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The other components of DNI office operate under the guidance of heads of independent departments. The apparent organizational chart of DNI office is grounded on a middle link between confederated model and the intelligence department with line managers over different functions. This services resources with and not daily guidelines of the subordinate structures. This design was introduced by the 2004 Act that formed the office of DNI (United States, 2009).
The current model of DNI office has empowered the intelligence community in charge of strategic planning, budgets, and policy to have control over various elements of the intelligence community. The office of DNI is not directly authorized to control personnel within the various agencies of the intelligence community. The office has plans that focus on their role of integrating the intelligence community. The DNI office seeks to establish efficiencies by improving the effectiveness in services that are shared such as…
Annual Workshop on Information Privacy and National Security, Gal, C.S., Kantor, P.B., & Lesk, M. (2009). Protecting persons while protecting the people: Second annual
Workshop on Information Privacy and National Security. Berlin: Springer
Bruneau, T.C. (2007). Reforming intelligence: Obstacles to democratic control and effectiveness. Austin: Univ. Of Texas Press.
Bullock, J.A., Haddow, G.D., & Coppola, D.P. (2013). Homeland security: The essentials.
National Security Implications of Transnational Organized Crime
The paper deals with three important aspects, one the National Security, second the crime -- organized in many ways, and the third rogue nations that pose a threat. National security is to be understood in multiple contexts. Firstly the physical security of the nation from alien threats, and intrusions, secondly damages to vital infrastructure and thirdly anti-national activities by organizations that may lead to an emergency in the country or at an international level causing diplomatic problems. It must be remembered that the Al-Qaeda was also an organized crime syndicate that was funded by the drug trade from Afghanistan. Secondly organized crimes committed by the companies or organizations that commit crime like ENRON also have its own implications on the financial security. Thirdly rogue nations like Iran, China and Korea pose threats both on the security of the nation and it's infrastructure --…
Ambinder, Marc. "Did America's Cyber Attack on Iran Make Us More Vulnerable? The Atlantic" Accessed April 30, 2013. http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/06/did-americas-cyber-attack-on-iran-make-us-more-vulnerable/258120/
Cordesman, Anthony H. "Negotiating with the Taliban: Six Critical Conditions that Must Be Met to Avoid Another "Peace to End All Peace" Accessed April 30, 2013.
Czerwonka, Michal. "Immigration and Emigration" The New York Times, pp: 4-5.
National Security Council or NSC was created and established by the National Security Act of 1947 (The White House 2006). Later, it incorporated the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 and placed in the Executive Office of the President as part of the Reorganization Plan in the same year. Its chairman is the President and its regular attendees are the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, th Secretary of Defense and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (The White House, Longley 2007). The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is its statutory advisor, while the Director of National Intelligence is its intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff of the President, the Counsel to the President, the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, the Attorney General, the U.S. Representative to the United Nations, the Director of the Office of Management and…
Longley, Robert. Direct Advisors to the President on National Security. U.S. Government Information and Resources: About, Inc., 2007. http://usgovinfo.about.com/cs/agencies/a/nscoage.htm
National Archives and Records Administration. National Intelligence Objectives. National Security Council Intelligence Directive 4 of 1947, RG59. Records of the Department of State: Records of the Executive Secretariat, 2007.
Duties and Responsibilities. National Security Council Directive # 1, January 19, 1950
Office of the Historian. History of the National Security Council. U.S. Department of State, 1997. http://www.fas.org/offdocs/NSChistory.htm#Summary
This demonstrates that the state of heightened awareness can lead to quick decisions that are not necessarily misguided even if they ultimately turn out to be somewhat laughable and wholly necessary.
The Boston Police Department's value of neighborhood policing is strongly related to SLU's value of community, as the concept of both is that there is greater strength in the community as a whole through the more active involvement and awareness of each individual member of that community. The other values that are stated in the Boston Police Department's mission statement, such as the agency's commitment to improving the quality of life for all Bostonians, promote general goodwill for the force and for the city it protects, and also assist the agency in its provision of Homeland Defense operations and tasks. Creating a happier community that is truly better each day because it Is striving towards this betterment…
AP. (2011). Indiana State Police seize million in cash, cocaine. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://heraldbulletin.com/breakingnews/x198123368/Indiana-State-Police-seize-millions-in-cash-cocaine
Boston PD. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.cityofboston.gov/POLICE/
Indiana State Police. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.in.gov/isp/index.htm
NSA. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.nsa.gov/index.shtml
National Security Policies Concerning the President
In this post-911 world, the President of the United States has more concerns than ever regarding national security. Not only are we at war with terrorists, but recent events have shown this to be a much more dangerous world than was previously thought. In this paper we will address the two major national security issues on which the President should be focused.
The first policy the President should be focused is that of terrorism and homeland security. I include them together because we cannot do an adequate job of protecting the United States (U.S.) without taking the fight to the terrorists. "The ush administration's National Security Strategy (NSS) of September 2002 is built on three pillars: the right to take unilateral preemptive military action; the need to maintain global primacy; and the need to spread democracy throughout the world."
We are reminded daily of…
Albright, Madeleine and Cook, Robin. "How to Approach Iran." The Washington Post. 13 December 2004. 19 April 2005. .
Cortright, David. "Can The UN Battle Terrorism Effectively? Security Council Resolutions Have Mobilized States for a Campaign Of Nonmilitary Cooperative Law Enforcement Measures to Combat Global Terrorism." USA Today. January 2005. 19 April 2005. .
Korb, Lawrence J. "Six Steps to a Safer America." 29 January 2004. 19 April 2005. .
"Proliferating worries." The Economist Global Agenda. 1 March 2004. 19 April 2005.
Therefore, in the context of contemporary threats, forward defence is not an oxymoron but an absolute necessity.
Military Security, Australian Defence Policy, and the War on Terror:
At the simplest level, the participation of ADF in the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan has increased the risk of terrorism against Australian military forces and civilian targets. On a more complex level, the Commonwealth's participation in the global war on terror is part of a long-term defensive effort to protect the entire Southeast Asian and Pacific region against the international terrorist threat.
Task 2 Question Raised:
The nature of the most significant contemporary threat to international security and the domestic security of the Commonwealth raises the question of whether the Second Wave in the historical evolution of strategic military thought is experiencing a resurgence that is largely incapable of being countered effectively by the most sophisticated military resources relied upon by…
We will continue to work regionally and with like-minded partners in order to advance negotiations that address the permanent-status issues: security for Israelis and Palestinians; borders, refugees, and Jerusalem. We also seek international support to build the institutions upon which a Palestinian state will depend, while supporting economic development that can bring opportunity to its people. Any Arab-Israeli peace will only be lasting if harmful regional interference ends and constructive regional support deepens. As we pursue peace between Israelis and Palestinians, we will also pursue peace between Israel and Lebanon, Israel and Syria, and a broader peace between Israel and its neighbors. We will pursue regional initiatives with multilateral participation, alongside bilateral negotiations." ("National Security Strategy," 2010) This is showing how the key in promoting peace, security and opportunity throughout the Middle East is to address the Arab-Israeli conflict.
If this were to occur, everyone could begin working together as…
"National Security Strategy." White House, 2010.
These include agencies such as the CIA and OS, or Operations Coordinating oard.
The growth of these three coordinating mechanisms -- NSC, CIA and OC -- has contributed in some ways to strengthening Presidential leadership in policy-making and to increasing cooperation of agencies under ambassadorial leadership on "country teams" in the field.
The NSC is vital in today's Government to determine foreign Policy. "NSC staff continue to be key foreign policy advisers"
Kurian 6) the importance of the NSC can be gleaned from the following statement:
From the 1970s through the 1990s the National Security Council and its staff have overshadowed the Departments of State and Defense in formulating national security policy. The domestic policy staff in the White House is more important than any of the domestic cabinet departments on most domestic policy issues.
The function of determining foreign policy requires the coordination of various…
Arnold, Peri E., Charles E. Walcott, and Bradley H. Jr. Patterson. "The White House Office of Management and Administration." Presidential Studies Quarterly 31.2 (2001): 190. Questia. 6 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
An Instrument of Government, to 1950 an Instrument of Government, to 1950. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
Cyr, Arthur. "How Important is National Security Structure to National Security Policy?." World Affairs 146.2 (1983): 127-147.
Elder, Robert Ellsworth. The Policy Machine: The Department of State and American Foreign Policy. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1960.
Finally another aspect on which the Security strategy will be focused concerns the idea or promotion of democracy. The United States has always been a front runner in terms of human rights, democracy, and freedom. However, at the moment it is rather difficult to intervene in a country invoking human rights abuses. Indeed, the United Nations is the responsible body for authorizing such interventions. Still, there are other means through which the U.S. can intervene in support of human rights. If the former presidency considered such interventions to be legitimate and justifiable, for the current presidency, the key point will be negotiations and talks. This is one of the main reasons for which it is foreseen that new relations with countries such as Iran or North Korea could be based on talks. It is difficult to say whether these talks will be successful. In any case, as stated above, the…
Bender, B. New leadership planned to fight WMD terrorism. The Boston Globe. Online Edition. December 3, 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2010 from, http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2008/12/03/new_leadership_planned_to_fight_wmd_terrorism/
MacAskill, E. Six years after Iraqi invasion, Obama sets out his exit plan. The Guardian. Online edition. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/feb/27/obama-iraq-war-end-august-2010
Obama, B. Renewing American Leadeship. Foreign Affairs. July/August 2 -- 7. Retrieved from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62636/barack-obama/renewing-american-leadership
Reveron, D. "Obama's National Security Strategy Unfolding'." The Atlantic Council. 19 June 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2010, from http://www.acus.org/new_atlanticist/obamas-national-security-strategy-unfolding
The systems that were earlier adopted to enhance security deterrence were ignored in the post war era, leading to a paved way for international relations that included policy development and other positive security measures (Huebert 3).
Measures taken by Canada after the war
The military power existence was now fully diminished. The ancient paradigms, which based on military influence, were long gone, and many alternatives were realized, which better procedures and processes had compared to military forces. There was a different approach to matters of security and the states no longer protected themselves only, but also their citizens. Nations and analysts started to consider environmental threats in the Arctic. The argument was that nuclear weapons could lead to an intense destruction of the environment and the physical destructions would be unbearable to a certain extent. The analysts continued to note that the nations that insisted on nuclear weapon development would…
Huebert, Rob. Arctic Security: Different Threats and Different Responses. 2012. Web. 23 September 2012.
Huebert, Rob. Foreign Policy for Canada's tomorrow. July, 2009. Web. 23 September 2012.
Teeple, Nancy. "A Brief History of Intrusions into the Canadian Arctic." Canadian Army Journal 12.3 (2010): 41-60.
Yalowitz, Kenneth. Collins, James. & Virginia Rose. The Arctic Climate and Security Policy Conference: Final Report and Findings. 3 December 2008. Web. 23 September 2012.
The strength of the trade industry, the need for the United States to stand by as a "big brother" as Vietnam rebuilds under China's nose and the American traditions and ideas that are filtering into the nation all bring purpose to that country.
The third purpose of Vietnam is to avoid China's attention. hile it continues to build and grow it becomes more valuable. This is a positive thing for Vietnam however, it also draws more attention from China.
There are many ideologies within the nation of Vietnam. ith the relatively new constitution and the trade industry growing as quickly as it is there are several that stand out.
The constitution of the nation provide benchmarks for the ideals of the nation. One of the first ideals that the people of Vietnam strive to live by is the right to enjoy life and pursue happiness without harming others. It…
Shadow of the Dragon: Vietnam's Continuing Struggle with China and the Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy.
Parameters; 9/22/2003; Scobell, Andrew
Bangladesh: Chapter 4D. South and Southeast Asia
Countries of the World; 1991; James Heitzman
Organizations in the perspective of political systems: in organizations, influence and power are derived from various sources and could be vested in teams of people more than in individuals. Sometimes, teams with a common interest form an alliance and become a coalition to exert a further influence. For example, individuals asserting civic rights by the power of majority used labor unions as traditional approaches. Nevertheless, influential teams are a source of intergroup conflicts that promote a destructive adverse relationship or a helpful competition (Dunphy, 2010).
Power could be applied to gunner control of crucial resources, initiate policies, control technology and establish organizational mission. The ethical values of individuals in power will determine the direction of control or influence. It could be for personal or institutional purposes. This also depends on the presence of balances and checks ingrained in formalized regulations and rules. In the presence of a very diffuse power,…
Dunphy, D.C. (2010). Sustainability: The corporate challenge of the 21st century. St. Leonards, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin.
Florent-Treacy, E. (2009). Global Leadership from a to Z. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College.
Whelan, C. (2012). Networks and national security: Dynamics, effectiveness and organization. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate.
Political Stability & National Security in Nigeria: Challenges & Prospects
Method of data analysis
Strategies for political stability to enhance national security
Political stability and national security in Nigeria: Challenges and prospects
The research will focus on the effects of political stability and national security in Nigeria. The time span of the study is between 1999 and 2010. This period was chosen to enable the researcher examine the effects of political stability on national security in Nigeria's Fourth Republic which has witnessed peaceful civilian to civilian transition.
This study is divided into five chapters in which the first chapter is the introduction part followed by the second chapter for literature review and research methodology. The third chapter spells out the findings from the research, while the fourth chapter looks at the strategy for political stability to enhance national security; the last chapter concludes the research with some few…
Akinyemi, A. Bolaji. Devolution of Power: A Prerequisite for National Unity - The Need for Dialogue, Kaduna, 2001
Akinjide OSuntokun: ed. Democracy and Sustainable Development in Nigeria Friedrich Ebert Foundation Lagos 2002
Amucheazi E., "Democratic Governance and Sustainable Peace and Stability in Nigeria," Barbados, 1999
Anyaoku, Emek. Keys to Nigeria's political stability, National interest, 2000
Global Trends and National Security
The National Intelligence Council's 2008 report Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World attempts to provide policymakers with a summary of the probable, possible, and plausible changes most likely to affect global governance and stability over the course of the next decade and a half. The report covers a wide range of topics, but perhaps the most salient predictions included in the report, which ultimately serve to reveal the shortcomings of the United States' most recent National Security Strategy, are those predictions discussing the United States' assumed continued dominance as a global power even as the next fifteen years see the rise of countries like China and Brazil, the disruptive potential of developing energy technologies, and the geographical expansion of the social, economic, and political issues most conducive for the emergence of terrorist groups. Both the NIC report and the National Security Strategy are flawed and…
National Intelligence Council. United States Intelligence Community, Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (2008). Global trends 2025: A transformed world. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
Obama, Barack. Office of the President of the United States of America. (2010). National security strategy. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
Smart bombs or laser guided bombs are capable of striking a target that is hidden under the bridge by tracing the necessary trajectory which destroys the target by does leaves the bridge intact. Similar technology is stored in unmanned aircrafts or bomb sniffing devices. It saves the loss of life of innocents in the target areas and also helps the safety of U.S. armed service personnel. Bunker buster bombs, for example, were used to target the caves of Afghanistan where the Taliban were hiding. These were able to penetrate and explode only at specified depths, leaving the landscape unscathed. With this kind of covert warfare, come the issues of propaganda. Political issues often cloud the effective management of war. The less innocent casualties on both sides of the issue, the easier the President can make the case for warfare.
ace recognition technology also a useful advance. Consider this: Mohammed Atta…
Face recognition technology also a useful advance. Consider this: Mohammed Atta was the terrorist who flew the first plane into the Twin Towers, and was generally considered the head operation for September 11, 2001. Television coverage of the aftermath showed a hidden camera of Atta entering the plane minutes before the ill-fated flight. If his face was recognized and identified as a terrorist, the plane would not have flown that day. Mug shots of terrorists are currently stored in the database. Faces, much like fingerprints, are considered unique to a person. While faces might appear similar, face recognition software pinpoints distances between key points on the face. This software can also penetrate disguises. Hidden or close circuit cameras can identify faces, store the face from each frame, calculate the parameters and access a database that identifies these parameters. If a match appears, it might be possible to apprehend the would-be terrorist. High speed computing makes this possible.
Most of the advances in technology have allowed the President to carry out a warfare that is continually evolving. These advances can be used for both preventive measures, ensure that the target is comprehensively destroyed, without making undue casualties. This makes remarkable improvements in how wars are prosecuted. They also make the job of the President much easier.
Regulation of National Security Contracting
Contract soldiers have been used by nations and states since early history. Ancient kings would contract knights to fight with those loyal to them, warlords made pacts with neighboring states and paid for the services of their soldiers, the Hessians, who fought for the British in the Revolutionary ar, were German mercenaries. It is a tradition to hire out the security of a nation when its force is inadequate.
In the second Gulf ar and Afghanistan, the United States and private interests have hired security companies to work in combat zones. The duties of these private soldiers include "services such as information technology and equipment maintenance, operational support such as facilities management and logistics, and actual armed 'security' in conflict zones" (Perlo-Freeman & Skons). Unfortunately, the use of these security firms has caused some legal problems, and it is difficult for the U.S. court system…
Addicott, Jeffery F. "The Political Question Doctrine and Civil Liability for Contracting Companies on the "Battlefield." The Review of Litigation, 28.2 (2008): 343-352.
Commission on Wartime Contracting. "Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Where are we Going?" Commission on Wartime Contracting, 2010. Web.
Perlo-Freeman, Sam, and Elisabth Skons. "The Private Military Services Industry." SPIRI Insights on Peace and Security, 1, 1-19. Print.
Stoddard, Abby, Adele Harmer, and Victoria DiDomenico. "Private security Contracting in Humanitarian Operations." Humanitarian Policy Group, 2009. Print.
The courts found that the FBI had shown a marked tendency to issue gag orders arbitrarily -- "a March 2008 Office of Inspector General (OIG) report revealed that, among other abuses, the FBI misused NSLs to sidestep the authority of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). In one instance, the FBI issued NSLs to obtain information after the FISC twice refused its requests on First Amendment grounds. The OIG also found that the FBI continues to impose gag orders on about 97% of NSL recipients and that, in some cases, the FBI failed to sufficiently justify why the gag orders were imposed in the first place" (Courts, 2008, ACLU). Its use of NSLs thus showed cavalier disregard for the First Amendment and made itself unaccountable to the public
Benjamin Franklin once said that those who would sacrifice their liberty for their security deserve neither. This temptation can be seen in…
Court rules Patriot Act's "National Security Letter" gag provisions unconstitutional. (2008,
December 15). ACLU. Retrieved April 1, 2009 at http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/38113prs20081215.html
Egan, Dan. (2007, September 7). Judge invalidates Patriot Act provisions: FBI is told to halt warrantless tactic. The Washington Post. A01. Retrieved April 1, 2009 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/06/AR2007090601438.html
National Security Letters. (2009). ACLU. Retrieved April 1, 2009 at http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nationalsecurityletters/index.html
FBI National Security Operations
The National Security operation is a service that is provided within the FBI whose mission is helping protect the people, children, the community and businesses from the dangerous threats that face U.S.A from both international and local terrorists as well as spies that are located within the U.S. It realizes this mission through investigation of threats to national security, provision of information and analysis to other agencies that deal with law enforcement and coming up with capabilities of ensuring that the nation remains secure.
History of its formation
This national security Branch of the FBI came about in September 2005 as a response to a directive given by the president and recommendations by weapons of mass destruction commission.it brings together the resources and missions of the agencies counterterrorism, counterintelligence their weapons of mass destruction and the element of intelligence and is led by senior Bureau official…
Fbi.gov. (2014). Federal Bureau of Investigation: National Security Branch. Retrieved March 8, 2014 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/nsb /nsb-brochure' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The behavioral sciences can also be used in more subtle and less direct ways to help combat the war on terror. First, populations prone to terror attacks -- or believed to be prone to such attacks -- could be reassured and strengthened by some techniques of behavioral science. Terrorists received their name because their hope is to inspire terror, and though it chaos. This war is not exactly a military venture, but a psychological one. For that reason, it should be combated psychologically as well, and if the population targeted by the terrorists is immune or at least prepared and desensitized to this fear, terrorist attacks will simply be less effective, and therefore will occur less often. Such psychological techniques can also be used "against" the terrorists themselves, and the populations that tend to produce them. Such efforts would probably be less effective, as they must spring from the belief…
alancing National Security and Internet Freedom
The Four Factions of the National Debate
This paper analyses the dueling philosophies of the pro-National Security vs. pro-Internet Freedom debate that has been a hot topic since the uprisings of the Arab Spring in January of 2011. On one side of the debate are the cyber security agencies, and the media property organizations that represent Hollywood; on the other are piracy advocates worldwide, along with hackers and hacking groups like Anonymous. The two extremes frame the debate we are having, and the average politician and citizen must decide where they stand on the subject in order to have a more structured civil discussion.
The latest development in the ongoing debate grew into the two Congressional bills supporting greater Internet censorship, SOPA and PIPA, and the merits of both sides are discussed. Ultimately, Washington in 2012 sided with Silicon Valley and the…
"Cyber Security and Threats to Business." - Entrepreneurship.org. Web. 25 Feb. 2012. .
"Information Policy." The Fine Balance Between Cybersecurity and Internet Freedom -. Web. 25 Feb. 2012. .
"Many Senators Drop Support for SOPA/PIPA after Internet Blackout Protest." What's Hawt. Web. 25 Feb. 2012. .
Morozov, Evgeny. "America's Internet Freedom Agenda." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 25 May 2011. Web. 25 Feb. 2012. .
Part I – Regional Security Issue within the Indo-Asia-Pacific Region
The National Security Strategy (NSS) focuses on promoting the security of the United States on the premise that a safe environment is critical toward enhancing the prosperity of the nation. This strategy goes beyond promoting the interests of America and includes safeguarding the interests of partners/allies around the world. Through the strategy, the United States responds to the increasing military, political and economic competitions encountered worldwide. As part of ensuring suitable response to these competitions, NSS includes a regional context strategy through which the United States tailors it approaches to various regions worldwide to protect her national interests.[footnoteRef:1] The United States requires integrated regional strategies that acknowledge the nature and extent of threats, intensity of rivalry, and potential opportunities across all regions. Such strategies become the premise of International Relations and U.S. foreign policy. [1: The White House, “National Security…
Identify the analysts and the policymakers
It is not possible for one individual to collate and possess all necessary information required to make good decisions regarding national security and foreign policy issues. Indeed, the higher up one goes up the hierarchy of policy making ladder, the more complicated it becomes. Therefore, senior policy officials rely on their juniors and others for information and proper processing of the same[footnoteRef:1]. In effect, in such countries as the US, it means that such senior officials cannot afford to ignore advice from the US intelligence fraternity. [1: Ford, Relations between Intelligence Analysts and Policymakers]
Unlike information, intelligence is a filtered form that is responsive to stated needs and specified policy requirements. The intelligence community members are experts charged with the responsibility to analyze relevant data. Information is converted to intelligence by linking it to specific issues of national security importance; hence infusing it with…
Davis, Jack. Tensions in analyst-policymaker relations: Opinions, facts, and evidence. WASHINGTON DC: CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, 2003.
Ford, Christopher A. Relations between Intelligence Analysts and Policymakers: Lessons of Iraq. Washington DC: Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2009.
Gookins, Amanda J. \\"The role of intelligence in policy making.\\" SAIS Review of International Affairs 28, no. 1, 2008: 65-73.
LORNE, Teitelbaum. The Impact of the Information Revolution on Policymakers’ Use of Intelligence Analysis. Washington DC: Georgetown University, 2011.
Lowenthal, Mark M. The policymaker-intelligence relationship. 2010.
The various factors that influence both the definition and the perception of private security are typically environmental but can be internal and external to the issue of security itself. In most developed nations, the state provides security forces that are paid for by tax payers (local, municipal, state and federal police, and military forces); however, private security forces, typically operated by ex-military officers who bring their training and experience into the private sector to fill gaps in the market where demand cannot be satisfied by state security apparatuses alone, do exist and do operate both in developed and developing nations. Private security contractors like Academi, GRS, and Aegis look like military forces and often work with military forces when political factors require governments to apply to them for assistance (as has been the case with the U.S. government in the Middle East (Elsea) as well as with Middle…
One of the largest issues between the two nations is the issue of truck passage. In the past trucks carrying goods or cargo had enjoyed a cursory glance as they crossed into the other nation however, after the World Trade Towers came down border agents on both sides of the border began to investigate trucks with much more scrutiny than ever before.
Historic allies, Canada and the United States agreed following 9-11 to a plan for a "secure and smart border" both U.S. And Canadian officials said would protect against terrorist attacks while facilitating this vital stream of trade. Seventy percent of the trade with Canada is truck-borne, with a truck crossing the border every three seconds in a stream of 200,000 vehicles each day (Canada, 2002).
The essence of that agreement was that the United States and Canada would devise ways to identify regular, unthreatening traffic in people…
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Accessed 10-22-06)
Danna, Anthony and Oscar H. Gandy 2002 All that glitters is not gold: Digging beneath the surface of data mining. Journal of Business Ethics 40: 373-386.
Ericson, Richard V. And Kevin Haggerty 1997 Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Collecting National Security Intelligence
Intelligence gathering is one of the most important activities in law enforcement and plays a crucial role in the development of national security strategies. The significance of intelligence in law enforcement and national security strategies is attributed to the fact that it helps in lessening ambiguity intrinsic in observation of external initiatives and activities. National security intelligence is usually collected through a cycle which determines how information is obtained, created, and shared with users. This cycle has five major steps i.e. planning and direction, collection, processing, producing, and dissemination ("Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines," n.d.).
Generally, the responsibility of collecting national security intelligence is given to intelligence collection organizations at the national level. These organizations are mandated with the task of gathering, processing, and disseminating security information that is in turn used to develop suitable law enforcement and national security strategies and initiatives. The intelligence collection…
"Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines." (n.d.). Operations Security -- Intelligence Threat Handbook. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://fas.org/irp/nsa/ioss/threat96/part02.htm
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency website: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
ight to Expression: The Fine Line of the First Amendment
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the enactment of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the PATIOT ACT), there has been a growing debate concerning the proper role of the government in protecting Americans while balancing their right to free expression. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the line between an individual's right to expression and the role of the government to protect its citizens from harm, including some salient examples of this conflict in the nation's past. An analysis concerning whether Americans have come any closer to reconciling these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, the First Amendment to…
Berg, C. (2013, September). Free speech lost in translation. Review - Institute of Public Affairs, 67(3), 18-23.
Munger, M. 92015, Spring). No place to hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. surveillance state. Independent Review, 19(4), 605-609.
Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47, 51-52, 1919.
Youm, K.H. (2004, Summer). The four freedoms of the First Amendment. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 446-450.
National security is an important concept which has often been mistakenly used to refer to protection against external threats. With people gaining better knowledge of the term security, national security has become a complex term that involves human as well as environmental security. For a nation to feel completely secure, it should not only be protected against external threats and aggression but also against internal problems that might make its citizens feel less safe. National security also includes local or internal security which is often defined separately as if it was not a part of the broader term. We must understand that if a person feel threatened in his own country due to any reason such as racism, religious persecution or environmental problems, then he cannot consider his country secure for himself.
Local insecurity leads to national disturbance which might make a country and its people feel vulnerable. For…
1) UN Human Development Report 1994: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en / (Accessed on 04/30/05)
2) Howard Zinn, The Logic of Withdrawal, January 2004 Issue: (Accessed on 04/30/05) http://www.progressive.org/jan04/zinn0104.html
3) Peter K.B. St. Jean, The Relevance Of National Security To Economic, Political, And Social Development. University of Chicago, Department of Sociology (Accessed on 04/30/05) http://www.da-academy.org/devsecure.html
In addition, just over $41 billion was removed from 2001 and 2003 tax cuts. The cuts in military spending will affect a wide variety of citizenry. Specifically, military personnel will be affected with reduced budgets across the board. This will result in a reduced readiness of the military to protect the United States, in the short-term and the long-term. This reduction in spending will also negatively affect civilian contractors and other companies that provide products and services to the military. This will result in lost revenues and decreased profitability for these organizations. A secondary effect of this could result in lost jobs and reduced tax revenues for the city, state and national governments, as well as reduced revenues for other businesses in the community, if these organizations implement worker layoffs.
Social Security cuts will negatively affect the growing population of Baby Boomers and those already receiving Social Security benefits. However,…
Woellert, however, quickly establishes her credentials as an objective observer by recounting the state of the union and admitting a climate of fear and anxiety. She does not immediately begin disparaging the opposite point-of-view which she intends to contend. She states the case for National ID cards, and then poses the question: Will they work? No, she says, calmly and clearly -- they will not.
Woellert's standpoint is one of practicality and efficiency. While Magnusson displays the kind of religious belief that technocrats place in Silicon Valley's "next big thing," Woellert sounds the alarm of prudential American thinking: "A national ID card would rip at the fabric of our constitutional freedoms. It would cost billions and be technologically imperfect. Most troubling, it would lull the populace into a false sense of security." Her thesis is clear, palpable, and logical. Magnusson offers mere hyperbole.
Woellert's essay also stays focused on her…
National Preparedness (PPD-8) examines how the nation should approach preparing for threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk to U.S. security. It is the view of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that "national preparedness is the shared responsibility of our whole community. Ever member contributes, including individuals, communities, the private and nonprofit sectors, faith-based organizations, and Federal, state, and local governments" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). Therefore, the Department of Homeland Security feels that increasing preparedness across all sectors, public and private, better enables the entire society to deal with potential disasters. Moreover, one of the Department's goals is to increase resiliency; they are aware that not all disasters can be avoided, but want to make sure the country is well-prepared to weather a disaster.
One of the recurring issues with homeland security-geared legislation is that it is seen by many as being somewhat overbroad and unconstitutional.…
Clovis, S. (2006). Federalism, homeland security and national preparedness: A case study in the development of public policy. Homeland Security Affairs, 2(3), Article 4. Retrieved from: http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=2.3.4
Clovis, S. (2008). Promises unfulfilled: The sub-optimization of homeland security national preparedness. Homeland Security Affairs, 4(3), Article 3. Retrieved from: http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=4.3.3
Hardenbrook, B.J. (2005). The need for a policy framework to develop disaster resilient regions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 2(3), Article 2. doi: 10.2202/1547-7355.1133
Tierney, K. (2007). Recent developments in U.S. homeland security policies and their implications for the management of extreme events. Handbook of Disaster Research, 405-412.
National Interest as a key determinant in Foreign Policy
National Interest and Foreign Policy
National Interest Defined:
The national interest is, very simply, the objectives of a country ranging from the macro goals i.e. economy, military to the micro goals like social use cyber space. National interest is an integral part of international relations as it is a concept based out of the realist school of though. This will be discussed in more detail in the paper.
Foreign Policy Defined:
Foreign policy, very simply, is the strategy that guides all international dealings and associations of a country
When dealing with national interest, one has to wonder about the degree to which domestic politics is vital for the comprehension of that country's foreign policy. Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. The systemic vigour of the global…
Bond, J.R., and R. Fleisher. 1990. The President in the legislative arena. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clarke, K.A. 2001. Testing nonnested models of international relations: Reevaluating realism. American Journal of Political Science 45(3): 724 -- 744.
Clarke, K.A. 2003. Nonparametric model discrimination in international relations. Journal of Conict Resolution 47(1): 72 -- 93.
Fearon, J.D. 1998. Domestic politics, foreign policy, and theories of international relations. Annual Review of Political Science 1: 289 -- 313.
In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…
Alfawaz, S. M. (2011). Information security management: a case study of an information security culture (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Ashenden, D. (2008). Information Security management: A human challenge? Information security technical report, 13(4), 195-201.
Briggs, R. (2005). Joining Forces From national security to networked security. DEMOS.
Chang, S. E., Ho, C. B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106 (3): 345-361.
Security on Commercial Flights
Describe two (2) lapses in pre-flight security that contributed to the ease of the hijacking operation on September 11, 2001
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States of America evaluated the security of the commercial Airline Industry. Major security lapses gave way for terrorists to board commercial flights, which finally led to the aircrafts' hijacking and demise.
The first lapse that contributed to terrorist attack is President Bill Clinton's ignorance. U.S. administration under the leadership of President Bill Clinton ignored warning signs that Osama bin Laden and al Qaida organization was planning a terrorist attack on United States. Osama Bin Laden claimed responsibility of various attacks on U.S. Militaries deployed in various countries, such as Sudan and Soviet Union aimed at fighting the rising terrorist groups (Oliver, 2006).
The failure of the Intelligence Community is another lapse that contributed to the attack.…
Oliver, W. (2006). Homeland security for policing (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
The U.S. Supreme Court then granted a writ of certiorari to determine the meaning of the language "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008).
What argument did the security dealer make in seeking to have the civil complaint dismissed?
andford's defense in this matter was particularly interesting as he does not deny his involvement in the "simple theft of cash or securities in an investment account" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008). For andford the issue is not that he sold the securities which he contends "were perfectly lawful," rather that the fraudulent activity of "misappropriation of the proceeds is desultory from the actual sale of the securities. If andford's argument is believable then the sales of securities would have been aligned with the investment strategy designed to secure principal and generate income.…
Zandford's defense in this matter was particularly interesting as he does not deny his involvement in the "simple theft of cash or securities in an investment account" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008). For Zandford the issue is not that he sold the securities which he contends "were perfectly lawful," rather that the fraudulent activity of "misappropriation of the proceeds is desultory from the actual sale of the securities. If Zandford's argument is believable then the sales of securities would have been aligned with the investment strategy designed to secure principal and generate income. Zandford's contention falls squarely on the premise that the securities transactions were legitimate sales and not concomitant with intent to defraud.
What does the Supreme Court Conclude with respect to the language "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security?
The question of "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security" invariably falls to the Court's interpretation of the circumstance surrounding the Zandford transactions. The Court rejects Zandford's argument that the sales and the transfers of funds from Wood's account to Zandford's were separate and disconnected. Zandford's argument falls apart because the sales "throughout the two-year period" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008) reflect a deliberate and concerted effort to "convert the proceeds of the sales of the Woods securities to his
Security Sector eform
Overview of the relevant arguments regarding Security Sector reform
The objective of security sector reform has to take care of the threats to the security of the state and the safety of its citizens. These arise often from the situation within the state and military responses may not be suitable. This leads on to an analysis of the government. The second article talks in a wider, more theoretical and less action oriented tone. It says that "existing constitutional frameworks have been used to maintain status quo than promote change." This much is certainly true and it is true not only of the countries with a security problem, but also of even United States wherein recently a justice of the Supreme Court was appointed, though she had no experience of being a judge, but she was a friend of the Chief Executive of the country. There are and…
Anderson, Major Will. Wiring up Whitehall: Ensuring Effective Cross -- Departmental
Activity. Journal of Security Sector Management. Volume 3 Number 3 -- June 2005. Retrieved from http://www.jofssm.org/issues/jofssm_0303_AndersonW_Wiring_up_whitehall_2005.doc?CFID=939029& CFTOKEN=57506392 Accessed 6 October, 2005
Ball, Nicole. Enhancing Security Sector Governance: A Conceptual Framework for UNDP. 9
October, 2002. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/jssr/4_resources/documents/UNDP_Ball_2002_SSR%20Concept%20Paper.pdf Accessed 6 October, 2005
"Yet earnings estimates have acquired a life of their own and often generate more attention from the media and analysts than a company's actual financial results." (Whalen, 2003).
More conservative critics of analyst conflicts rules believe that they are a step in the right direction, but view them as a work in progress. For example, the Sarbanes-Oxley bill, which mandated many improvements in corporate managers' financial practices, did nothing to reduce the unethical practice by many managers of communicating only with those analysts who cooperate with management's forecasts of the future (oni and Womack). This and other rules need strengthening.
Wall Street Journal reported in April 2003 that the brokerage firms of the top investment banks are still more likely to give optimistic research recommendations to their own banking clients, calling to question if new disclosure rules reapply protect investor clients (oni and Womack). With all the hoopla to protect…
60 Minutes - the sheriff of Wall Street (2002, October 6). Retrieved January 11, 2005 from James Hoyer Web site: http://www.jameshoyer.com/news_cbs_merrill_lynch.html
Boni, L. And Womack, K.L., Wall Street research: will new rules change its usefulness? Retrieved January 11, 2005 from The University of New Mexico Web site: http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:Vops0e1attQJ:www.unm.edu/~boni/FAJ_MayJune2003.doc+%22NASD+and+NYSE+rules%22+and+%22conflict+of+interest%22+and+%22not+enough%22& hl=en
Fleischman, D. (2003, March 6). Outline of new research analyst conflicts of interest rules. Retrieved January 11, 2005 from Security Industries Association Web site: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:ETmwyiBBHrMJ:www.sia.com/ResearchManagement/pdf/ResearchOutline.pdf+%22NASD+Rule+2711%22& hl=en
Rayburn, K. (2004, Winter). Insecure securities. Impact. Retrieved January 11, 2005 from University of Louisville Web site: http://php.louisville.edu/advancement/pub/impact/winter2004/insecure.php
security of the U.S. And Canadian border is in peril. There is an unprotected route allowing the free-flow of terrorists from around the world into Canada and then into the U.S. This is a national security situation that threatens our way of life. hat are our options for eliminating this threat?
By definition a liberal is a man or a woman who believes in liberty. Liberalism as a philosophy has evolved as a defense of individual citizen's liberties against the potential tyranny of his or her ruling state. Liberals such as John Locke have typically maintained that humans are naturally in 'a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions ... As they think fit ... without asking leave, or depending on the ill of any other Man," In other words, unless the individual's liberty impinges upon the liberty of another individual, than that individual should do as he or…
Gaus, Gerald. "Liberalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001. Available online November 3, 2004 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberalism/
Next, firewalls capable of blocking IP addresses need to be installed and used (Becker, Clement, 2006). The focus on these efforts is just the first phase; there needs to be a monthly audit of IP addresses in the departments where P2P file sharing has occurred to make sure it isn't happening again. This an be accomplished using a series of constraint-based configuration tools that will trap on P2P known client footprints or digital signatures and immediately block them (Hosein, Tsiavos, Whitley, 2003). This technology will also work to isolate any inside IP addresses which attempt to reach P2P client-based download sites and immediately log and block all IP activity for the address. This will make a given IP address inoperable and immediately delete it, which will make any subsequent hacking attempts of the system useless. This is precisely the strategy the U.S. Government is using today to ensure a very…
Bailes, J.E., & Templeton, G.F. (2004). Managing P2P security. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 47(9), 95-98.
Becker, J.U., & Clement, M. (2006). Dynamics of illegal participation in peer-to-peer networks -- why do people illegally share media files? Journal of Media Economics, 19(1), 7-32.
Hosein, I., Tsiavos, P., & Whitley, E.A. (2003). Regulating architecture and architectures of regulation: Contributions from information systems. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 17(1), 85-85.
Controlling IM risks. (2003). Risk Management, 50(7), 6-6.
S.-USS confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.
Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To…
Borawski, J. 1995. Partnership for Peace and beyond. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 71, No. 2. pp. 233-246
Boulden, J. NATO and the United Nations during UNPROFOR. N.d.
Calvocoressi, P. 1987. World politics since 1945. Longman, New York.
Cornish, P. 2004. NATO: the practice and politics of transformation. International Affairs 80.
This is because, most suspects will more than likely only begin talking after they have been subject to extreme amounts of pressure. Evidence of this can be seen with Danner writing, "American officials acknowledged that such techniques were recently applied as a part of the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah, the highest ranking Al Qaeda operative in custody until the capture of Mr. Mohamed. Painkillers were withheld from Zubaydah, who was shot several times during his capture in Pakistan." (Danner, 2004, pg. 7) This is important, because it is showing how the use of torture can help to provide officials with information about terrorist related activities. However, during the process of obtaining this information is when they will have to use different tactics that will place physical and emotional pressure on the terrorist. This is when they will begin to openly talking about future activities and plans.
When you compare the…
Danner, M. (2004). Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Terror. New York: New York Review of Books.
Wanchekon, L. (1999). The Game of Torture. Journal of Conflict Resolution 43 (5): 596-609
"Government representatives are responsive to and reliant upon feedback and suggestions from their constituents" and "the most direct way of impacting a legislator is through a letter-writing campaign. The more letters a legislator receives, the more important the issue becomes" (Keene State College Advocates, 2011).
One of the emerging threats that is now a more commonplace threat is that of cyber security. With technology advancing at a rapid rate, it seems that security is sometimes overlooked. Our society is well-versed in how hackers can hack into e-mail, social networking sites and bank accounts but it is absolutely something that the public needs to be more cautious of. A way to combat cyber threats would be to make sure that the computer is completely secure and use common sense when it comes to certain online transactions. People should band together and use one place to reveal the scams that they may…
Garcia, Mary Lynn. (1997). Emerging threats. Retrieved from http://engr.nmsu.edu/~etti/fall97/security/mlgarcia.html
Keene State College Advocates. (2011, March 09). Write to your legislator. Retrieved from http://kscadvocates.org/write-to-your-legislator/
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…
Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2004.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the U.S., The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2004,
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…
Aclu.org. (2003, August 25). The Five Problems With CAPPS II. Retrieved from Aclu.org: https://www.aclu.org/national-security/five-problems-capps-ii
Alpha.org. (2011, Fall). Aviation Security. Retrieved from alpa.org: http://www.alpa.org/portals/alpa/pressroom/inthecockpit/ALPAIssueAnalysis_10YearsAfter9-11Attacks.pdf
Browne, D. (2009). Flying without Fear: Effective Strategies to Get You Where You Need to Go. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Elias, B. (2009). Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global. New York: CRC Press.
1. While some people may be better leaders than others, all people can lead and all people can learn to lead better. Discuss some ideas of how leadership skills may be improved.
Development and education
Leaders need to develop in their position. Owing to managerial tasks’ knowledge-based nature, the word “development” has been used to describe the continuous growth in skills and cognition of executives and managers. Managerial development is promoted via education that they may acquire in various settings (Fernandez et al., 2015). Attending and taking part in programs offered by certain general management and security-related institutions may help cater to their developmental requirements.
Training and practice
A leader is required to engage in constant training and practice of leadership skills needed for improving their output, including integrity, delegation and patience, until the time they have acquired mastery over those skills.
The mentoring process entails transfer…
National Intelligence Strategy
The Five Mission Objectives
Under the leadership of the Director of National Intelligence, John Negroponte, in 2005, the National Intelligence Strategy was developed. The strategy had a clear description of how the United States of America intelligence community was going to overhaul its function in intelligence in and out of America. It had five Mission Objectives in the effort of predicting, penetrating, and preempting the possible threats that face the security of the United States of America. The five objectives were (National Intelligence, 2005):
The National Intelligence was out to ensure that all the efforts posed by terrorists in the fulfillment of their terrorism activities against the U.S.A. were defeated. They intended to do this through destabilization of their systems of support, leadership and the entire network. The strategy went further to state whose responsibility it was to carry this objective by naming the National…
Catino, M.S. Strategic Intelligence: The Soviet Union and Strategic Intelligence in the Early Cold War, 1945-1953. Henley Putnam University.
National Intelligence. (2005). Transformation through Integration and Innovation. . The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America .
Powell, J.H., & Bradford, J.P. (2000). Targeting intelligence gathering in a dynamic competitive environment. International Journal of Information Management. 20, 181- 195.
Rolington, A. (2013). Strategic Intelligence for the 21st Century: The Mosaic Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The author of this report is to answer to three major questions as it relates to the DNC scenario advanced by the story that preceded it. The first question is the legal claims relating to the use of the LAD. The second question is the basis that should be used to deny Amnesty International from getting their permit and the implications that this could cause. The final question requires the identification and analysis of any legal claims that might arise if Greenpeace has a protest in the shopping mall and how pat-downs and other security measures may lead to legal or protest-related issues. While the Miami and other personnel have a responsibility to keep the peace and keep people safe, they need to tread very carefully when limiting free speech and/or freedom of assembly as well as over-aggressive use of less-lethal technologies and interventions that can still maim…
Granick, J. (2014, March 20). Obama Press Attacks Degrade the First Amendment In The Name of Security. Forbes. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/jennifergranick/2014/03/20/obama-press-attacks-degrade-the-first-amendment-in-the-name-of-security/
Hutchinson, B. (2013, April 16). Boston Marathon bomb devices were pressure cookers filled with nails, ball bearings: report. NY Daily News. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/boston-marathon-bomb-devices-made-pressure-cookers-filled-nails-ball-bearings-report-article-1.1318278
Stephens, A. (2012, July 24). A Closer Look at Less-than-Lethal Weapons Fired at Anaheim Residents on Saturday Afternoon. Navel Gazing. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from http://blogs.ocweekly.com/navelgazing/2012/07/naui_huitzilopochtli.php
National Infrastructure Vulnerability
This report covers how the United States does and should address threats to its critical national infrastructure. Vulnerability to attacks like the SCADA/Stuxnet worm will be addressed as well as mitigations as they relate to the seven domains. The assessment of levels of responsibility to protect both the public and private sectors will be covered as well as the elements of an effective IT security policy framework. No less than three scholarly resources will be used for this report, as per the parameters of the assignment.
The Stuxnet word made major shockwaves when it came to be known fully in roughly 2010. Presumed by many to be the product of cooperation with the Israeli and United States governments to attack Iran and perhaps inhibit their ability to manufacture and process nuclear devices and materials, the worm specifically attacks Siemens (SCADA) devices that relate to…
Goodin, D. (2010, September 22). SCADA worm a 'nation state search-and-destroy weapon'. The Register. The Register: Sci/Tech News for the World. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/09/22/stuxnet_
Taylor, L. (2001, February 16). Seven elements of highly effective security policies |
ZDNet. ZDNet | Technology News, Analysis, Comments and Product Reviews for IT Professionals. Retrieved May 18, 2013,from http://www.zdnet.com/news / seven-elements-of-highly-effective-security-policies/297286
The final step in decrease law enforcement budgets was the cut of 20% federal prison system. As of right now, prisons take up millions of dollars to house drug offenders and other non-violent criminals. These funds are needed elsewhere, and so they must be taken from keeping up the building and regulation of so many unnecessary prisons in the United States.
In terms of protecting consumers much needed to be done. To ensure consumers protection on investments, deposit insurance increased by 10%. This will allow people to renew faith in the banking system in they have more insurance on their deposits. Additionally, I cut 20% of tax cuts for the richest 1% of tax payers, 10% for the second two richest. Hold even for the third, and an increase of 10% for the bottom tax payers. Furthermore, I cut 20% of untaxed foreign profits and 10% of tax benefits for…
National Incident Management Systems
Duty esponsibilities of Commander
National Incident Management System (NIMS) (PAT 1)
As the commander of the National Management System (NIMS), I have viewed the situation in a considerable amount of attention. The situation at hand needs to be carefully monitored and put into effect a counteractive method of operation. I and my unit's mission are to conduct this operation in the best way possible in order to rescue the hostages and apprehend the said terrorists who have no place in this kind of our society.
The NIMS occasionally deals with domestic incidents, but the situation at hand involves terrorists and Israeli citizens making this event a matter of international interest. My command structure will have the incident command system (ICS) which comprises of five major functional areas, the command, operations, logistics and finance/administration. The situation at hand being a complex situation has led to the need…
Walsh, D.W., Christen, H.T., Miller, G.T., Callsen Jr., C.E., Cilluffo, F.J., & Maniscalco, P.M. (2005). National incident management system: Principles and practice. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…
Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html
Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). eply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure esearch, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/.
Gerstein, D.M. (2005). Securing America's future: National strategy in the information age. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Hepner, . (2001, July 6). A surge in growth for county. The Washington Times, 8.
Michman, .D. & Greco, a.J. (1995). etailing triumphs and blunders: Victims of competition in the new age of marketing management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Mueller, G. (1998, December 2). it's easy to find the right gift - Just read on. The Washington Times, 5.
Privacy and security statement. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.basspro.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/PageDisplayView?langId=-1&storeId=10151 & cataloged=x§ion=MyAccount&pagename=PrivacyPolicySummaryDisplay.
Schlosser, E. (1998). The bomb squad: A visit…
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). Reply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PRAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/ .
S. Department of Energy).
Q3. Discuss the internet of things and its likely consequences for developing an enforceable information assurance (IA) policy and implementing robust security architecture.
The internet of things refers to the inevitable connectedness of all things in all regions of the world through the internet. "The fact that there will be a global system of interconnected computer networks, sensors, actuators, and devices all using the internet protocol holds so much potential to change our lives that it is often referred to as the internet's next generation" (Ferber 2013). Although the internet feels ubiquitous today, the internet of things refers to an even more complete merger of the virtual and the real world. "In many and diverse sectors of the global economy, new web-based business models being hatched for the internet of things are bringing together market players who previously had no business dealings with each other. Through…
Ferber, Stephen. (2013). How the internet of things changes everything. HBR Blog. Retrieved:
Heath, Nick. (2012). What the internet of things means for you. Tech Republic. Retrieved:
Obama's health care reform will make health care more accessible and more affordable and make insurers more accountable, as well as expand health care coverage to every American and make the health care system sustainable by stabilizing family budgets, the economy and the Federal budget.
The cost of Obama's overall health care bill will cost approximately $940 billion over 10 years, according to the Congressional udget Office. The bill will include that by the year 2014 there will be significant health access reforms. Insurers will be prohibited from denying coverage to people with medical problems of charging them more money (CS 2010).
While these numbers do sound manageable, Congress has not responded kindly to Obama's health care reform ideas. When Obama has even mentioned the idea of health care for illegal immigrants, the president was rudely interrupted by a heckler yelling, "you lie" ( ). Under Obama's proposal of health…
CBS News. "What's in a health care bill? Take a dose." Retrieved on June 1, 2010, from the Web site:
CNN.com. (2010) "Obama calls for congress to face health care challenge." Retrieved on June 5, 2010, from the Web site:
National Education Association
The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil ights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at http://www.nea.org. There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to etired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.
National Education Association. (2012). Main Website. Retrieved from:
Moe, T. (2011). Special Interest -- Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools. Retrieved From: Brookings Institution Press. http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2011/specialinterest.aspx
This is because it was not officially ratified by the U.S. Senate. The reason why, was due to the underlying fears of the damage that it could cause to the economy. This would create the atmosphere that various provisions were unfair for the U.S., leading to its eventual withdrawal from Kyoto. (U.S. Withdraws from Kyoto Protocol 2001) When such a large country will no longer follow these different provisions, it creates an atmosphere of voluntary compliance. At which point, the other signatories will not follow the different provision of the treaty as strictly. Once this takes place, it means that any kind of efforts to address the problem is the equivalent of having no agreement at all. This will cause the various environmental issues to become worse, as the constant finger pointing and debate are only creating more problems. Evidence of this can be by looking at the total number…
Effects of Global Warming are Everywhere, 2007, National Geographic. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Future Effects, n.d. UNFCC, Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Hurricane Katrina. 2010, Hurricane Katrina. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
NOAA Raises 2005 Hurricane Season Outlook, 2005, NOAA. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Describe the Impact of the FAA's National Airspace System Plan (NASP)
The impact of the FAA's National Airspace System Plan is that it is creating a standard procedure that can be used to: provide guidance and support for the air traffic control system in a specific region. This is important, because this plan serves as the basic foundation for: establishing the proper operating procedures and how to adjust to changes that are taking place in the industry (such as how to implement new technology / regulations in the plan). Where, the strategy will identify specific areas that need to be addressed (at a host of different airports around the country) including: systems planning, trends, the different problems facing capacity / delays, the effective use of technology, funding, forecasting / trends and policy considerations. These different elements are important, because they are establishing a strategy that can be used by airports…
Airport System Development. (1984). FAS. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/8403.pdf
IFR Operations. (n.d.). FAA. Retrieved from: http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/instrument_procedures_handbook/media/CH%2001a.pdf
The ultimate House vote was two hundred and twenty to two hundred and seven. The senate vote was fifty three to forty three. The republicans were collectively opposed in both chambers (3 June 2010, 3).
The Future of the Health Care ill
Subsequent to disagreements as political enemies for more than a year, the Obama administration and the health insurance industry realized that they require one another.
oth have huge stakes in the success of the new health care law (14 May 2010, 1)
The political destiny of President Obama and Congressional Democrats rely on their capability to interpret it's assurance into realism for voters. This can be attained by restraining health expenses and making insurance accessible to everybody at reasonable price. Similarly, the fiscal future, in fact the continued existence, of the health insurance industry relies on the government. That is on set of laws being written by federal…
1. "Critics Question Study Cited in Health Debate, " New York Times, 2 June 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
2. "Health Reforms," New York Times, 26 March 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
3. "Two Health Care Adversaries Find a Need to Collaborate, " New York Times, 3 June 2010, sec. B, p.3.
4. "Companies Try to Shape Rules, " New York Times, 15 May 2010, sec. a, p.22
The foundation of the current private security systems may be credited to Alan Pinkerton. Born in Glasgow in 1819 Pinkerton worked for a sort time as the Cook County Deputy Sherriff before in 1849 being the first detective appointed in the Chicago Police department (Dempsey, 2010). Pinkerton also went on to investigate mail thefts as a special U.S. mail agent in 1850 (Dempsey, 2010). t was in the early 1850's that in partnership with Edward Rucker he started up his on private detective agency, located in the North-West of the country (Dempsey, 2010). After only a year his partner left, at which time the firm was renamed the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, with the tag line 'the eye that never sleeps' (Dempsey, 2010). t was this slogan which led to the term 'private eye' to refer to private investigators (Dempsey, 2010; Burstein, 1999). The agency was highly successful and became…
In the Civil War the firm offered private services to the government, including intelligence gathering and the protection of President Lincoln. The firm is credited with saving the life of Lincoln by identifying an assassination plan during covet intelligence work identifying threats to the railroads (Fischel, 1996).
Pinkertons was not the only private security firm to emerge, the latter part of the nineteenth century also saw other firms established. The need was also supported with the Railway Police Acts 1865, giving railroad the ability to protect themselves (Dempsey, 2010). The two main rivals were Binks Inc., created with the aim of protecting payroll governments, and in 1909 there was the founding of William J. Burns Inc., which went on to become the investigative unit of the American Banking Association (Burstein, 1999).
In the Private Security Task Force Report three factors were identified as ongoing drivers for the development of the industry, these were ineffective policing services, the increase in the level of crimes and increased