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globalization and imperialism and argues that globalization is actually nothing more than imperialism under a new guise. The writer uses several sources to illustrate the definition of imperialism and then holds it against globalization to prove they are one and the same under different names. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Globalization = U.S. Imperialism
As mankind continues with the process of globalization, many world leaders point to it as an indication of peace on earth. Proudly discussing the coming together of nations, cultures, ideas and technology, the leaders of the world relay to their constituents that globalization is a positive step toward worldwide cohesiveness. Those who live in the nations, taking part in the process, look at technological advances, the ability to widen their market bases and other things and wholeheartedly agree with what they are being told. While there are many aspects of globalization that appear to be positive and enlightening upon first glance, a second look at the deeper layers of the process will show that it is not all that it appears to be. Much like the wizard in the Wizard of Oz, when one pulls back the curtain, it is revealed it is only a man, pulling back the curtain of globalization uncovers something that is carefully hidden beneath the drape of new success. When one looks at the underpinnings of globalization and removes all the glitter and hype one will see that it is actually a cleverly disguised form of imperialism. The most telling element that this is occurring is the fact that the world is becoming a capitalist venture.
In The New Imperialism, Crisis and Contradiction in North/South Relations, by Robert Biel the reader is taken on an educational journey through many important aspects of history.
The history of capitalism has always depended on non-paid work of women as well as the work of slaves. This is a world wide situation and has always served to support the expansion of capitalism according to Biel (Biel, 2000). In addition the world has taken unlimited license with the destruction of non-replenish able sources for the immediate need and gain with little thought to how the world will survive without them in the future (Biel, 2000).
Biel outlines how the tools of Marxism are being used to disguise imperialism under the name of globalization (Biel, 2000).
The globalization of capitalism has exacerbated the continuing reduction of education to a subsector of the economy (McLaren, 2001). In the process, it has brought untold misery to the lives of millions of people throughout the world. Maintaining that critical pedagogy largely remains in the thrall of postmodern theory and politics (McLaren, 2001). The aim of such a pedagogy is to encourage the development of critical consciousness among students and teachers in the interests of building working-class solidarity and opposition to global capitalism (McLaren, 2001)."
There are signs around the world that globalization is actually a form of imperialism. One of the areas that this is being promoted in is the area of education. Throughout America and much of the industrialized world teachers are forbidden to teach the positive aspects of any political system other than Democracy. In addition they are forbidden to teach advocating of any system such as communism.
No teacher giving instruction in any school, or on any property belonging to any agencies included in the public school system, shall advocate or teach communism with the intent to indoctrinate or to inculcate in the mind of any pupil a preference for communism (McLaren, 2001). In prohibiting the advocacy or teaching of communism with the intent of indoctrinating or inculcating a preference in the mind of any pupil for such doctrine (McLaren, 2001), the Legislature does not intend to prevent the teaching of the facts about communism (McLaren, 2001). Rather, the Legislature intends to prevent the advocacy of, or inculcation and indoctrination into, communism as is hereinafter defined, for the purpose of undermining patriotism for, and the belief in, the government of the United States and of this state (McLaren, 2001). "
The above is evidence of the strength that the worldwide globalization effort has behind it. The globalization is growing with each nation it includes and it is based in the idea that capitalism is the only true method of success and happiness, from both an economic standpoint and a political standpoint.
FACING GLOBAL CAPITALISM
As we anticipate the ongoing challenges of the new millennium, we bear witness to the unabated mercilessness of global capitalism and the impassable fissure between capital and labor (McLaren, 2001). Today, millions of workers are being exploited by a relatively small yet cunningly powerful global ruling class driven by an unslakable desire for accumulation of profit. Little opposition exists as capitalism runs amok, unhampered and undisturbed by the tectonic upheaval that is occurring in the geopolitical landscape -- one that has recently witnessed the collapse of the Soviet Union and the regimes of the Eastern Bloc (McLaren, 2001)."
Global technology and other changes have been occurring at such a fast pace that they have not given mankind much of a chance to evaluate the direction by which it is taking the world. Globalization has become the be all end all measurement of success in the eyes of its advocates but there are several problems with its concept that point to imperialism. One of the problems with globalization is the fact that it does not take anything into account but financial worth and gain. The importance of morals, values, humanity and cultural differences get lost in the quest for financial success and competition during the process of world globalization.
Due to the fast-paced and frenetic changes taking place around us in the wired realms of global technologies and free-trade initiatives, we are hard-pressed to chart out our daily struggles against oppression and exploitation instituted by a growing cabal of techno-crazed global robber barons (McLaren, 2001). As we attempt to flee a culture of endless acquisition, we find ourselves at the mercy of an even more terrifying corporate culture shaping our subjectivities (McLaren, 2001). According to Hayat Imam (1997), "Today... 'creation of wealth' has become the fundamental value at the center of global society and analyses of economics are devoid of issues of morality, human needs, and social conscience"(McLaren, 2001). Mutagenic forms of greed and social relations that permit such greed to flourish have produced severance packages for corporate bosses that exceed the combined salaries of an army of factory workers (McLaren, 2001)."
Those who believe that globalization is a positive step toward the betterment of the world are looking only at the current success. Yes, the explosion of technology for the past four decades has taken mankind to heights that were never before imagined. Today; with the click of a mouse one can plan and purchase travel tickets, manage their own stocks, buy and sell merchandise around the globe and chat with people from other cultures. This has all been a step in a positive direction for those nations that are able to afford and implement the technological advances.
THE EDUCATIONAL PROPOGANDA OF GLOBALIZATION
With an eye to the future many experts have concerns about what will happen as the globalization effort, which is really nothing more than an imperialism wolf in sheep's clothing, will do the overall workings of mankind. A new pedagogy will be in order if the progression of imperialist globalization is to stop. Imperialism is the act of obtaining power by taking over other areas. This may mean a true take over such as was seen recently in Iraq, or it can be more subtle by way of an economic takeover. An economic takeover is what the process of globalization is advocating with its spread of capitalism, led by technological wonder and awe. In the end however it is nothing more than a new way for some nations, primarily America, to gain control over other nations through the use of business clout and dependence. Globalization is going to make nations so dependent on the capitalist way of life that there will be no room for discussion or change. The only way to stop it from occurring is to fight against its insidious nature.
A revolutionary working-class pedagogy seeks to transgress the boundaries that set high culture apart from popular culture and that privilege the former over the latter. Empowering the working-class and marginalized social groups in society means giving them an opportunity to interrogate theoretically (in the sense articulated by both Marx and Lenin) forms of both high culture and popular culture so that they can analyze, articulate, express, and construct meaning from multiple positionalities located in their lived experiences dealing with racism, sexism, and class exploitation. In addition, disenfranchised groups need to control the means of production of their symbolic economies, not to mention their material existence. Because a revolutionary working-class pedagogy also recognizes that the language and the discourses practiced within the classroom setting as well as in the workplace…[continue]
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The lack of public support is one of the key factors that resulted to the failure of the U.S. There were false claims that the American government acted against people's aspirations and that the American youth protested against the war. Early initiatives of the United States under Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Truman obtained a lot of support. Only two members of the United States congress voted against giving Johnson the
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba
U.S. In the Interwar Years: A Nation to Blame The historical issue this paper will address is the role of the United States in the interwar period of the 1920s and 1930s. Some claim that the U.S. attempted to exert a positive influence on global affairs during this period, pointing out that Wilson's rhetoric included talk of disarmament and free trade, and that Roosevelt issued similar terms on the world
McLaren and Farahmandpur conceive of the new imperialism as a "combination of old-style military and financial practices as well as recent attempts by developed nations to impose the law of the market on the whole of humanity itself" (2001, 136). McLaren and Farahmandpur note, too, that the concept of class division is a taboo subject within the "guarded precincts of academic discourse, leaving discussions of class out of discussions of global
That said, Goodhart believes that global governance, if pushed too far into sovereign nations' doings, can in fact undermine popular sovereignty as "a viable conception of democracy" but it is not doing that and in fact, in a globalized world that is increasingly interdependence needs a new kind of democracy. The new sovereigntists' views are normative while Goodhart's are more along the lines o positivism. Basically, Goodhart argues that
Globalization=Western Imperialism Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life.
78) adds that the international migration of people is not a new dynamic at all; in fact migrations were "a significant phenomenon in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries." In the U.S. during the era 1901-1920 the number of immigrants admitted "exceeded that of the twenty-year period" that began in 1981, Ruccio continues, and those numbers from 1901-1920 are far greater than any numbers of immigrants in the