The purpose of this work is to examine and explore the impact that China has had upon Hong Kong since 1997.
Hong Kong has a population of 7,116,302 of which 96% are Chinese. Due to the political shifts on the Mainland a rapid change in population has taken place. Although many nationalities visit and live in Hong Kong the Chinese culture is the one that dominates in Hong Kong. Religions in Hong Kong can be identified as those of Chinese religions, of which 66% of the population adheres to, Non-religious other, 15% of the population, Christian religions 14% of Hong Kong's population, New religions, 4% and Muslim, 1% of the population.
Those of the 66 percentile in adherence to the Chinese folk religion hold beliefs that are a combination of Buddhism, Animism, Confucianism, Taoism, and other beliefs. The main language is Cantonese with English as the second language and third being that of Mandarin. There are three regions in Hong Kong, that of the Island, the mainland Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories or Lantau Island. A mere 28% of the land is rural with much of the land being either hilly or nearby the sea. The climate is one of subtropical moistness with warm equator winds. The average temperature annually is 72%. The economy is struggling after having been in recession. Despondency due to overcrowding, low and frozen wages as well as other negative factors. However, the people of Hong Kong are said to be a resilient people.
History of Hong Kong:
Prior to the entry of the British into Hong Kong, it was a small community haven for outlaws of the sea and drug trades and a fishing village as well. Containing a harbor that is natural the land was first made use of as a naval base by Britain during the "Opium Wars" fought against China. At the signing of the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing the Island of Hong Kong was "ceded to the British in perpetuity."
Having lost its status during the occupation of the Japanese during the Second World War, Hong Kong regained it status and once again became a major Southeast Asian center of trade. During the year of 1997, Hong Kong, in an agreement with China, reverted to the sovereignty of the Chinese but will retain legal, social and economical independence until the year 2047.
What are they doing to the Women?
According to Sophia Woodman and Stephanie Ho:
Tens of thousands of women are bought and sold in China each year. The most popular areas for abducting women are the poor areas of Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou. (Human Rights in China organization report, Sophia Woodman, Stephanie Ho, "Trafficking of Women in China," Voice of America, 27 September 1995) decision made by Margaret Thatcher and Deng Xiao Ping, in 1984 states that:
Jurisdiction over the British territory of Hong Kong would be returned to China, an unusual development in the modern post-colonial era, where, typically, former colonies have been released to form a newly independent country.
Sadly, the Hong Kong people were not consulted and had they been asked they would have preferred to avoid what they consider a very unpleasant state of existence. Most particularly in view of the treatment of its' own citizens by the Chinese.
In an Online report the following was stated that as the date of Hong Kong's integration into China draws ever near:
People inside and outside of Hong Kong have engaged in a flurry of speculation. Recent years have witnessed the out-migration of doctors, bankers and other professionals in a large-scale brain drain."
According to this report the biggest thing the people were afraid of was that under the control of the Communist Chinese leadership that the outlook for economic growth in Hong Kong was grim. (Mongdejar, 1997).
Mark Edelen reports in the Virginian Pilot that:
Up to 6,000 journalists are expected in Hong Kong for the handover ceremony the eve of June 30, according to a background report on Reuters Asia's special Web site. It's a story of immense history, spectacle, debate, affecting millions of people in a distant land - and that's why it's perfect for the Web."
Edelen further reports that:
The Chicago Tribune's Hong Kong 1997 is one of the best special reports online, loaded with multimedia features."
According to Jonathan R. Smith in the Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law; The reintegration of Hong Kong into the People's Republic of China (hereinafter P.R.C.) on July 1, 1997, brought together two countries, one capitalist and one communist, under one rule:
As evidenced by the variety of perspectives offered at the Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law's Symposium on Hong Kong's Reintegration into the P.R.C., there is much scholarly debate concerning this merger and the effect it will have on the people and politics of both countries as well as on the international community."(Smith, 1997)
Current Events Weekly Reader Publication states that 'according to tradition of the calendar of China, 1997 is the Year of the Ox as China, the Dragon opens it mouth to swallow Hong Kong while the red communist flag of the People's Republic of China is being raised.'
Hong Kong was ruled by Great Britain from 1842 until recently when their 99-year lease signed in 1898 expired. Although Hong Kong is not large, 6.3 million people inhabit it and is the fourth largest area of trade worldwide following Europe, the U.S.A. And Japan. In a AP Wire news report in July, 1997, it was stated that:
Hong Kong's response to protests at a global economic conference this week led critics to conclude the former British colony is becoming more like mainland China in many of the wrong ways. Ever since Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997, it has been governed under an arrangement dubbed "one country, two systems" that is intended to preserve Hong Kong's capitalist ways and Western-style freedoms."
According to a recent news report:
CEPA has been the buzzword within the Hong Kong film industry. While industry insiders continue to debate the nuances of CEPA, the concessions -- which went into effect Jan. 1 -- have finally tipped the scales in favor of Hong Kong's troubled film industry. "There is no quota, but essentially, distribution is still monopolized by China Film," says Woody Tsung, chief executive at the Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories Motion Picture Industry Assn. "It is something we still have to work out with the authorities. Until there is competition, Hong Kong producers will still not be able to get as high a price as they can for their products."
Arrangement in terms and objectives are inclusive of:
The ratio of Hong Kong workers in co-productions increases from 50%-70%.
Co-productions no longer need to be filmed completely in China. Hong Kong productions are exempt from the 20-film import quota set on foreign productions.
Hong Kong investor stakes in cinemas in China increase from 50% to as high as 90%.
Hong Kong investor stakes in audiovisual companies in China increase from 50%-70%.
Bank of China, BOC, one of a total of four banks in China that are state-owned began human resources reform set to cancel the lifetime employment for 220,000 staff.. Those individuals will be seeking new jobs. Reforms are focused on "position, salary, and employment regulations." The report states further that after the reform salaries will be dependent upon job performance however not so as to their position.
Besides, BOC and its employees can choose each other freely. BOC can also recruit needed talents publicly. BOC decided to first carry out the reform at the branches in Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces, and then extend to other branches across the country by early next year. "For the moment, the recruitment for vice presidents, risk managers, operating officers for Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited is processing smoothly. By far, there have been 195 applicants for these three positions"
Bank of China will first reform branches of Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces, and then further extending reform throughout the country by early next year. At the present time recruitment for other positions including those of vice presidents, risk managers, operating officers is processing as planned by the Bank of China. BOC has, after the ownership is restructured made arrangement for transfer to a joint-stock commercial bank. The government will act as the "holding shareholder" with the statistics showing that BOC's performance "remains satisfactory." The "Stamp Expo" was held in Hong Kong, early this year for the international stamp exhibitions in Hong Kong, also known as the 17th Asian International Exhibition,
Collections from both China and Hong Kong were on display with valuable collections from the China National Postage Stamp Museum of History, The China National Philatelic Corporation and other leading philatelists, according to the post department. "
Apparently the integration into China on the part of Hong Kong has been lucrative for the citizens. Deng's market reforms shine beneath the October 29, 2004 reports stating that: