Minority Women and Employment Although Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

According to a 2001 study, 86% of protagonists were white males, non-white males were portrayed in stereotypical ways: "seven out of ten Asian characters as fighters, and eight out of ten African-Americans as sports competitors" (Ethnic pp). Roughly nine out of ten African-American females were victims of violence, twice the rate of white females (Ethnic pp). Moreover, 79% of African-American males were shown as verbally and physically aggressive, compared to 57% of white males (Ethnic pp).

According to a 1998 study, children associate white characters with various attributes, such as having lots of money, being well educated, being a leaders, doing well in school, and being intelligent, while they associate minority characters with breaking the law, having a difficult time financially, being lazy, and acting goofy (Ethnic pp). Some researchers argue that if a group is over-represented, they see many opportunities and choices, while if they are under-represented, the reverse is true (Ethnic pp). Therefore, the media can grant legitimacy by including people and showing them respect, thus fair and equal representation is an essential part of a healthy and tolerant multicultural society (Ethnic pp). A 2002 study concluded that "minorities are even more underrepresented in key behind-the-scenes creative and decision-making positions than they are on the television screen, leading many analysts to wonder if the dearth of minority executives, producers, directors and screenwriters is fuelling the tendency to ignore or misrepresent ethnic groups (Ethnic pp). Moreover, 83% of black writers surveyed wrote for shows starring primarily black people, even though white writers often write for black shows (Ethnic pp).

Of more than 1,300 prime time television advertisements conducted to assess the frequency and nature of Asian-American representation, researchers found that Asian male and female models are "over-represented" in terms of proportion of the population, 3.6%, appearing in 8.4% of the commercials (Stern pp). Yet, Asian models are more likely than members of other minority groups to appear in background roles, and Asian women are rarely depicted in major roles (Stern pp). The findings also indicate that portrayals of Asian-Americans put so much emphasis on the work ethic that other aspects of life seldom appear (Stern pp). For example, Asian models are over-represented in business settings and relationships and under-represented in home settings and family or social relationships (Stern pp). The findings suggest opportunities for advertisers who depict Asian-Americans in non-stereotypical ways (Stern pp). However, Asian-Americans are considered a "model minority" whose premium demographic profile includes "affluence, high education, and managerial/professional occupations...and rapid growth in number make them an attractive market" (Stern pp).

Among young household heads, black women are employed at lower rates than white women, following a pattern found among young men (Browne pp).

Research finds that young female household heads that reside in the central city experience a drop in employment with increases in the "suburbanization" of low-skill jobs (Browne pp). Moreover, young black women are losing employment from the relative expansion of retail trade industries, while young white women are not (Browne pp). The literature suggests that the underlying mechanisms that account for this involve group differences in skills and/or discrimination by employers, coworkers, or customers (Browne pp).

Yet another study reveals that while African-American men are stereotyped as resentful, angry and even violent, African-American women are viewed as more stable, cooperative, and hard working (Gilbert pp). In fact, African-American women have a higher labor force participation than European-American or Latina women (Gilbert pp). From 1979 to 1989, the proportion of African-American women in the labor force increased from 53% to 60%, higher than that for European-American women (Gilbert pp). They were seen as more serious about work because potential employers assign less sex role stereotypes than they would to European-American women, thus "African-American women are not seen as being in the business world to find a husband, nor viewed as requiring 'delicate' treatment because of their femininity" (Gilbert pp). African-American women have been portrayed as strong, independent, striving, and assertive, more ambitious and motivated, and more highly educated than African-American men (Gilbert pp). Moreover, African-American women have made greater occupational strides compared to European-American women (Gilbert pp).

African-American women are generally portrayed in the media as strong, no-nonsense type females, such as the mother on The Cosby Show, thus accounting for the above statistics. Moreover, Asia Americans are portrayed as the "model minority, and thus also appear to have few problems concerning job employment. While Hispanic females are not only under-represented in the media, but also within the general workforce. Sally Steenland, deputy director of the National Commission on Working Women, says, "Even TV's concept of minority women is a narrow one. Most television minorities are black: Latinos, Asians and Native Americans are virtually invisible" (Steenland pp). What Steenland and many others feel is needed is a more active role of minority women behind the camera as producers, writers, directors, and network executives to influence the image of minority characters in front of the camera (Steenland pp).

Works Cited

Analysis: Minorities, media a potent mix." United Press International. July 14

2003. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Brain, Mary. "The Portrayal of Women in U.S. Prime Time Television."

Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. January 01, 1999. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Browne, Irene. "Opportunities lost? race, industrial restructuring, and employment among young women heading households."

Social Forces. March 01, 2000. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site

Crawford, Ronald B. "Gender, ethnic diversity, and career advancement in the workplace: the social identity perspective." SAM Advanced Management Journal. June 22, 2004. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Ethnic and Visible Minorities in Entertainment Media. Retrieved August 02, 2005 from http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/ethnics_and_minorities/minorities_entertainment.cfm

Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M; Lownes-Jackson,

Millicent. "An empirical examination of inter-ethnic stereotypes: Comparing Asian-American and African-American employees." Public Personnel Management. July 01, 2003. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Rada, James A. "A New Piece to the Puzzle: Examining Effects of Television

Portrayals of African-Americans." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. September 22, 2000. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Steenland, Sally.…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Minority Women And Employment Although" (2005, August 03) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/minority-women-and-employment-although-68610

"Minority Women And Employment Although" 03 August 2005. Web.10 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/minority-women-and-employment-although-68610>

"Minority Women And Employment Although", 03 August 2005, Accessed.10 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/minority-women-and-employment-although-68610

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Women and Gender Bias the

    Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help? If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might

  • Women Representation in Law Enforcement

    In this regard, Lott points out, "Between 70% and 80% of police departments explicitly use norming of physical standards in their hiring practices. However, most of the departments that use objective standards do not enforce these rules. Women who fail to meet the absolute standards during academy training are unlikely to be failed out of the program" (p. 276). This lack of consistency in how these standards are applied

  • Women and Patriarchy

    Women and Patriarchy Across the world, the secondary position of women in society remains a virtual constant. This preferential treatment for men is embedded in social and political structures in various countries and societies. This paper examines how patriarchal structures remain in three important social structures - marriage, household and family life, and in the economy. The first part of the paper compares the marriage practices among the Yanomamo Indians in northern Brazil,

  • Women Work and Childcare Issues

    Women are just as capable (and more capable in some areas) as men are, and they should be treated equally in the workplace. In addition, men should take on some of the household duties, and women should have more than simply part-time opportunities open to them. The Canadian economy is facing many threats from overseas, and to devalue women and the contribution they could make is shortchanging Canadian women,

  • Women s Isolation Despite Representing Half of the

    Women's Isolation Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments

  • Women in Management and the

    On the other hand, women view danger associated wit achievement at the workplace, as being left alone or isolated by other employees (Wirth, 2001). VI. Turning point in history From my point-of-view, I see that much has happened on the changing role of men and women at home. Both women and men can be found doing the dishes, laundry, cleaning (these were regarded as female work by tradition), and it is

  • Women s Roles the Changing Role of Women

    Women's Roles THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN Course Number & Section Despite sharing a closer percentage of population with men in the world, women are often labeled to be the minority and the marginalized group. This is mainly because of their traditional role of being inferior and submissive especially in the usual patriarchy environment. Although the role of women has changed and improved over the years, they are still considered to be a

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved