healthy individual is infected with a bacteria or virus, the body identifies the virus as an invader, and therefore produces the antibodies, which is the human body's immune system, to destroy the virus to assist the person to recover and become healthy. Meanwhile, vaccination is the process of stimulating the active immune system to fight disease in the body, and vaccine will boost the body active immunity to fight disease that may come into the body in the future. Through immunization, a child body system will enhance immunity in such a way that when he is in contact with a disease, his immune system will identify the disease as an invader and will produce the antibodies to fight the disease. In essence, active immunity is life-long lasting.
Many countries, especially developing countries, give children vaccination against Polio, Cholera, Yellow fever, Measles, Typhoid fever and other type of diseases. (Heymann, Aylward, 2008). Based on the effectiveness of vaccination to fight disease that may attempt to have contact with the body, parents should immunize their children to assist them developing anti-body systems and active immunity to fight different type of diseases.
The report discusses the case of the electrolyte imbalance of a patient. The patient is 41-year-old and is being diagnosed for vomiting/diarrhea, excessive diaphoresis, fever and malnutrition. Moreover, the patient also complains of extreme muscle weakness and frequent urination. The objective data of the patient is that his blood pressure is 140/95, heart rate and is irregular. The blood glucose is more than 500 mg/dl.
The clinical manifestation of the patient reveals that he has muscle cramps, and experiencing the disorientation. Essentially, the Hypokalemia is the patient's electronic imbalance and its symptoms include skeletal weakness, hyperglycemia, polyuria, nausea and irregular heart rhythm.
The electrolyte imbalance is resolved by treating the underlying cause. The doctor carries out the fluid replacement as well as monitoring the Na levels of the patient. Following the case of the patient, the prevention of electrolyte imbalance is to stay hydrated by drinking at least 8 glass of water a day. It is also essential to get vitamin D by eating food containing vitamin D and stay outdoor in the sunlight.
Maintaining the body hydration at all times is very good for all people; however, dehydration is life threatening because it increases toxicity leading to fatigue, nausea, and headaches. Caffeine is believed causing diuretic that leads to the increase in the excretion of urine. Thus, there is a general believe that the caffeinated drink causes the body to lose more fluid than the fluid that the caffeinated drink itself provides, thus, leading to dehydration.
I do not agree that drinking caffeine can lead to dehydration if taken moderately. While the medical professionals and public believe that caffeine could lead to the dehydration, however, research findings do not support this assertion. (Millard-Stafford, Cureton, Wingo, 2007, Armstrong, Casa, Maresh, et al. 2007).
Indeed, moderate consumption of coffee enhances mental function and alertness. Although, high intake of coffee could deliver a diuretics effect on some people, however, moderate intake of coffee does not lead to diuretics that causes dehydration.
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a progressive respiratory disease that is characterized by the symptoms of bronchitis and emphysema. The disease affects several millions of people and is among the top cause of deaths globally. Causes of the COPD include tobacco smoking, and inhaling of certain fuel when burning in the air. Primarily, the COPD can lead to osteoporosis and muscle weakness. Other symptoms of COPD include coughing and lung cancer. Typically, the COPD is associated with the chronic inflammation that induces bronchi narrowing as well as progressive reduction of patient airflow and dynamic hyperinflation.
Similar to the COPD, pneumococcal pneumonia is also a respiratory disease that can lead to death among people. Meanwhile, the pneumococcal pneumonia can lead to ventilatory failure that causes mechanical changes in the lung. However, pneumococcal pneumonia is difference from COPD; the bacteria called Streptococcus pneumonia cause the pneumococcal pneumonia. The disease is common among children under age 2 and adult above 65 years of age. People suffering from the COPD face a greater risk of contacting the pneumococcal pneumonia.
The public health education is an effective method to make patients understand the causes and impact of the disease to make patients complying with the treatment. The patients should be educated about the impact of smoking and living near air-polluted area. Essentially, maintaining healthy lifestyle is an effective method to manage COPD to achieve high quality of life. For example, patients having the natural history of smoking should be advised to stop smoking. Patients should be also advised to always stay away from areas having air pollution.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the kind of inherited disease passed from parents to children. The CF is a disease that affects the secretory of the sweat and mucus, and individual having the CF has inherited the faulty genes from each parent. In essence, mucus is a substance capable of lining the body cavities and organs such as nose and lungs. Mucus is a watery slippery substance performing the functions of lining and moistening certain organs preventing the organs from keeping dry. However, when individual is being affected with the CF, the mucus will not be able to perform moistening function thereby keeping the mucus sticky and thick. The buildup of the mucus in the organ will make the bacteria to grow leading to serious lung infections.
The articles further reveals the complications from the CF that include diabetes as well as infertility in men, and early treatment can improve the symptoms of CF. The findings of the article assists in developing the strategy to prevent CF. Since the CF has been identified to be hereditary disease, the public health professionals should use the findings of the article to educate people. People should be advised to carry out the medical checkup before engaging in marriage to avoid two people with faulty genes marrying one another.
The pathophysiology of the Atherosclerosis reveals the chronic inflammatory process that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and the results lead to the injury onto the endothelial cell. Complicated symptoms include plaque rupture, as well as hemorrhage into the emboli, plaque, and thrombosis. Essentially, a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of the Atherosclerosis is critical to prevent the disease and for the development of effective and new treatment.
However, the pathophysiology of hypertension shows that hypertension elevates the blood pressure leading to the long-term organ damage, which consequently leads to mortality and morbidity. Typically, there could be an elevation of vascular tone because of an increase in ?-adrenoceptor or increase in the release of peptides such as endothelins or angiotensin.
Meanwhile, the hypertension can contribute to atherosclerosis because it increases the risk factors of developing atherosclerosis. Moreover, the hypertension leads to high blood pressure and the atherosclerosis occur when an individual has high blood pressure. The effect of high blood pressure is the increase in the vascular smooth muscle resulting into the atherosclerosis.
Effective medication to alter the pathophysiology of hypertension and atherosclerosis is for an individual to measure the blood pressure. Moreover, all people should engage in physical exercise to improve their blood pressure.
Alternative therapies may offer health benefits for people suffering from cardiovascular disease. Grant, Bin, Kiat, et al. (2012) conduct a case study on 16 people using the alternative therapy to facilitate the management of the cardiovascular conditions. The authors identify the top individual herbs used to manage cardiovascular conditions that include:
Ginkgo, and Ginseng.
Moreover, prayer, fasting and meditation are the common alternative therapies to manage cardiovascular diseases among some people. Main reason for using the alternative therapy is to improve the emotional and psychological well-being. Moreover, large number of people using the alternative therapy believes that it ameliorates their cardiovascular. However, there is a need for future research on the safer method to use alternative therapies for the management of cardiovascular conditions.
Genitourinary disorders are the illness affecting the genital organs and making the urinary organs not functioning properly. The disorder may be due to illness, ageing or injury. Interstitial cystitis and PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) affects lower genitourinary tract. Added to the urinary problems, the PID can affect the patient's reproductive organ such as the uterus, fallopian tube and cervix. The Interstitial cystitis is a long-term inflammatory condition causing bladder pain and frequent urination. Moreover, PID may lead to infertility if untreated, thus, it is critical for patients suffering from genitourinary disorder to contact the qualified health professional immediately.
Low quality of life is another problem of genitourinary disorder. Sensitive tests such as X-ray, image study, MRI scan and CT scan can be performed to detect the disorder. Pathophysiology of lower genitourinary tract is due to the bladder outlet obstruction leading to the prostatic engagement. Undoubtedly, the disease causes obstruction and enlargement to prostatic in men.
The pharmacologic agent(s) for the genitourinary disorder is antimuscarinic…