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960). Just as American Imperialists exerted violent pressure to keep control of the islands they wished to inhabit, exploit and control for their own self-interest, the Japanese Imperialists exercised an equal and "undeniable harshness" in its reign over Korea (Schmid, p. 960).
But the killing of persons was not the only way to exert power. There was also the killing of a sense of nationalistic pride. Nationalism, it should be remembered, is one of the ideas at the heart of imperialism; therefore, it is necessary for the imperialistic power to embrace its own nationalism and to destroy the nationalism of the colony it governs. This may be seen in the way the Japanese Imperialists set out to convey to the Koreans the idea that their nation was culturally backward and behind on the progressive stage. Japan set about distributing photographic evidence of Korea's poverty and illustrating the need for Japanese…… [Read More]
Imperialisms in Congo
Imperialism in Congo
The concept of Renewed Imperialism was prominent during the nineteen century. This period saw many European nations invade Africa and scrambled for nations that they were able to colonize. The effects of this period are still being felt by many African countries up-to-date as is the case with Congo. The influences of the colonizers are thought to have caused varied levels of destruction to many communities and the nations as a whole. For instance, the Leopold treatment of Congo is one of the major blows that came with colonization in Africa. Almost all the African nations were explored by Europeans and many other non-Africans who were on different missions. The innate aspect of colonization was felt in the fields of the economy, the social structures, and the political avenues. These colonies were regarded as imperial to the natural occurrence of change in the African…… [Read More]
However, to do so would be to engage in a horrible revisionist version of history. The development of modern America was based on the concept of manifest destiny and would not have occurred without the systemic deprivation of the rights of indigenous people. Attacking Native Americans, killing off tribes, killing off of buffalo for sport and thus depriving tribes of their food sources, and forcing Native Americans into reservations are all examples of imperialistic behavior. In addition, the development of the plantation system, the history of slavery, and the post-emancipation degradation of African-Americans are likewise examples of American imperialism. Unfortunately, imperialism is a traditional American value, though those values are changing.
Imperialism for America changed dramatically in the late 19th century, with the Emancipation Proclamation and the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which sought to guarantee equal rights to people regardless of race. While these promises have…… [Read More]
The notion that whiteness was a superior state to blackness and all shades between, the notion of cultural superiority was already firmly entrenched by the time of the Chicago Worlds Fair in 1893. Barely cloaked under seemingly benevolent messages of cultural diversity were clear messages related to the American intention to imperialize and colonize. The establishment of a European cultural hegemony was already under way with the rapid expansion of Britain's colonies as well as those of Spain and France. For Americans, imperialism was linked even tighter to national identity. The concept of manifest destiny had been applied to westward expansion. By 1893, the Pacific Ocean was the final frontier. America needed a "new frontier," as Frederick Jackson Turner put it (cited on page 542).
America's brand of imperialism was a curious and powerful mix of economic, political, and social hegemony built on the deep-rooted belief in white cultural…… [Read More]
e. industrialized (Greenberger, 2004)
The appearance of uncivilized territories convinced many expansionists they had a God-given mission to take new territory and to spread Christianity and the benefits of European culture. The colonial powers did provide some benefits, one might say, as a result of this assumption. The powers "built new communications and transportation systems, established universities, and introduced modern medical practices." By making the colonized look, dress, behave, and hopefully believe like Europeans, these racial 'others' could be civilized, with proper aid from the Mother country. However, because 'the other' could never be perfectly like 'us,' that is like the face of the colonizer, "many nations took advantage of their colonies by exporting natural resources without providing economic return for most of the people. Many colonial administrations were insensitive to local customs and destroyed old ways of life." (Greenberger, 2004) "Every claim to cultural dominance on behalf of the…… [Read More]
Imperialism and Nationalism -- the 'isms' that gave rise to the First orld ar
hat was the cause of the conflagration known as the 'war to end all wars' that nearly destroyed the entire world during the first part of the 20th century? According to Vladimir Lenin, imperialism alone was the root cause of orld ar I. The founder of the modern Soviet Union argued that competition for land and resources inevitably let to armed conflict between the capitalist nations of estern Europe. However, although nationalism was a key factor in the development of orld ar I, an equally critical factor was the nationalism in the colonized nations that imperialism spawned, and the secret alliances contracted between various imperial powers out of fear of one another's concealed might.
In his speech, "The Maintenance of Empire" in 1872, the then-British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli stated to the assembled, "gentlemen," that "there…… [Read More]
2. What significant tool did the imperialists use to colonize the mind of Africans?
The resolution of the All-African People's Conference, held in Accra, Ghana in 1958,
"condemns colonialism and imperialism" based on these premises. Whereas all African peoples . . . deplore the economic exploitation of African people by Imperialist Countries, thus reducing Africans to poverty in the midst of plenty . . . Whereas fundamental human rights, freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of movement, freedom of worship, freedom to live a full and abundant life . . . are denied to Africans through the activities of Imperialists.
3. What were the reasons forwarded during the conference for condemnation of imperialism in Africa?
Sekou Toure, West African nationalist, 1962.
"Colonialism's greatest misdeed was to have tried to strip us of our responsibility in conducting our own affairs and convince us that our civilization…… [Read More]
Imperialism which is often considered to be a final stage of capitalism was a logical continuation of industrialization, development of trade and colonization. Global trade and goods exchange have united Europe, Africa, America and Asia into an integral organism. Imperial system as well as interaction between the major colonial super-powers guaranteed economical stability and peace. Colonies were perfect markets for the goods produced in metropolises and were used as emergency zones in cases of overproduction in order to prevent global or local economical crisis.
Colonies were used as raw material donors of metropolitan industry. In order to prevent movement for political and economical independence, colonies were not allowed to have industrial objects as their economical activity was limited to farming and mining. On the hand with traditional colonial system which took place in France, Great Britain, Belgium which had huge possessions worldwide, American imperialism had introduced a new one without…… [Read More]
For instance, the United States aided in the installation of Fidel Castro in Cuba, and then initiated a trade embargo against him when his policies did not meet their expectations. onald eagan's involvement in the Iran-Contra affair suggested United States imperial action in both Latin America and the Middle East. Furthermore, while the United States' intervention in Latin America after the 1800s has been primarily motivated by a desire to establish favorable economic ties and like-minded political leaders, the United States' involvement in the Middle East has gone farther to fit the classic description of imperialism -- "the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas" (Merriam-Webster 2008). In fact, through two gulf wars and an Iraq conflict that some call the third, the United States…… [Read More]
Impeialism in the United States
Jasmine Latoya Jennings
Impeialism in the United States
Those who agued fo the pactice of impeialism by the United States did so with vigo and vehement suppot. Politicians contended passionately and with elative eloquence the easons why impeialism, and specifically fo the puposes of this pape, impeialist ule of the Philippines. Repesentatives fom acoss the United States govenment povided damatic equests using histoical efeences, allusions to the Constitution, and platitudes egading peemptive stiking. Many of the aguments sound quite simila fo the calls fo wa and othe amed conflicts in the 21st centuy aound the wold, not just in o by the United States of Ameica.
The agument to keep the Philippines is not compelling in the opinion of this autho. The aguments ae too familia and the stategies of psychological influence o manipulation ae too appaent. Pehaps when these aguments wee cuent, they…… [Read More]
Imperialism & China
Both Joseph Esherick and Lydia Liu examine the ways in which western imperialism would have an effect on China by examining the bias and distortion that the imperialist project permitted in previous intellectual and historical inquiry. For Esherick, it is a school of thought centered at Harvard University in the U.S., which would provide a sort of "spin" on the west's imperial adventures in China to redefine the process as one not of exploitation but one "largely beneficial to China" (Esherick 9). For Liu, it is the introduction of ideas of "national character" through the nineteenth century largely by western missionaries (but also by journalists and western imperial administrators) that will have an effect upon the analysis of the Chinese situation by Chinese critics as well. But for both Liu and Esherick, it would seem that the chief concern in addressing the question of western imperialism in…… [Read More]
Napoleon: The United States stands as a perfect example of the benefits of Imperialism, as it is one of the most successful colonies that ever existed and given that it supplied the ritish Empire with resources for a long period of time.
Roosevelt: Matters have changed ever since the colonial era, as the U.S. is known solely interested in promoting the concept of freedom and in emphasizing the wrongness related to imperialism. We currently want to spread our ideology, not our influence.
Kipling: This sounds strange coming from someone who lived most of his life trying to protect the interests of his country instead of looking into the well-being of nations who experienced suffering.
ismark: You are essentially not very different from us, Mr. Roosevelt. While our perspective in regard to Imperialism relates to physical aspects of the act, you and your people have simply advanced this concept and have…… [Read More]
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…… [Read More]
53). He points out that four countries (in 1917) -- England, France, Germany, and the United States -- own 80 per cent of the world's finance capital; thus, in his view, the whole rest of the world is subjugated, that is, indebted to and tributary to those four "international banker countries."
Where once monopolists exported goods to other countries to make a profit, now they export finance capital. This is another symptom of the imperialistic stage of capitalism -- what to do with excess wealth? Lenin states that it would not be capitalism if the excess wealth were used to improve the quality of life for the millions of people who are still underfed and leading lives of misery. Instead, the capital is exported to "backward" countries and used to make more profits. In backward countries (now called developing nations) where there is a shortage of capital, labor is cheap,…… [Read More]
Imperialism was always seen as positive for Westerners, but as destructive by the peoples of Africa and Asia." To what extent does this statement appear to be true?
Rudyard Kipling's "The White man's burden" seems to be an ironic condemnation of imperialism. Whilst most Westerners of the viewed imperialism as a necessary fact and as a boon to the 'savages', Kipling was a pre-contemporary in more ways than one and saw the 'Whites' as simply one more other race populating the world. The White man in his greed and folly was perpetrating needless wars and occupying another's land as well as stealing their wives, children, property, and money for the benefit of themselves. Kipling, however, was unique in that most Westerners disagreed with him. To them, they were not only doing their duty but many defined their acts as charity. They were educating the illiterate; teaching the savage the ways…… [Read More]
First World War was the first-ever war that had brought great destruction and required greater involvement of many countries, most especially the European nations. Evidence of the impending world war started during the early 19th century, wherein colonization and strengthening of military power is the most prevalent activity of all European nations at that time. The World War I was said to have many causes, although the most important and more popular cause discussed by historians today is that the First World War started because of the rising imperialism among competing European nations. The war had two competing groups, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance was composed of Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy, while the Triple Entente was made up of Great ritain, France, and Russia. These groups were not originally formed as a triad; rather, each nation became affiliated with each other before and during…… [Read More]
The Industrial Revolution refers to the wave of technological, economic, and social changes taking place during the nineteenth century. Although fueled by new technology, the industrial revolution had a tremendous effect on society. The Industrial Revolution led to urbanization, social class stratification, and the capitalist market economy.
One feature of the Industrial Revolution was the newfound ability to mass-produce goods. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, any machine that was used to aid manufacturing, such as a loom or the cotton gin, could only be used by a single individual producing one thing at a time (“Industrial Revolution,” n.d. 1). Such machines were unable to produce goods in large quantity in a short period of time. With the advent of large-scale machinery powered by technologies like coal, it was possible to bring products to market faster and cheaper.
Factories also expanded their labor forces to allow them to produce…… [Read More]
Iran and Iraq
Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq
The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.
The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…… [Read More]
European and American imperialism from 1900-1918
Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).
Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. "I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)"
Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses…… [Read More]
1 Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th and 19th centuries and is responsible for the moving of nations away from farming to industry and manufacturing. The Industrial Revolution introduced trains, more advanced shipping, steel production, communications systems, cars, planes, and military equipment, and construction. The skyscraper came into existence, people moved to urban areas away from the countryside. Wars broke out as nations fought over natural resources like oil fields, minerals, and sea lanes to support the new industries.
The nations of the world were able to engage in Industrialization because of another rise—the rise of finance. Banks began to exert more and more influence over the activities of nations. They financed big productions and helped businessmen develop companies that would go on to dominate industries. Banks started working with governments too and together they started redrawing international territories, with wars financed by banks that led to…… [Read More]
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…… [Read More]
imperialism is necessary for cultures to progress. The United States is not often thought of as an imperialistic nation, because we like to think that we would not subjugate or take over other countries. However, that is just what we did when our forefathers came to this country and shoved aside the Native Americans. We subjugated and eradicated a culture and way of life, and that is the textbook definition of imperialism. Imperialism is wrong and shameful, but it seems that as much it may be hard to say, it is necessary for securing our way of life, and it is crucial in developing new trade and commerce.
First, it is necessary to define imperialism. Imperialism is the name for larger, more powerful nations to take over smaller, weaker nations, usually because of the promise of wealth or resources they can exploit. There is a long history of imperialism throughout…… [Read More]
globalization and imperialism and argues that globalization is actually nothing more than imperialism under a new guise. The writer uses several sources to illustrate the definition of imperialism and then holds it against globalization to prove they are one and the same under different names. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Globalization = U.S. Imperialism
As mankind continues with the process of globalization, many world leaders point to it as an indication of peace on earth. Proudly discussing the coming together of nations, cultures, ideas and technology, the leaders of the world relay to their constituents that globalization is a positive step toward worldwide cohesiveness. Those who live in the nations, taking part in the process, look at technological advances, the ability to widen their market bases and other things and wholeheartedly agree with what they are being told. While there are many aspects of globalization that…… [Read More]
" (Capital, p. 915)
Ecological damage is grounded in resource depletion and density of population. You can have 10,000 over a 1000 acre land and this might not hurt the ecological balance but when you have the same number of people on 10 acre land, the balance is seriously disturbed as water, minerals, and other resources of a very small area are constantly being used up. This is what happened during the colonization process. Only some nations were constantly being robbed of their natural resources while nothing was coming from European countries. It must always be a two-way flow of resources because when its one-way, it leads to multifarious environmental and ecological problems. It is for this reason that Accion Ecologica argues "it's time to shut off the tap" to stem the "unjust flow of energy, natural resources, food, cheap labour and financial resources from the South to the North."…… [Read More]
Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism
The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld
In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…… [Read More]
Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.
To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…… [Read More]
In Lenin's view, 19th century industrialized colonialism was different than previous colonial endeavors in that it was far more economically driven: nations had once used colonies as political and military buffers against their enemies. Now they needed colonies to ensure that the system that enabled the capitalist elites to prosper would survive. Without colonies, the capitalist system would topple. Lenin was prescient in seeing that colonialism made the world inherently unstable -- secret alliances and colonial conflicts were two of the major causes of World War I. Ironically, the Cold War would also be spawned by a kind of colonialist conflict -- not only did the Soviet Union strive to use Eastern Europe as a political buffer, it also economically exploited many of the Eastern European nations in its sphere of influence and forced members of the Warsaw Pact to adopt the Soviet economic system. (Lenin pointed out that colonies…… [Read More]
Paradox of Imperialism as Presented in Heart of Darkness
Beginning in the 1500's, European countries explored the world and claimed large parts of it as their own. This was the beginning of the Age of Exploration, as first the Portuguese and Spanish, then the British, Dutch, French, and other Europeans raced to discover and claim new areas of the world. By the 1800's the Age of Exploration had settled into a system of Imperialism which maintained huge Empires for the economic benefit of the home countries in Europe. While the stated goal of creating such Empires was to bring civilization to uncivilized parts of the world, the need for raw materials combined with a commercial greed created a system that cruelly exploited indigenous peoples and raped whole territories of natural resources. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, paralleled this ultimate paradox of Imperialism by describing how a good man named Kurtz,…… [Read More]
Impression of the Interwar Years
Although with hindsight, it is possible to see how actions could have been taken to keep World War I from occurring, at that time the situation was like a dry forest that just needed a small flame to start the devastating fire. All the countries who were involved with World War I were completely on edge and only needed a small spark to have them make disastrous decisions. Once things were set in motion, they could not stop. Because of this, millions of people lost their lives and the countries, ironically, lost their Empires.
Why was it called the Age of Anxiety?
The war did not only destroy the Empires. It also destroyed many people's hopes and dreams. No longer could individuals rely on their government as a means of strength and support. In addition, a questioning of life's meaning and a loss of religion…… [Read More]
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects
Not Spectacular in Other Respects
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects, Not Spectacular in Other Respects
The term "spectacular" is, in some respects, subjective. The collapse of European empires after 1945 was spectacular in some respects but not in others. The British Empire's decolonization after orld ar II can be logically called "spectacular" in its scope; however, it was not "spectacularly" surprising or shocking, for the Empire began decolonization decades before orld ar II. In contrast to the Empire's decolonization, France's decolonization can be logically called "spectacular" in both its scope and turmoil. According to research, these differing experiences of decolonization can be traced to several national and accidental factors.
Analysis of the British Empire's Decolonization
The Empire and Decolonization Prior to 1945
The most common type of imperial control was the "colony," directly ruled by a Governor representing the…… [Read More]
The faith allows for stoning of people, torture of women and the suicide bombings that the world has grown accustomed to suffering (Hoagland, 2001).
Islamic fundamentalist believe that their faith instructs them to seek out and destroy Americans. They also believe that if they are suicide bombers they will be rewarded in heaven ten fold. As America continues to fight against the human rights violations that Persian Gulf nations continue to support, the fundamentalists believe it is their calling and duty to act against American interests. They want American interests out of their area and they will do what it takes to get it done including acts of terrorism.
As the world watched in wonder the Soviet Union collapsed. It dismantled its government, it started over and it began to rebuild as a democracy after many years of being in a cold war with the United States.
For some the…… [Read More]
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…… [Read More]
British Imperialism Be Explained?
In the colonial period, Africa became the land of opportunity for Europeans who exploited the people and resources for profit. When Europeans went to Africa, home of black skinned people, they looked at the land as available to use as they wished. They never considered that this land belonged to its original inhabitants. Neither did they consider themselves thieves. They did not bother to think of black natives as human beings, but rather sought every way possible to use them to make money. Rather than openly admit their mercenary motives, whites assumed an attitude of superiority and declared that they were acting out of generosity to bring civilization and Christianity to primitive peoples. The thesis of this essay is that the colonial period in Africa was characterized by the arrogance of whites and atrocities committed against blacks. The focus will be on the British Empire and…… [Read More]
European exploration the world was undertaken in the 1500's in an attempt to reach the markets of Asia. And once they reached the East, the Europeans quickly found that their technological superiority gave them a strategic advantage over the Asian countries they encountered. As a result, the West began a period of Colonial Imperialism whereby European nations, followed later by the Americans, occupied and administered entire regions of Asia as colonies to be economically exploited. The Asian countries of India, China, and Japan reacted differently in response to the predations of the West, with differing results. India was completely conquered, China ended up conquered to a degree, and Japan started conquering. These three different results were in due, partially because of the stability of their nations, and partially due to the ability of each to adapt and modernize.
The origins of British rule in India began with the British East…… [Read More]
Shooting an Elephant - Orwell
I clearly got the impression that Orwell was caught between a rock and a hard place, to understate the situation. He raged at the Burma residents who hated the British and took it out on British police -- and on the other hand, he knew imperialism was a bad policy and he did not have positive thoughts at all about his duty in a British uniform. I was very attentive to his narrative, and I was impressed too that the narrator knew he was "ill-educated" (which is quite an admission) and was living day-to-day with rage and hatred.
My predictions for the rest of the essay include the thought that the protagonist will not be able to handle the situation well at all. First of all, I hate it that elephants are chained up and made to do humans' work, and I can't blame that…… [Read More]
As anyone that knows history understands full well, the history of Africa has been fairly tumultuous over the years. Just looking over the last half a millennium reveals a very turbulent stretch of time that is full of slavery, colonialism, escape from said colonialism, genocide, starvation, anarchy and so forth. However, there have also been some good to great things that have happened in Africa and many of them are recent. This report shall look at the totality of post-colonial Africa. Much like the rest of the world, Africa has had to make a lot of adjustments since the imperialism of the French, British and Spanish has fallen away. Africa is far from being the only corner of the world that can say this about itself but Africa has quite obviously been hit harder than most continents and regions and this is especially true over the last half…… [Read More]
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…… [Read More]
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…… [Read More]
Over the years, regional identity has played a major part in helping specific regions to embrace their culture and traditions. In many cases, these views are often expressed in different forms of literature and songs. However, as globalization has become more dominant, these beliefs have come into conflict with other regional influences. This is because many of these traditions are being replaced by new ideas that are attempting to impose their values and ideas upon everyone inside a specific area. To fully understand what is taking place, there will be a focus on the songs Allentown and here I Come From in conjunction with insights from Fetterley. This will be accomplished by determining if these songs are resisting the mainstream, examining if they cite local identity in order to advance cultural imperialism (according to Fetterley) and the differences between them. Together, these elements will provide insights that will…… [Read More]
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…… [Read More]
Sociology and Anthropology
After 1880, Africa underwent a major transformation with the European powers effectively dividing the continent among themselves. Over the next 100 years, nearly every major decision affecting the region would be made in a European capital. Then, each nation was able to gain their independence. To fully understand what took place requires: carefully examining the rationale for imperialism in Africa and studying the British vs. French colonizing missions. These factors will highlight the kinds of approaches that were used by the Europeans and the long-term impact of colonization. (Ciment, 2007, pp. 19 -- 24)
The ationale for Imperialism in Africa
The Europeans had different reasons for colonizing Africa. A few of the most notable include: to protect their own economic interests, maintain a balance of power and control key areas that are strategic importance. In the case of protecting their own economic interests, the Europeans believed that…… [Read More]
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]
However, when his assistance is needed by the townspeople, the two very different populations show similar responses to the bloody scene of shooting an elephant, "It was a bit of fun to them, as it would be to an English crowd; besides they wanted the meat," (Orwell, 649).
Orwell furthers this blend of modern and primitive as seen through the use of his language. The narrator describes the scene of the village as using the native terms, yet juxtaposes this with eloquent English adjectives, "It was a very poor quarter, a labyrinth of squalid bamboo huts, thatched with palmleaf, winding all over a steep hillside," (Orwell, 650). It is the description of a scene as witness from an outsider, (Rodden, 390). The narrator's response to the eastern village is combined with his own distain based on being familiar with more "civilized" representations of society. This is also apparent through the…… [Read More]
This article makes several key points. The first is that the imperialist attitude was hypocritical. This is explicitly stated: "That sense of moral responsibility, however, was often misplaced or, even worse, laced with hypocrisy." The second is that the historical white view of imperialism is that it was beneficial. The author uses Kipling's White Man's Burden as an example of the pro-imperialism stance. The third key point is that the black man has suffered greatly from imperialism, but valiantly lives on. The author uses the text The Black Man's Burden to illustrate his point.
The document is significant because it presents the case in favor of and against imperialism. Furthermore, while The White Man's Burden is a well-known piece, its counterpoint is less well-known, so the article lends some exposure to The Black Man's Burden. What I learned from this article was to appreciate the different perspectives on history that…… [Read More]
Duiker and peilvogel's book, World History ince 1865, Volume II examines the emergence of imperialism promoted by Europeans and the resulting affects of their determination to expand, far surpassing imperial Rome.
Great Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, pain, Portugal and even Russia intruded forcefully into Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the outh Pacific and finally sought out the North and outh Poles. Today, there is common agreement that European overseas expansion was a constant factor of the nineteenth century, with British commercial activities the most obvious.
But the key aspect of this mobile expansion and what dominated world history from 1500 to the present is the gradual integration of the world into a European-dominated global system. One of the more interesting aspects of this "globalization" is to understand that countries outside of Europe were not victims of this movement. Historical, social, economic and political dynamics contributed to European…… [Read More]
On the contrary, a realist would look at global terrorism as an international disaster that affects everyone irrespective of cultural background, gender, race or even religion.
Journal #6, Question 6
Fukuyama contends in "The West Has Won" that radical Islam does not constitute a serious alternative to Western liberal democracy. Do you agree or disagree?
Fukuyama shows his contentment with the approach that that depicts the West to have won and that radical Islam does not constitute a serious alternative to the Western liberal democracy. The group of suicide bombers targeting United States is tiny compared to the total number of people opposed to U.S. policies on international relations and fight against terrorist groups. Thus, the extensive hatred, disquiet and dislike seemingly represent something much deeper than mere opposition to U.S. policies that governs its association with other countries around the world. Fukuyama believes that one of the fundamental causes…… [Read More]
Wilson was one of the massive supporters of this League of Nations as he felt it would help in being responsible in preventing subsequent wars. One major aspect of the treaty of Paris in 1919 was that it contained the Treaty of Versailles, one which has a major goal of disciplining Germany and forcing a sense of punishment and finality of Germany. For instance, Germany lost many colonies and investments in lieu of this treaty and their ability to forge a military was crippled and limited to a fraction of its original size; the German air force was also similarly crippled. Germany was also further bankrupt in the reparations that it was ordered to pay -- the equivalent of $132 billion gold marks. These intense punishments were a major aspect of the treaty and were something that did cause a deadlock at certain points in the negotiating process (MacMillan, 195).…… [Read More]
constructing responses titles I listing. In response make show reference entry. (01) Discuss
One of the most powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era was the dissemination of information and the propagation of reading material due to Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1450 A.D. The movement that would prove to have the most impact upon society as a whole, however, was the imperialist movement that many credit to have originated with Columbus' journeys to the Americas, the first of which was in 1492. The imperialist movement would allow the appetite for power and conquering to expand beyond Europe and eventually encapsulate the entire globe. This movement is directly responsible for today's globalization, and the previous (and perhaps current) colonization and tyranny of many non-European nations. Another major movement during this time period was the beginning of the Protestant eformation, which began around 1517…… [Read More]
End Game of Globalization
"Nothing is more insidious than the liberal fain of equality between people who are demonstrably and desperately unequal…American liberalism, in other words, remade itself to fulfill the task that social democracy fulfilled elsewhere. It became a progressive force, absorbing yet dampening the leftward impulse of socialism…a liberalism quite at home with racism and class exploitation, yet one which responded when necessary to political pressure (as in the granting of female suffrage). Liberalism expanded into a bipolar role of co-opting any progressive urge among the multiracial working class while also viciously repressing that same force when it organized too much of a challenge to the power of capital or the liberal state."
There are many countries that perceive the United States of America as an example of imperialism. There are many cultures that adamantly resist western culture, western practices, and western ideals. They are enraged…… [Read More]
political, economical and social factors affect Human Rights and the perception of these rights as they reflect in different countries and ethnic groups. While the UN may have created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, but up until today, many countries (including prominent western countries) continue to infringe on a person's inalienable rights as a human being.
Of these human rights, those stated in Article 27 appear to be mostly infringed upon when cultures come together in a single community, or a country's population begins to consist of more and more cultures. This multi-culturalism should in actuality promote peace and understanding, and in many cases it does, nevertheless there are still cultural relativism issues within many communities in specifically Western countries.
Cultural Relativism is defined as the position where all points-of-view, and opinions are considered equally valid. What a person considers as truth is relative to that person's…… [Read More]
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The…… [Read More]
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…… [Read More]
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…… [Read More]
Horses have been an important and influential part of North American and European history. In his book, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, Alfred W. Crosby argues that horses helped to bring about European's successful colonization of a number of temperate regions such as North America, Australia, New Zealand, and some parts of South America. He argues that the profound success of horses in these regions resulted from the filling of an empty biological niche, and that the arrival of horses on the plains in North America resulted in profound changes in the lives of North American Indians. In his article, The ise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures, Pekka Hamalainen argues that the common view that horses brought success to Native Americans is fundamentally oversimplified. He suggests that the common focus on only the successful incorporation of horses by the Lakota people has distorted modern understanding of…… [Read More]
Terror, Imperialism, And Totalitarianism
Imperialism is defined in the abstract, quite often, as the ideology of 'carrying the white man's burden,' in other words, of carrying the white cultural burden of civilization to the native or darker peoples of the world. But in practice, imperialism often has a less lofty goal and terror rather than teaching is the method used to enforce imperialism's 'laws' and values of social and political control. In the past, such as in French-controlled Algiers, depicted in the 1965 film directed by Pontecorvo "The Battle of Algiers," imperialism is often enforced through a series of dominating policies or military actions by a stronger European nation. One country seeks to exert its control over another country or territory, often to gain an economic or political advantage in a particular region.
In the film, the Algerian people fight long and hard to wrest control over their own territory…… [Read More]
The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.
The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.
This is far longer than the mere…… [Read More]
Industrialization in Europe increased the development of machines, production of goods and new energy resources of other societies. However, it had many positive and negative effects to the society. The building of new empires enabled Europe to gain access to their armies, exports, finances and strategic locations. The paper will analyze how Industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies and what made the European Armies so effective against native resistance.
There are various reasons why industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies. The first reason was the availability of larger consumer markets. Industrialization in Europe allowed other countries in spreading their influence to weaker countries. Because of the spread, the industrialized countries managed to create markets for the manufactured products along with producing some specific products to be sold in these markets. The second reason was the availability of raw materials that was used…… [Read More]
East Asia, 1800-1912
Even with the fact that it would be absurd to claim that Charles Darwin is responsible for the spread of Imperialism, it would only be safe to say that he played an important role in making particular influential bodies in feeling justified as they were conquering other peoples and imposing their power in these areas. orld powers such as the British Empire and Spain were inspired to look at the world as an environment consisting out of communities who were superior and communities who were inferior. As a consequence, it seemed that only those who were superior were worthy to survive while others needed to make place for evolution.
The fact that the British Empire was one of the greatest powers in the world during the nineteenth century and that Darwin issued a series of theories during the period enabled the English to look at life from…… [Read More]
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…… [Read More]
5. The United Nations International Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is essential for the protection of human rights. However, despite the fact that Australia is considered to be one of the most democratic countries in the world, it fails to take full account of the need to offer maximum protection of human rights especially concerning the aboriginal population. This is why the UN has hard criticized the government for its actions.
Critics have been focused on the administrative aspects of the human rights protection system in Australia in particular on the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission which the Australian government has committed itself to reform (United Nations, 2006). Also, the United Nations raised questions concerning the possibility of the Aboriginal people to benefit from the power of representativeness. However, the government is determined to take these matters under consideration and reconsider the situation through the establishment of…… [Read More]