International Organizations Since the End Term Paper
- Length: 7 pages
- Sources: 1
- Subject: Government
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #36775324
Excerpt from Term Paper :
Nonetheless these actions and missions had to have the agreement of the national states. Therefore, the strategy implied a complex relation between the transnational and the national levels. At the same time however, the health problems that could have arisen in the area demanded cooperation between the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization. Therefore it is obvious that such situations as a national disaster or a war related result determined the consideration of an approach that established particular relations not with the entire national government, but rather to the precise segment that deals with the respective issue.
Although Slaughter's article was written prior to the 9/11 events, the acts which followed the terrorist attacks tend to underline the viability of the theory she discussed in 1997. More precisely, after the terrorist phenomenon was labeled as a worldwide threat that cannot be addressed without the cooperation of all the states in the world, the relations that were established in terms of transnational cooperation point out the fact that there is an increased need to follow particular and precise actions to undermine the power of the terrorist networks. More importantly however, they revealed the fact that the cooperation between the states must be conducted at the level of the specialized agencies such as the Secret Services, the border police, the ministries of Internal Affairs in order to have applicable results.
On a particular note, she points out the importance of the cooperation in the issue of the regulatory practices that have come to be essential for the international scene. Thus, "national regulators track their quarry through cooperation. While frequently ad hoc, such cooperation is increasingly cemented by bilateral and multilateral agreements. The most formal of these are mutual legal assistance treaties, whereby two states lay out a protocol governing cooperation between their law enforcement agencies and courts" (Slaughter, 1997, 190). Therefore, the transnational threats such as terrorism, cross border crimes, and even the breach of international environment law can be dealt with at the level of national agencies which assist one another through a specific and directed effort of cooperation. In this sense, although there are areas which from various reasons related to the distinct specificities of every country cannot constitute parts of a wider agreement, issues related to international crime or pollution can be regulated at a global level. In this sense, for instance, despite the fact that the U.S. And the Russian Federation cannot come to terms on the issue of the independence of Kosovo, in terms of the energetic field, talks and partnership discussions can be concluded. Therefore, it is obvious that in a new transgovernamentalist world order, it is important to tackle the issues gradually and based on different sectors of activity, rather than to consider the state as an indivisible administrative structure.
Thirdly, an issue that is presented by Slaughter in support of the trasgovernamental order is the relation between the U.S. And the EU. From the perspective of the historical circumstances she had at disposal in 1997, the argument according to which the U.S. And the EU could successful work together on different areas of activity such as drug trafficking and organized crime was being supported by bilateral initiatives such as the New Transatlantic Agenda. However, the 2003 war in Iraq came to undermine her argument. In this sense, although they underlined the strategic partnership in global affairs, the U.S. And the EU were unable to come to terms on a common strategy concerning the intervention in Iraq. From this perspective it may seem that the level of cooperation is limited in terms of the issues which affect directly the national interest of the states. At the same time, though, this lack of agreement can also be interpreted as being precisely the point made by Slaughter. Thus, cooperation at the level of the institutions can be achieved in a transgovernamental new world order; however, the state as a national entity with all its attributes, included the sovereign right of drafting its foreign policy, cannot be excluded from the structure of the new world order.
Overall, it can be stated that Anne Slaughter's point-of-view related to the issue of the new world order argues that the state, although represents a national entity, can cooperate through its own institutions in a transnational manner. At the same time, the events that took place after the elaboration of the theory point out precisely the capability of the nations to cooperate and still maintain their national identity.
Russbach, O. 1994. ONU contre ONU. Le droit international confisque. Edition La Decouverte. Paris.