Leadership Management Literature Abounds With Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Indeed, without these legitimacy criteria, a leader would not be able to influence followers to either change or progress towards organizational goals: "The acceptance of leadership from another person involves an implicit contract in which followers sacrifice some level of personal autonomy and pledge loyalty and effort to the leader.... The followers must be sure that the leader has the competency to lead effectively and the trustworthiness and loyalty to the group and its goals to lead in the direction promised." (Chemers, 1997, p. 153) Since the focus of management is to build power, the nature of the image that ensues will perforce differ from that of leadership.

It is evident, by the discussion so far, that relationship building, image management, and inspiring confidence are essential parts of the leadership phenomenon. However, it must be noted that ultimately performance and productivity are the goals of effective leadership. Therefore, it is critical for leaders to be able to take hard decisions at times with regards to the strategic harnessing of group resources, especially in situations of extreme environmental pressures. Indeed, it is this aspect of leadership that forms the basis of contingency leadership theory, which emphasizes on the degree of follower participation that is allowed in a leader's strategies for processing information, making decisions, and executing plans (Chemers, 1997, p. 160-161). The difference here, however, between leaders and managers restricting follower participation is one of motivation. Leadership may be compelled to restrict follower participation owing to exigencies of a given situation whereas, management is often motivated to do so as a form of power play.

Thus, there are several important distinctions between leadership and management, stemming from a difference in perspective. These distinctions can be summed up as a leader innovates, a manager administers; a leader develops, a manager maintains; a leader relies on people; a manager relies on systems; a leader counts on trust, a manager counts on control (Harris, cited Bennis, 1993, p. 374). In the final analysis, however, perhaps it is important to note that because a leader controls the resources, the communication opportunities, and the goal-setting mechanisms, their behaviors have a critical impact on organizational behavior and performance. In effect, this means that a vital, and perhaps most important, aspect of leadership role responsibility lies in the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture.

If leadership is to succeed in building a healthy organizational culture, it needs to pay careful attention to the development and implementation of a company's vision, philosophy and goals because these key factors serve as the foundation for organizational behavior. An organization's philosophy and values, for instance, determines behavior such as adherence to ethical standards and the upholding of performance excellence. Similarly, goals in the area of employee development and empowerment influence the efficacy of communication, group dynamics, and employee motivation. In effect, an organization's vision, philosophy and goals will determine not just strategic direction but also, as Martin Bower pointed out, the way things are done (Harris, 1993, p. 64). Indeed, the important role that corporate vision and philosophy plays is evident in the Southwest success story. Southwest's vision and philosophy is reflected in every aspect of the airline's business, be it recruitment, group dynamics, or customer service. As a result, Southwest is truly able to deliver on its promise of the lowest fares and a fun flying experience.

Operational policies and procedures are another important element in building a healthy organizational culture since these can create and sustain a system of beliefs for knowing and managing organizational experience (Harris, 1993, p. 64). Very rigid operational policies and procedures can, for instance, stifle employee initiative. Therefore, these should be developed bearing in mind the principles of employee empowerment. Marriott Hotels, for example, empowers its employees to spend $10 at their discretion to satisfy guests. In one such case, a guest complained about not finding a particular book in the hotel gift shop and the cashier, at the end of her shift, walked to a local bookstore and purchased the book with the $10 she was allowed. Naturally, the guest became a confirmed Marriott customer for life. Such an incident demonstrates empowerment and also shows how leadership becomes a matter of doing the right thing at the right time (Harris, 1993, p. 373-374).


Chemers, M.M. (1997). An…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Leadership Management Literature Abounds With" (2004, November 10) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/leadership-management-literature-abounds-58591

"Leadership Management Literature Abounds With" 10 November 2004. Web.10 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/leadership-management-literature-abounds-58591>

"Leadership Management Literature Abounds With", 10 November 2004, Accessed.10 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/leadership-management-literature-abounds-58591

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Management and Decision Sciences From

    76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The

  • Leadership in International Schools

    Leadership Skills Impact International Education CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION Practical Circumstances of International schools THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION What is Effective Leadership for Today's Schools? Challenges of Intercultural Communication Challenges of Differing Cultural Values Importance of the Team Leadership Style LEADERSHIP THEORIES Current Leadership Research Transformational Leadership Skills-Authority Contingency Theories APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING Wagner's "Buy-in" vs. Ownership Understanding the Urgent Need for Change Research confirms what teachers, students, parents and superintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit

  • Management Theory Organizational Behavior Management

    325). Robertson & Tang (1998) demonstrate through systematic analysis how commitment in an organization can be empirically measured and how organizations can use that information to improve organizational structures, systems, behaviors and thought processes. This can only be achieved through consistent, objective and systematic processes that automatically work to support a more diverse and functioning work environment. Q4. Explain what is meant by the term "workforce diversity?" Workforce diversity means different things

  • Innovation and Theories of Management Managerial Planning

    Innovation and Theories of Management. Managerial Planning and Leading in Organizational Innovation The account presented here is intended to examine the role of innovation in modern business practices. Particularly, this will be examined from the perspective of management and with a focus on the two primary management functions of Planning and Leading. The literature review hereafter considers these functions of management in direct relation to the complex questions pertaining to innovation. Primary

  • Ethics and Management and Ethics

    Therefore, corporations have had to change their viewpoints and start looking at the long-term consequences of their behavior, as well as looking at the bottom line. Businesses also have to be concerned because consumers have also become aware of environmental concerns, and many consumers are demanding earth-friendly products and have shown a willingness to pay more money to competitors who observe environmentally-friendly practices. Interestingly enough, this demand has given rise

  • Health System Management and the Use of New Grad Program for Reducing...

    Reducing Turnover in New Graduate Residence Program Introduction- The process of recruiting and training, particularly in high-impact fields like healthcare, has become increasingly complex and expensive. Turnover is the rate at which an organization gains or loses employees. High turnover means that more employees are leaving more rapidly, which can be harmful to productivity and finances. Real costs of hiring including recruitment time, opportunity costs, and investment in both the new

  • Strategy Theory and Actual Strategies Being Used

    Strategy Theory and Actual Strategies Being Used in Small Insurance Companies Ask any layman on the street what they think about insurance companies and the answer will invariably be negative. Consumers, by and large, view insurance companies with disdain. It is a business that sits among other necessary, yet not always understood businesses, therefore when the economy began to slump very few people had sympathy for the struggles the small

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved