Parliament, 2017, doi: 10.2861/635490.]
The updated documents highlight several key issues that reflect the traditional view that Russia holds about the world and its vision. They underscore the country's status as world powerhouse; and that its sovereignty must be respected. They also point out that Russia's foreign policy must be independent of the outside world. The general message that the documents send is that the outside world is…… [Read More]
Collecting National Security Intelligence
Intelligence gathering is one of the most important activities in law enforcement and plays a crucial role in the development of national security strategies. The significance of intelligence in law enforcement and national security strategies is attributed to the fact that it helps in lessening ambiguity intrinsic in observation of external initiatives and activities. National security intelligence is usually collected through a cycle which determines how information is obtained, created, and shared with users. This cycle has five major steps i.e. planning and direction, collection, processing, producing, and dissemination ("Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines," n.d.).
Generally, the responsibility of collecting national security intelligence is given to intelligence collection organizations at the national level. These organizations are mandated with the task of gathering, processing, and disseminating security information that is in turn used to develop suitable law enforcement and national security strategies and initiatives. The intelligence collection…… [Read More]
ight to Expression: The Fine Line of the First Amendment
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the enactment of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the PATIOT ACT), there has been a growing debate concerning the proper role of the government in protecting Americans while balancing their right to free expression. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the line between an individual's right to expression and the role of the government to protect its citizens from harm, including some salient examples of this conflict in the nation's past. An analysis concerning whether Americans have come any closer to reconciling these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, the First Amendment to…… [Read More]
National security is an important concept which has often been mistakenly used to refer to protection against external threats. With people gaining better knowledge of the term security, national security has become a complex term that involves human as well as environmental security. For a nation to feel completely secure, it should not only be protected against external threats and aggression but also against internal problems that might make its citizens feel less safe. National security also includes local or internal security which is often defined separately as if it was not a part of the broader term. We must understand that if a person feel threatened in his own country due to any reason such as racism, religious persecution or environmental problems, then he cannot consider his country secure for himself.
Local insecurity leads to national disturbance which might make a country and its people feel vulnerable. For…… [Read More]
In addition, just over $41 billion was removed from 2001 and 2003 tax cuts. The cuts in military spending will affect a wide variety of citizenry. Specifically, military personnel will be affected with reduced budgets across the board. This will result in a reduced readiness of the military to protect the United States, in the short-term and the long-term. This reduction in spending will also negatively affect civilian contractors and other companies that provide products and services to the military. This will result in lost revenues and decreased profitability for these organizations. A secondary effect of this could result in lost jobs and reduced tax revenues for the city, state and national governments, as well as reduced revenues for other businesses in the community, if these organizations implement worker layoffs.
Social Security cuts will negatively affect the growing population of Baby Boomers and those already receiving Social Security benefits. However,…… [Read More]
Woellert, however, quickly establishes her credentials as an objective observer by recounting the state of the union and admitting a climate of fear and anxiety. She does not immediately begin disparaging the opposite point-of-view which she intends to contend. She states the case for National ID cards, and then poses the question: Will they work? No, she says, calmly and clearly -- they will not.
Woellert's standpoint is one of practicality and efficiency. While Magnusson displays the kind of religious belief that technocrats place in Silicon Valley's "next big thing," Woellert sounds the alarm of prudential American thinking: "A national ID card would rip at the fabric of our constitutional freedoms. It would cost billions and be technologically imperfect. Most troubling, it would lull the populace into a false sense of security." Her thesis is clear, palpable, and logical. Magnusson offers mere hyperbole.
Woellert's essay also stays focused on her…… [Read More]
National Preparedness (PPD-8) examines how the nation should approach preparing for threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk to U.S. security. It is the view of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that "national preparedness is the shared responsibility of our whole community. Ever member contributes, including individuals, communities, the private and nonprofit sectors, faith-based organizations, and Federal, state, and local governments" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). Therefore, the Department of Homeland Security feels that increasing preparedness across all sectors, public and private, better enables the entire society to deal with potential disasters. Moreover, one of the Department's goals is to increase resiliency; they are aware that not all disasters can be avoided, but want to make sure the country is well-prepared to weather a disaster.
One of the recurring issues with homeland security-geared legislation is that it is seen by many as being somewhat overbroad and unconstitutional.…… [Read More]
National Interest as a key determinant in Foreign Policy
National Interest and Foreign Policy
National Interest Defined:
The national interest is, very simply, the objectives of a country ranging from the macro goals i.e. economy, military to the micro goals like social use cyber space. National interest is an integral part of international relations as it is a concept based out of the realist school of though. This will be discussed in more detail in the paper.
Foreign Policy Defined:
Foreign policy, very simply, is the strategy that guides all international dealings and associations of a country
When dealing with national interest, one has to wonder about the degree to which domestic politics is vital for the comprehension of that country's foreign policy. Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. The systemic vigour of the global…… [Read More]
In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…… [Read More]
Security on Commercial Flights
Describe two (2) lapses in pre-flight security that contributed to the ease of the hijacking operation on September 11, 2001
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States of America evaluated the security of the commercial Airline Industry. Major security lapses gave way for terrorists to board commercial flights, which finally led to the aircrafts' hijacking and demise.
The first lapse that contributed to terrorist attack is President Bill Clinton's ignorance. U.S. administration under the leadership of President Bill Clinton ignored warning signs that Osama bin Laden and al Qaida organization was planning a terrorist attack on United States. Osama Bin Laden claimed responsibility of various attacks on U.S. Militaries deployed in various countries, such as Sudan and Soviet Union aimed at fighting the rising terrorist groups (Oliver, 2006).
The failure of the Intelligence Community is another lapse that contributed to the attack.…… [Read More]
The U.S. Supreme Court then granted a writ of certiorari to determine the meaning of the language "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008).
What argument did the security dealer make in seeking to have the civil complaint dismissed?
andford's defense in this matter was particularly interesting as he does not deny his involvement in the "simple theft of cash or securities in an investment account" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008). For andford the issue is not that he sold the securities which he contends "were perfectly lawful," rather that the fraudulent activity of "misappropriation of the proceeds is desultory from the actual sale of the securities. If andford's argument is believable then the sales of securities would have been aligned with the investment strategy designed to secure principal and generate income.…… [Read More]
National Economic Effects of Government's Immigration Policies In Canada
A geographically big nation that has a comparatively little population, Canada has traditionally been able to observe immigration as an important tool of population and economic development. Over its history, nevertheless, immigration significances and approaches have changed meaningfully, from an open border tactic in Canada's initial history, to strategy that could be branded as openly discriminatory, to an economically absorbed style. This essay gives an outline to immigration policy in Canada and looks into immigration in the context of economic effects of Government's immigration policies in Canada with detailed focus on its history, key legislation and agencies in this area, and current debates/issues.
History of Canadian Immigration Policy
After the Confederation in 1867, immigration policy at that time was a top priority of the new federal government. This policy which was able to bring in a large influx of immigrants was…… [Read More]
Security Sector eform
Overview of the relevant arguments regarding Security Sector reform
The objective of security sector reform has to take care of the threats to the security of the state and the safety of its citizens. These arise often from the situation within the state and military responses may not be suitable. This leads on to an analysis of the government. The second article talks in a wider, more theoretical and less action oriented tone. It says that "existing constitutional frameworks have been used to maintain status quo than promote change." This much is certainly true and it is true not only of the countries with a security problem, but also of even United States wherein recently a justice of the Supreme Court was appointed, though she had no experience of being a judge, but she was a friend of the Chief Executive of the country. There are and…… [Read More]
"Yet earnings estimates have acquired a life of their own and often generate more attention from the media and analysts than a company's actual financial results." (Whalen, 2003).
More conservative critics of analyst conflicts rules believe that they are a step in the right direction, but view them as a work in progress. For example, the Sarbanes-Oxley bill, which mandated many improvements in corporate managers' financial practices, did nothing to reduce the unethical practice by many managers of communicating only with those analysts who cooperate with management's forecasts of the future (oni and Womack). This and other rules need strengthening.
Wall Street Journal reported in April 2003 that the brokerage firms of the top investment banks are still more likely to give optimistic research recommendations to their own banking clients, calling to question if new disclosure rules reapply protect investor clients (oni and Womack). With all the hoopla to protect…… [Read More]
security of the U.S. And Canadian border is in peril. There is an unprotected route allowing the free-flow of terrorists from around the world into Canada and then into the U.S. This is a national security situation that threatens our way of life. hat are our options for eliminating this threat?
By definition a liberal is a man or a woman who believes in liberty. Liberalism as a philosophy has evolved as a defense of individual citizen's liberties against the potential tyranny of his or her ruling state. Liberals such as John Locke have typically maintained that humans are naturally in 'a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions ... As they think fit ... without asking leave, or depending on the ill of any other Man," In other words, unless the individual's liberty impinges upon the liberty of another individual, than that individual should do as he or…… [Read More]
Next, firewalls capable of blocking IP addresses need to be installed and used (Becker, Clement, 2006). The focus on these efforts is just the first phase; there needs to be a monthly audit of IP addresses in the departments where P2P file sharing has occurred to make sure it isn't happening again. This an be accomplished using a series of constraint-based configuration tools that will trap on P2P known client footprints or digital signatures and immediately block them (Hosein, Tsiavos, Whitley, 2003). This technology will also work to isolate any inside IP addresses which attempt to reach P2P client-based download sites and immediately log and block all IP activity for the address. This will make a given IP address inoperable and immediately delete it, which will make any subsequent hacking attempts of the system useless. This is precisely the strategy the U.S. Government is using today to ensure a very…… [Read More]
S.-USS confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.
Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To…… [Read More]
The ability to lead is an important trait in the organizational world today. With organizations encountering increasingly complex situations, leaders have a role to successfully steer their organizations through those situations. They must properly influence and guide their followers in the achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Bateman, Snell & Konopaske, 2016). Leadership ability is particularly important in military organizations. The security environment has become ever more challenging, warranting even more effective leadership (Laver, 2008). Military organizations now grapple with challenges such as craftier enemies, international terrorism, increased incidence of natural disasters, and reduced budgetary allocations. Internally, military organizations face challenges relating to issues such as personnel motivation and retention, capacity building, and veteran welfare. Yet, military organizations must constantly ensure national security. Navigating the increasingly complex security environment requires military leaders to have certain qualities. This paper discusses these qualities. Attention is particularly paid to situational leadership, integrity, people…… [Read More]
This is because, most suspects will more than likely only begin talking after they have been subject to extreme amounts of pressure. Evidence of this can be seen with Danner writing, "American officials acknowledged that such techniques were recently applied as a part of the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah, the highest ranking Al Qaeda operative in custody until the capture of Mr. Mohamed. Painkillers were withheld from Zubaydah, who was shot several times during his capture in Pakistan." (Danner, 2004, pg. 7) This is important, because it is showing how the use of torture can help to provide officials with information about terrorist related activities. However, during the process of obtaining this information is when they will have to use different tactics that will place physical and emotional pressure on the terrorist. This is when they will begin to openly talking about future activities and plans.
When you compare the…… [Read More]
"Government representatives are responsive to and reliant upon feedback and suggestions from their constituents" and "the most direct way of impacting a legislator is through a letter-writing campaign. The more letters a legislator receives, the more important the issue becomes" (Keene State College Advocates, 2011).
One of the emerging threats that is now a more commonplace threat is that of cyber security. With technology advancing at a rapid rate, it seems that security is sometimes overlooked. Our society is well-versed in how hackers can hack into e-mail, social networking sites and bank accounts but it is absolutely something that the public needs to be more cautious of. A way to combat cyber threats would be to make sure that the computer is completely secure and use common sense when it comes to certain online transactions. People should band together and use one place to reveal the scams that they may…… [Read More]
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…… [Read More]
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…… [Read More]
1. While some people may be better leaders than others, all people can lead and all people can learn to lead better. Discuss some ideas of how leadership skills may be improved.
Development and education
Leaders need to develop in their position. Owing to managerial tasks’ knowledge-based nature, the word “development” has been used to describe the continuous growth in skills and cognition of executives and managers. Managerial development is promoted via education that they may acquire in various settings (Fernandez et al., 2015). Attending and taking part in programs offered by certain general management and security-related institutions may help cater to their developmental requirements.
Training and practice
A leader is required to engage in constant training and practice of leadership skills needed for improving their output, including integrity, delegation and patience, until the time they have acquired mastery over those skills.
The mentoring process entails transfer…… [Read More]
National Intelligence Strategy
The Five Mission Objectives
Under the leadership of the Director of National Intelligence, John Negroponte, in 2005, the National Intelligence Strategy was developed. The strategy had a clear description of how the United States of America intelligence community was going to overhaul its function in intelligence in and out of America. It had five Mission Objectives in the effort of predicting, penetrating, and preempting the possible threats that face the security of the United States of America. The five objectives were (National Intelligence, 2005):
The National Intelligence was out to ensure that all the efforts posed by terrorists in the fulfillment of their terrorism activities against the U.S.A. were defeated. They intended to do this through destabilization of their systems of support, leadership and the entire network. The strategy went further to state whose responsibility it was to carry this objective by naming the National…… [Read More]
The author of this report is to answer to three major questions as it relates to the DNC scenario advanced by the story that preceded it. The first question is the legal claims relating to the use of the LAD. The second question is the basis that should be used to deny Amnesty International from getting their permit and the implications that this could cause. The final question requires the identification and analysis of any legal claims that might arise if Greenpeace has a protest in the shopping mall and how pat-downs and other security measures may lead to legal or protest-related issues. While the Miami and other personnel have a responsibility to keep the peace and keep people safe, they need to tread very carefully when limiting free speech and/or freedom of assembly as well as over-aggressive use of less-lethal technologies and interventions that can still maim…… [Read More]
National Infrastructure Vulnerability
This report covers how the United States does and should address threats to its critical national infrastructure. Vulnerability to attacks like the SCADA/Stuxnet worm will be addressed as well as mitigations as they relate to the seven domains. The assessment of levels of responsibility to protect both the public and private sectors will be covered as well as the elements of an effective IT security policy framework. No less than three scholarly resources will be used for this report, as per the parameters of the assignment.
The Stuxnet word made major shockwaves when it came to be known fully in roughly 2010. Presumed by many to be the product of cooperation with the Israeli and United States governments to attack Iran and perhaps inhibit their ability to manufacture and process nuclear devices and materials, the worm specifically attacks Siemens (SCADA) devices that relate to…… [Read More]
The final step in decrease law enforcement budgets was the cut of 20% federal prison system. As of right now, prisons take up millions of dollars to house drug offenders and other non-violent criminals. These funds are needed elsewhere, and so they must be taken from keeping up the building and regulation of so many unnecessary prisons in the United States.
In terms of protecting consumers much needed to be done. To ensure consumers protection on investments, deposit insurance increased by 10%. This will allow people to renew faith in the banking system in they have more insurance on their deposits. Additionally, I cut 20% of tax cuts for the richest 1% of tax payers, 10% for the second two richest. Hold even for the third, and an increase of 10% for the bottom tax payers. Furthermore, I cut 20% of untaxed foreign profits and 10% of tax benefits for…… [Read More]
National Incident Management Systems
Duty esponsibilities of Commander
National Incident Management System (NIMS) (PAT 1)
As the commander of the National Management System (NIMS), I have viewed the situation in a considerable amount of attention. The situation at hand needs to be carefully monitored and put into effect a counteractive method of operation. I and my unit's mission are to conduct this operation in the best way possible in order to rescue the hostages and apprehend the said terrorists who have no place in this kind of our society.
The NIMS occasionally deals with domestic incidents, but the situation at hand involves terrorists and Israeli citizens making this event a matter of international interest. My command structure will have the incident command system (ICS) which comprises of five major functional areas, the command, operations, logistics and finance/administration. The situation at hand being a complex situation has led to the need…… [Read More]
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…… [Read More]
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…… [Read More]
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…… [Read More]
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). eply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure esearch, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/.
Gerstein, D.M. (2005). Securing America's future: National strategy in the information age. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Hepner, . (2001, July 6). A surge in growth for county. The Washington Times, 8.
Michman, .D. & Greco, a.J. (1995). etailing triumphs and blunders: Victims of competition in the new age of marketing management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Mueller, G. (1998, December 2). it's easy to find the right gift - Just read on. The Washington Times, 5.
Privacy and security statement. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.basspro.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/PageDisplayView?langId=-1&storeId=10151 & cataloged=x§ion=MyAccount&pagename=PrivacyPolicySummaryDisplay.
Schlosser, E. (1998). The bomb squad: A visit…… [Read More]
S. Department of Energy).
Q3. Discuss the internet of things and its likely consequences for developing an enforceable information assurance (IA) policy and implementing robust security architecture.
The internet of things refers to the inevitable connectedness of all things in all regions of the world through the internet. "The fact that there will be a global system of interconnected computer networks, sensors, actuators, and devices all using the internet protocol holds so much potential to change our lives that it is often referred to as the internet's next generation" (Ferber 2013). Although the internet feels ubiquitous today, the internet of things refers to an even more complete merger of the virtual and the real world. "In many and diverse sectors of the global economy, new web-based business models being hatched for the internet of things are bringing together market players who previously had no business dealings with each other. Through…… [Read More]
Obama's health care reform will make health care more accessible and more affordable and make insurers more accountable, as well as expand health care coverage to every American and make the health care system sustainable by stabilizing family budgets, the economy and the Federal budget.
The cost of Obama's overall health care bill will cost approximately $940 billion over 10 years, according to the Congressional udget Office. The bill will include that by the year 2014 there will be significant health access reforms. Insurers will be prohibited from denying coverage to people with medical problems of charging them more money (CS 2010).
While these numbers do sound manageable, Congress has not responded kindly to Obama's health care reform ideas. When Obama has even mentioned the idea of health care for illegal immigrants, the president was rudely interrupted by a heckler yelling, "you lie" ( ). Under Obama's proposal of health…… [Read More]
National Education Association
The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil ights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at http://www.nea.org. There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to etired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.
The…… [Read More]
This is because it was not officially ratified by the U.S. Senate. The reason why, was due to the underlying fears of the damage that it could cause to the economy. This would create the atmosphere that various provisions were unfair for the U.S., leading to its eventual withdrawal from Kyoto. (U.S. Withdraws from Kyoto Protocol 2001) When such a large country will no longer follow these different provisions, it creates an atmosphere of voluntary compliance. At which point, the other signatories will not follow the different provision of the treaty as strictly. Once this takes place, it means that any kind of efforts to address the problem is the equivalent of having no agreement at all. This will cause the various environmental issues to become worse, as the constant finger pointing and debate are only creating more problems. Evidence of this can be by looking at the total number…… [Read More]