individual as to his or her preferences, and, therefore, the sorts of life choices promotive of an enjoyable lifetime. For this reason and others, it is integral that instructors nurture the brain's development, watering it with rich language and activities supportive of the enlightened disposition. As William Shakespeare enunciated, "all the world's a stage."? With that tidbit of knowledge internalized, the classroom becomes a hands on place in which not only students, but also teachers, take charge of their daily lives.
One contradiction inherent in the models of current academic research lies in the proclivity of scholars to assume an antiquated skinnerian individual. Far from merely "reacting to 'the stage" on which they find themselves," students, by way of their personalized life experiences, have for some reason chosen to illuminate certain sets of insights picked up along the way and based their lives around them. Due to the colorful array of ways in which an individual's individuality can express itself, the challenge of standardized classroom learning becomes exacerbated. Nevertheless, myriad are the solutions, and innumerable the benefits in overcoming this obstacle.
A matter of theoretical and historical significance in both history and psychology, a delineation between the individual and the group -- oft referred to as the 'collective' in political writing -- help to set up the parameters of the situation or environment; in other words, as if by ven diagram, individual behavior can be imagined as conjoined with the behavior of others. And so therefore, by osmosis both the situation and the group can affect, in many possible ways, the behavior of the individual.
Experimental investigations into the realm of behavior management are operated within the single-subject or group paradigm. Whereas group design evaluates data in terms of multiple individuals, single-subject use the individual as his/her own control. For sake of giving credit to the differences between individuals, it is important to posit behavior as along a sliding scale of sorts, on which many behaviors amidst many situations interact and give rise to diverse "occurences of behavor." One way of controlling the data referring to "occurences of behavior" is the cumalative graph, whereby current and previous experimental investigations are combined to become a larger picture. To be sure, the contextual fit of a data set considers limitations such as time, resources and individuality.
From such data gathering efforts, techniques of behavior development can be fostered. These techniques promote desirable behaviors -- or at least those behaviors viewed as courteous within any given culture -- with aims generally boiled down to aspirations of governance, goals, missions to realize set goals, and other parameters. The structure constructured to achieve the beforementioned -- known as level 1 -- is known as level 2. It represents a system or structured group of "elements" and "facets." These elements and facets are the material out of which a workable educational innovation system can be formed.
The heretofore published literature illustrating research and discovery along these lines serves as a template from which to orient current and future research. In a world of fast flux, the flexibility of theory and design is instrumental in the success of behavioral management projects.
While much research emphasizes other individual behavior, I submit that there exist benefits in the employment of other controls, such as controls found among univeral values, such as compassion and altruism. When these guide are set, a single-subject design study need no longer be single-subject, since values recognized over time and space have been brought into the picture. By setting these guides, an individual can be led to conclusions that support the desired values of the designer. By utilizing proactive and reactive strategies, modes of behavior can be nudged.
Through the methods of Applied Behavioral Analysis, a scientist might be enabled to predict and control the behavior of an individual experiencing anger issues. When analyzing the behavior of such an individual, it is crucial that the subjects behavior is not isolated, for, out of context, the pathology is meaningless, like a ritual taken out of its own culture. Needed also is a thorough analysis of how behavior change might change the subject; how the behavior and subsequent change will affect those around the subject; and, finally, how the two interact, both before and after. Moreover, since in many of such programs the subject is aware of the clinical nature of the scientist's endeavors, it is important to ensure that the behavior itself is changed. The subject cannot merely begin speaking of his or her undesired behavior differently, since this does not constitute any change in the behavior. To understand what to change about certain behaviors, the multiple baseline approach is a helpful tool whereby change of behavior due to the introduction of stimuli or situation can be measured. Once an intervention is introduced to a subject ecxhibiting normal behavior, the changes in behavior can be seen, their origins understood. Proactive change entails actions made towards alterations to the environment, be it a work place or classroom. Although such change is usually seen as being connected to desperate measures, this need not be so, for present society changes quickly. It then follows, that proactive measures are fundamental to achieving the right sort of change.
An example of reactive change would be to analyse the contemporary landscape of entertainment of young people, and, before certain trends arise, implement elements of management to soften the would-be-effects of the introduction of such entertainment to the cognitive landscape. Such change made out of anticipation represents proactive change. On the other hand, reactive change occurs when changes are made after some cause presents itself. So, once a change in mainstream entertainment has taken place, if it is only then certain behavior policies are enacted to check the blowback of this change, this is considered reactive change. At the macro-level, a creeping evolution is the change over time experienced among individual lifetimes and intergenerationally. But, the mechanism of change most effective is the change speared by a proactive policy.
With so much violence and hate in media, it is no surprise that so many youths are quick to anger. This, of course, also pertains to adults, who have themselves been known to "go postal." We all deal with angry kids and adults. It is therefore important we understand how best to approach -- or not approach -- a such person. Proactive solutions are limited in such a context, for it's important to become familiar with an individual's ticks before attempting to solve any problems. What makes this person quick to anger? How best to approach this point-of-contention without giving in?
The methods to employ here are numerous, from the military's tactic of unswerving discipline to the sympathetic ears of a therapist. When dealing with such a person in the classroom -- most likely not in the work place, since this problem is alleviated by a layoff of some sort -- a teacher has, in binary terms, two options: take center stage or work around the individual. In a specific single-subject design study, this individual was dealt with in a rather passive manner. This individual was quick to anger when asked to do something even remotely inconvenient. Across a diverse set of chores, this individual avoided eye contact and yelled to get out of, say, taking out the trash. When some task went unfinished, furthermore, this person blamed others.
By emphathizing with the individual -- an eighteen-year-old -- and showing towards him compassion and altruism, he did not need to feel as if he was being compared to his classmates. When feeling as if this were happening, the subject grew resentful and rebelled from task completion. To deal with this problem, the teacher in this context merely gave the student his time and space. At first, the subject was not asked to…