Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning How essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and Riley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.

b.

What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?

Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable without being valid, but cannot be valid without being reliable" (2001, p. 102). With respect to internal validity, this term refers to the degree of validity of the assertions being made by a researcher concerning the effects of the independent variable(s) on the dependent variable(s) (Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991). According to Pedhazur and Schmelkin, "In the broadest sense, this can be stated in the form of the question: Is what has taken place (i.e., the phenomenon observed) due to the variables the researcher claims to be operating (e.g., manipulated variables), or can it be attributed to other variables?" (1991, p. 224). By taking steps to ensure the internal validity of a study's design, researchers can rule out alternative explanations for the results they obtain. In this regard, Pedhazur and Schmelkin add that, "In essence, the validity of the answer to this question depends on the plausibility of alternative answers, that is, alternative explanations. It follows that internal validity is the sine qua non-of meaningful research" (1991, p. 224).

Internal validity can be enhanced by ensuring there are relevant controls in place, but researcher bias remains a confounding factor in the interpretation of the results that emerge from any study (Berg, 2007). For example, according to Pedhazur and Schmelkin, "Other things equal, the more powerful the controls one exercises, the more internally valid the study. The tendency to overlook evidence that goes counter to one's expectations and hypotheses, or to misinterpret, even rationalize, such evidence, is quite common" (1991, p. 225). A number of threats to internal validity exist, including those described in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Threats to Internal Validity

Threat

Description

History

This threat includes events that took place in the course of a study that might have affected its outcome. Whether a given event poses a threat to the internal validity of a study depends on the specifics of the study.

Maturation

This type of threat refers to changes that people being studied undergo with the passage of time, including growing older, gaining experience, becoming tired, hungry, and the like. The concern is that responses (e.g., learning, motivation, aggression, concentration) attributed to treatments may be, in part or wholly, due to such maturational processes. It is also possible for maturation to interact with treatments.

Testing

When people are measured several times on the same variable, their performance may be affected by, among other things, practice, memory of earlier responses, sensitization and/or conjectures regarding the purpose of the research and the expectations of the researcher. For example, given a pretest, followed by some treatments, and then a posttest, observed changes in, say, learning, attitudes, empathy, and altruism, may be a consequence of the pretest and/or the interaction between the pretest and the treatments

Instrumentation

Internal validity is compromised when differences in outcomes of different treatments may be attributed, to a greater or lesser extent, to aspects of the instruments used. This may occur when, for example, measures believed to be equivalent are not equivalent (e.g., they tap somewhat different competencies, orientations, or they differ in difficulty, in appeal). Another example would be cosmetic changes in instruments, which in actuality constitute changes in what they are measuring. A related example is one in which no changes are made in the instruments, but the researchers become more proficient in using them in the course of the study

Source: Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991, p. 225

External validity. According to Neuman, external validity refers to "the ability to generalize from experimental research to settings or people that differ from the specific conditions of the study" (2003, p. 535). Likewise, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that, "External validity is an aspect of research validity that depends in part on the quality of the sample. External validity asks the question of generalizability: To what populations, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables can this effect be generalized?" (p. 158). Although some researchers may associate the external validity of a study with its internal validity, Gliner and Morgan (2000) maintain these are two completely independent constructs that must be evaluated separately. According to these authorities, "Questions dealing with the external validity of a study are based on the principle that a good study should be rated high on external validity, or, if not, the author should at least be cautious about generalizing the findings to other measures, populations, and settings" (Gliner & Morgan, 2000, p. 159).

c.

Discuss why research is critical to the leadership profession, both in profit and non-profit realms.

The results of well-conducted research can be of enormous value to the leadership profession in virtually any setting in countless ways. For example, Zanna (2003) reports that, "Leadership is quite clearly a social psychological phenomenon that is inextricably grounded in social relations, group life, and the psychology of group membership. Not surprisingly, the study of leadership has long been a central concern of social scientists" (p. 1). Likewise, according to Neuman, "Educators, administrators, government officials, business leaders, human service providers and health care professionals regularly use social research findings and principles in their jobs. Social research can be used to raise children, reduce crime, improve public health, sell products or just understand one's life" (2003, p. 1). Ongoing research serves to contribute to the body of knowledge that is used by leaders to achieve organizational goals and motivate followers. Moreover, the results of research in effective leadership can help provide a set of best industry practices that can be used to improve the performance of organizations at all levels (Rosenbach & Taylor, 1998).

d.

Identify and critically discuss one published research article that you studied during your graduate studies. Talk about its strengths and weaknesses from a research design perspective.

Area III: (Core Study Area)

A.

A major responsibility of leaders is to manage change within their organizations. Thoroughly describe the change process.

On the one hand, change is inevitable in an organizational setting, but on the other hand, people tend to dislike change because it disrupts their comfort zone and requires them to learn new ways of doing things that require extra time and effort on their part. For instance, Axelrod (2001) emphasizes that in many cases, organizational leaders fail to achieve the full advantages of a change initiative and attribute their failure to an inability to harness sufficient resources or support for the effort, but the real reason is the approach they used to effect the change. In this regard, Axelrod notes that, "What they often fail to recognize is that the very change management process they employed is the root cause of the problem" (para. 1). In other cases, people may be so reluctant to change their routine that they will actively engage in efforts to thwart the implementation of change and sabotage any change efforts by management (Zaccarro & Klimoski, 2001). It is therefore the responsibility of organizational leaders to communicate the need for any change, ensure that all stakeholders recognize the inevitability of the process and that everyone involved is focused on achieving the same outcome (Chemers, 1997). In sum, communication of the envisioned change to all of the affected stakeholders preparatory to the change initiative, continuing open dialogue during the change process as well as following implementation are all key ingredients for success. In this regard, Day, Halpin and Zaccaro (2004) point out that ensuring this level of communication throughout the change process is a fundamental responsibility of the organizational leadership team.

B.

Select one organization, either where you work, or one you want to write about, and discuss a significant possible change for this organization. Include the topics of organizational development, organizational culture, followership, and mission as part of this discussion.

As the nation's largest healthcare provider, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is responsible for the provision of tertiary and outpatient medical services for millions of veterans, and in some cases, their families as well (VA, 2011). Since its founding, the VA has been tasked with assuming an advocacy role on behalf of veterans, but this role has shifted in recent years to one that is more characteristic of…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Interdisciplinary Approaches To Learning How" (2011, July 02) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/interdisciplinary-approaches-to-learning-43045

"Interdisciplinary Approaches To Learning How" 02 July 2011. Web.8 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/interdisciplinary-approaches-to-learning-43045>

"Interdisciplinary Approaches To Learning How", 02 July 2011, Accessed.8 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/interdisciplinary-approaches-to-learning-43045

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Interdisciplinary Studies Academic Disciplines Communication and...

    Interdisciplinary Studies -- Academic Disciplines -- Communications and Women's Studies Even a cursory review of major U.S. universities reveals a "Communications" Discipline and a "Women's Studies" Discipline of one sort or another in most if not all of these major universities. Researching ASU's Communications and Women's Studies programs gives a strong overview of common characteristics. While ASU may use some different terminology, it offers the same essential subject matter and subfields. Communications Description

  • Learning Theory and Its Implications for the

    Learning Theory and Its Implications for the Theory and Practice of Instructional Design Paradigm Shift in Instructional Learning Theory PARADIGM SHIFT IN INSTRUCTIONAL LEARNING Because of the global changes transforming every aspect of life there is a need to transform traditional instruction into learner-centered instruction. This requires a re-thinking of the roles played by the teacher and the students in the learning process which involves a major change in one's basic assumption

  • Learning Organizations

    Learning Organizations All organizations including the lifelines of the structure of the country including general industries, banks, ministries, government organizations, etc. play a role in changes of the society from time to time. These are the organizations to decide the direction of movement of the labor market, changes in different organizational models, choose the direction in which the society will move, take advantages of the new forms of connectivity now achievable

  • Learning the Development and Delivery of Curriculum

    Learning The development and delivery of curriculum can take many approaches. One of the most effective approaches used in the creation of lesson plans is integrated, unit-themed curriculum, in which a central theme chosen by the teacher is utilized to tie together various areas of study. It has been shown that these types of lessons foster learning in students by breaking down barriers between disciplines through problem solving involving different

  • Promoting ESL in Work Based Learning

    Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WBL). WBL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WBL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five

  • Interdisciplinary Education in Earth Sciences and Sustainability

    Interdisciplinary Education in Earth Sciences and Sustainability Increasingly, educational scholars are observing the distinctive cognitive value in classroom projects that cross disciplinary boundaries and drive students to employ multiple learning strategies in completing academic tasks. This denotes the ambition to render curricular procedure and academic content according to the broader needs that must be fulfilled as one moves forward on one's academic journey. Accordingly, the approach taken to academics in this

  • Interdisciplinary Studies the Significance of

    More traditional studies are like a niche market; competing against one another in an effort to attract students. An interdisciplinary study provides a global perspective and doesn't relegate the student to just one area of expertise or specialization. There are a number of ways interdisciplinary studies can benefit the business world. For example, the integration of knowledge and the utilization of higher order thinking skills can help to navigate some


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved