Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
Iso-Electric Point and Iron Content in Iron Hydroxide Impregnated Aluminosilicate-Based Geopolymers
Rahil Abou Saleh
Dr. Kiril Hristovski
Iron hydroxide impregnated aluminosilicate-based geopolymers (Fe-ASG) is a novel water treatment media currently under development for simultaneous removal of arsenic and inorganic contaminants. The goal of this study was to determine whether varied iron contents impregnated aluminosilicate impacts the surface charge in different pH conditions. The study tests for media types of virgin and iron impregnated ASG diluted in potassium nitrate (KNO3) for charge dispersion. pH of the sample was gradually adjusted using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and nitric acid (HNO3). Results demonstrated no significant relationship between iron content impregnated ASG and iso electric point, which suggests that surface area properties impacts the relationship.
I am especially appreciative of the guidance, encouragement, and patience exuded by Dr. Hristovski throughout the duration of this research project. Also I would like to give special thanks to Robert Sandoval for his tremendous support and for offering solutions to unexpected complications that I experienced with Microsoft excel formulas, providing training on the Zeta PALS instrument, for sharing his knowledge, and for ensuring an uninterrupted supply of the acid and alkaline solutions. Finally, I would also like to thank Denish Medpelli for providing me with the sample media and potassium nitrate.
Table of Contents
List of Tables & #8230;
List of Figures & #8230;6
I. Introduction & #8230;8
II. Literature Review & #8230;. 12
III. Methodology 16
IV. Results and Discussion & #8230;.20
V. Conclusion 24
Works Cited 25
Appendix A 28
Appendix B 29
Appendix C 36
Table 3.1: Summary Characterization of Test Media 17
Table 4.1: Data Collected of Test Media Iso-electric pH 22
Table 4.2: Surface Area Comparison of Test Media iso-electric point pH 23
List of Figures
Figure 4.1: 95% Confidence Interval Curve 21
Among inorganic impurities, some of the greatest threats to health are associated with the presence of high levels of toxic or heavy metals in drinking water. The sources of contamination and resulting health effects include a wide spectrum of various chemical makeups that form these compounds. Some of these inorganic compounds are present due to the presence of natural formations in the earth's crust. However, they can also originate from industrial and agricultural waste products which subsequently enter major water systems.
Geopolymers and their engineering applications have attracted significant attention of the scientific community. This is due to properties such as good thermal stability and high resistance to aggressive environments. Researchers are currently undergoing exploration in hopes of identifying economically feasible ways to remove these heavy metal contaminants. This study was conducted with the purpose of testing an absorbent new media technology that stands the potential to assist in the removal of these contaminants. The methodology and experimental design were constructed in hopes of providing insights into this new field of research.
Inorganic particles dispersed in a solution are electrically charged due to their ionic characteristic. When particles are dispersed they are surrounded by oppositely charged ions. This is considered the particles surface or firs layers. Then a second layer is formed which contains varying compositions of ion. Zeta potential is the term used to determine the electrical potential of the first and second layers of the particle. A zero electrical potential allows particles to aggregate and become unstable, thus there is no force to prevent particles coming together. Units used to measure zeta potential are in form of velocity (meter/second). A general rule of thumb is the higher the value of zeta potential, whether positive or negative; the more stable the system will be more dispersed. Geopolymerization is a developing field of research for utilizing solid waste and by-products. It provides a mature and cost-effective solution to many problems where hazardous residue has to be treated and stored under acute environmental conditions.
Aluminum silicate-based geopolymer (ASG) media is an economically feasible technology suited for water treatment systems, and is the most commonly used adsorbent for the removal of inorganic contaminants (Khale & Chaudhary, 2007). Studies have already examined the inorganic materials removal capabilities of modified ASG (Duxson, et al., 2007). However, the instability of the ASG modified media under various pH ranges may result in leaching of targeted contaminant. By contrast the oxide metals such as iron have proven to be more stable in a wider pH range and could potentially serve as a viable and economically attractive alternative.
Iron hydroxide impregnated ASG is an emerging technology currently under investigation for the potential use in water treatment facilities. Initial results have suggested that there are favorable inorganic compound removal capabilities inherent in this new media. The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the iso-electric point and iron content in iron hydroxide impregnated ASG. The examination of the iron content as well as the aluminum silicate ratio will help to determine the behavior of the tested media's reaction in regards to certain contaminants in different pH water conditions.
It was hypothesized that the iron content in each sample will affect the surface charge of modified media. In addition, alternating the pH from acidic to basic and using zeta potential for each pH reading determined the iso-electric point of each modified media. In order to test the hypothesis, zeta potential tests with two types of aluminum silicates in their virgin and eight iron hydroxide impregnated states were conducted. An analysis was then conducted to see if any correlation was present in the zeta potential tests.
This study was conducted under the following assumptions:
The samples were prepared and collected with accurate amounts of iron composition with aluminum silicate for each sample.
The collection equipment was clean and free of residues.
The zeta potential instrument was appropriately calibrated and running without faulty data.
The temperature during experiments did not affect the samples.
The modified media was diluted using 10mM HNO3 to suit the instrument analyses.
The following limitations apply to this study. First, the samples were prepared and collected by another party. There were also limitations due to the level of accuracy and the sensitivity of the equipment and instruments used. Furthermore the samples had to be diluted to achieve a suitable amount of particles which were also free of any air bubbles to conduct the analysis.
II. Literature Review
Silicones are synthetic polymers that have unique physical properties that include relatively high melting and boiling point that are generally not found in other polymers. As a result of their enhanced thermal stability, silicones are inherently more resistant to the effects of heat, cold, sunlight, adverse weather, and common chemical assault. They have been integrated into thousands of household and medical products, including lubricants, breast implants, adhesives, dishware, and water repellents, and can be found within every major industrial segment of the marketplace (DeLuca, Kaszuba, & Mattison, 2006). During the last two decades geopolymerisation has emerged as a possible technological solution for the effective stabilization and immobilization of toxic materials (Jaarsveld, Deventer, & Lorenzen, 1997). However, the instability of the Aluminum silicate-based geopolymer (ASG) modified media under various pH ranges may result in leaching of targeted contaminant. By contrast the oxide metals such as iron have proven to be more stable in a wider pH range and could potentially serve as a viable and economically attractive alternative.
Some members of the Ain Shams University, the National authority for military productions, and the Atomic energy authority in Cairo constructed investigations of the various "parameters" that influence the adsorption of iron and aluminum copolymer impregnated with silica (Enein, Eissa, Diafullah, Rizk, & Mohammed, 2009). The parameters investigated included such items such as pH, mass, and agitation. These factors help to identify what affects the adsorption and removal of heavy metals; such as arsenic in this case. The study concluded that poly inorganic coagulants based on silica or iron are most effective in removing pollutants from wastewater. Iron and aluminum copolymer impregnated with silica was found to have maximum adsorption capacity for arsenic of "146 mg/g" media.
Jang, Shin, Park, and Choi (2003) approached together to apply the "wetness impregnation" technique to synthesize and incorporate iron and aluminum oxides into silica media. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare adsorption capacities and kinetics of "metal -- ? impregnated SBA -- ?15" media to remove arsenic levels from water content. The behaviors of the impregnated media were found to have "greater" Arsenate adsorption capacities at "pH 7.2." The study results also suggest that the coagulation and fluctuation mechanism of the process, such as oxidation state, adsorption isotherms, kinetics and structure properties that facilitated the impregnation technique and composition of compounds, can create a next step method to remove arsenic from water.
Geopolymer involves the silicates and aluminates of by products to undergo process of geopolymerization. It is environmentally friendly and need moderate energy to produce (Nicholson, Fletcher, Miller, Stiling & Morries, 2005). Literature demonstrates that certain mix compositions and reaction conditions such as Al2O3/SiO2, curing temperature with time and pH…[continue]
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76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The
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