International Human Resources From the Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:



Uncertainty Avoidance, according to Hofstede's model, refers to how comfortable the people of a certain culture are with structure as opposed to flexibility. Notable disparities in negotiating styles between those nations scoring high and low on the uncertainty avoidance index have been known to cause significant conflict. This conflict is mostly likely to occur when people who prefer structured activities because they entail less risk encounter people from a culture with a more spontaneous style. Those with a structured mindset are likely to regard a lack of structure as a form of disrespect -- as if the culture does not care about risk because the deal or the negotiation is not as important to them. According to Goodwin "Uncertainty avoidance concerns planning and stability as a way of dealing with life's uncertainties: those high on uncertainty avoidance have a strong desire for consensus, and deviant behavior is unacceptable. Because high uncertainty avoidance cultures provide rules for dealing with other group members, individuals in high uncertainty avoidance cultures do not judge inter-group interactions to be as difficult as those in low uncertainty avoidance cultures" (p. 27).

Uncertainty avoidance in the United States is relatively low, ranking a 46; but Japan on the other hand ranks extremely high on the Uncertainty Avoidance Index, scoring a 92. As a result, Americans doing business in Japan need to be aware that Japanese businesspeople are not as willing to take risks as are 'free-thinking' Americans. They are likely to follow strict rules and procedures of protocol, which expatriates need to become extremely familiar with if they are going to successfully conduct business in Japan (Evans, Pucik & Barsouxs, 2002). All of these roles and protocols will, therefore, be included in the training program.

Long-term vs. short-term orientation is the final dimension of Hofstede's model. According to ClearlyCultural.com (the website that provides the different index rankings discussed in this paper) this dimension was added only after Hostede determined that the other four dimensions were unable to completely explain the differences between Eastern and Western cultures. Therefore, Hofstede developed the following list of difference between the long-term and the short-term orientation of cultures that will be discussed individually in the training sessions:

Long-term orientation

-persistence

-ordering relationships by status and observing this order

-thrift

-having a sense of shame

Short-term orientation

-personal steadiness and stability

-protecting your 'face'

-respect or tradition

-reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts

According to the Long-Term Orientation Index, Japan ranks relatively high, with a score of 80. The apparently short-sighted United States only scores a 29. Clearly Japanese businesspeople are much more likely to think in the long-term than businesspeople from America, which is not surprising considering that American's live in a culture that focuses on immediate gratification. This is a difference that could potentially cause significant conflict between American and Japanese businesspeople, and thus it is one that needs to be given serious consideration when proposing business deals.

Discussion of Hofstede's Model

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions model is undoubtedly helpful in the identification of cultural differences. However there are certain drawbacks to the model that need to be considered as well. According to ClearlyCultural.com "Even though this model has proven to be quite often correct when applied to the general population, one must be aware that not all individuals or even regions with subcultures fit into the mould. It is to be used as a guide to understanding the difference in culture between countries, not as law set in stone"

As Buckley (1994) points out, American businesspeople are prone to think in terms of a "national culture"; that is, they associate a nation and its inhabitants with a single cultural stereotype. However, in reality, almost every country is comprised of a variety of different cultures and cultural norms. These subcultures may not operate in the same way that the dominant culture operates, so it is dangerous to simply lump every person in Japan into one of Hofstede's categories. Making assumptions is one of the biggest mistakes a businessperson can make when dealing with a different culture.

Training, Preparation and Repatriation

The training programs will consist of expatriate training and repatriation training for employees and their spouses. The expatriate training will focus on the following:

1) Creating a higher level of knowledge regarding the cultural differences between Japan and the United States, including all of the difference discussed above in the Hofstede analysis

2) Providing practical information regarding daily living, including housing, monetary exchange rates, transportation and shopping

3) Developing an action plan specifically designed to help the expatriate adjust to the new environment in both his or her professional and personal life.

Once the initial expatriate training is completed, the preparation stage begins. Preparation before and during the assignment relies on extensive training and research. While it is important to do research on the country in general, it is just as important to research the particularly company or industry with which negotiations will occur. Also, when examining the differences between American culture and Japanese culture, it is essential to distinguish norms from values and attitudes. The reason this distinction is important is that norms are easier to change than values and attitudes because values and attitudes tend to be more deeply ingrained (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005).

Repatriation is also a critical part of the international business process. According to Stroh, Black and Gregersen (2005) "Contrary to what most managers in the home country think, repatriates have to adjust to significant changes when they return home. These changes may include new political systems, transportation systems, social groups, eating habits, and so on -- in short, many of the same components of the culture that were unfamiliar when the employee first moved abroad. Of equally great importance, the employee is not the same after an international assignment of 3 to 5 years (p. 191). PCN must therefore take into account each of these factors when assigning and calling back its expatriates in Japan.

Conclusion

There are always risks involved when doing business in a foreign country, but there are a multitude of opportunities available as well. Therefore the potential risks should not prevent PCN from pursuing a business venture in Japan. This does not mean, however, that it is acceptable to just 'dive in' without doing one's research. Costly mistakes can be made from failing to properly explore a nation's cultural differences, and these days, costly mistakes can be fatal mistakes. Therefore it is critical for American companies desiring to do business in Japan, or in any foreign nation, to gather the facts, and use them to their advantage.

References

Buckley, P.J. (1994) International business vs. international management? International strategic management from the view of point of Internalisation Theory. International Journal of the Economics of Business 1, 95-104.

Evans, P., Pucik, V., & Barsouxs, J.L. (2002). The global challenge: Frameworks for international human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill

Freedland, B. (2003, August) Market research in Japan: it's one of the world's biggest consumer markets, but when it comes to market research, Japan is way behind. Japan, Inc. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NTN/is_46/ai_108722588/

Goodwin, R. (1999), Personal relationships across cultures. London: Routledge,

Hofstede, G, (1980) Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

"Hofstede Index." ClearlyCultural.com. Retrieved from http://www.clearlycultural.com/geert-hofstede-cultural-dimensions/power-distance-index/

Peltokorpi, V. (2008). Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates in Japan. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(9), 1588-1606.

Stahl, G.K. And Caligiuri, P. (2005). The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: The moderating role of cultural distance, position level, and time on the international assignment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 603-615.

Stroh, L.K., Gregersen, H.B., & Black, J.S. (2005) International…[continue]

Some Sources Used in Document:

"Power-Distance-Index-|-Clearly-Cultural" 

Cite This Term Paper:

"International Human Resources From The" (2010, June 06) Retrieved December 11, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/international-human-resources-from-the-196659

"International Human Resources From The" 06 June 2010. Web.11 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/international-human-resources-from-the-196659>

"International Human Resources From The", 06 June 2010, Accessed.11 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/international-human-resources-from-the-196659

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • International Human Resources

    International Human Resources Culture, Political, Economic and Social Contexts of Nigeria Under the Subject of International Human Resource Management. This paper is solely related to the International human resources practices, the uses of international human resources aspects as well as implementation within Nigeria. The paper has been explored several positive and negative aspects of Nigeria related to IHRM and whether it is feasible for global companies to operate and use the labor

  • Human Resources International Human Resource Management International...

    Human Resources International Human Resource Management International Business HR: Vital and Pivotal During the 20th century, the human resources (HR) function has become quite skilled at managing human capital which is frequently defined as the skills, knowledge and experience of individual workers within a company. Human resources management has never been more vital to organizations than it is today as more and more businesses are going global. For globalizing companies, experienced, informed and

  • International Human Resource Management Over

    E. Nutra Sweet). At the same time, they also had a number of failures, like when they company replaced the original formula for their soft drink with a new one. This led to a massive revolt among consumers, who did not want this product. Instead, they demanded something that could bring both of these elements together. At which point, Coke would begin utilizing the original formula, with the understanding that

  • International Human Resource Management Mark

    These statistics could have served as a wake up call for Mark that he needed to think a lot more about what the repatriation would imply for his own career. Form Realistic Career Expectations Mark's expectations for his career were naive and he could have formed my realistic hopes by doing research into the issue as well as looking at the situation at his company. Research suggests that one of the most

  • International Human Resources Management Second

    At the same time, one does not know whether they offer the workers any benefit or perk as is provided by Korean employers. This matter has to be sorted out by the Korean partner as the workers are more likely to trust him than Australians. He may also find it possible to offer the workers the same perks that are offered to his employees in other concerns. The hours of

  • International Human Resource Similarity and Differences

    International Human Resources. This project sheds light on an Indian company that has decided to adopt the international human resource management plan. In doing so will allow the Indian company to explore many new opportunities that once wasn't available. The economy is in a struggle and hopes for a better tomorrow are fading away. As a result, Larsen and Toubro decided to expand internationally. Soren Kristian and Henning Larsen founded

  • International Human Resource Management Articles in This

    International Human Resource management Articles In this paper, we will critically evaluate two separate journal articles related to international human resource management (IHRM) and draw out their contribution to IHRM in an integrated literature review. The topics of these two articles are Development and Globalization. First, we will overview both of the articles separately in this introductory phase and then in the literature review we will support our outline of


Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved