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Human behavior is a complex process and the attribution theories try to explain it by discussing the psychological processes going on. It discusses the causes as well as effects of the particular behavior under consideration (Attribution Theory, n.d.). The Attribution theory also tries to explain if a person behaves in a certain way due to internal or external locus of control. The types of attribution theories are common sense, correspondent inference, co-variation model of attribution and three-dimensional model of attribution.
Three-dimensional model of attribution
The Gavin's behavior is explained by three dimensional model of attribution that takes into account stable theory, locus of control and controllability. Gavin seems to have unstable behavior, external locus of control and personally uncontrollable. He has own perceptions about self and things. He forgets things and leads an undisciplined life. He has less control and emotionally not very stable. Gavin has a behavior…
Attribution Theory, (n.d.), Retrieved from:
Marsden, A., Veeraraghavan, M. And Ye, M., (2008), "Heuristics of Representativeness,
Anchoring and Adjustment, and Leniency: Impact on Earnings' Forecasts by Australian Analysts," Quarterly Journal of Finance and Accounting, 47(2), 83-102
Industrial organizational theory:
The usefulness of attribution theory in a modern organization like Google
Attribution theory attempts to explain how human beings attach meaning to their own behavior and the behavior of others. A presumption of the theory is that perception is not always reality. For example, an employee might perceive his or her boss to be aggressive or an employee might perceive all subordinates to be lazy. Attribution theory attempts to answer why this might be the case: what perceptual issues are factoring into these statements. Another definition of the theory is that it is "how and why ordinary people explain events as they do" (McLeod 2010). One of the earliest exponents of attribution theory was Heider (1958) who noted that people tend to explain the behavior of others based upon perceived consistent internal characteristics, i.e. saying that the other person is 'that…
Attribution theory. (2013). Instructional Design. Retrieved from:
Attribution theory. (2014). University of Twente. Retrieved from:
The findings are expected to reveal interesting facts about the core motivations and external factors leading to juvenile delinquency.
Parents and teachers will also be asked how they view their children, as well as suggestions on how the delinquency problem can be remedied.
All the answers from all the interviews and questionnaires will be consolidated to form a statistical body of research. This will be analyzed in order to determine perceptions and motivations for juvenile delinquency, to understand it better, and to combat it more effectively.
The premise of the study is that research focusing upon criminal activity -- especially as it concerns the youth, often fails to take into account that various factors influence social problems such as delinquency. Asking the teenagers themselves about their perceptions of crime and criminal activity, as well as the punishment involved, can provide a valuable deeper layer of understanding regarding the issue of…
Johnson-Pynn, Julie, Fragaszy, Dorothy M., & Cummins-Sebree, Sarah. (2003). Common
Territories in Comparative and Developmental Psychology: Quest for Shared Means and Meaning in Behavioral Investigations. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 16(1), . Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5r20j8bk
Siegel, Larry J. & Welsh, Brandon C. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Cengage Learning.
Wiener, Hannah L. (2009). Attribution Theory and the American Tort System. Duke University School of Law. http://www.abanet.org/tips/lawstudent/WeinerWritingCompetitionSubmission3.pdf
Furthermore, the significance of this theory also extends to issues relating to health. This refers to the fact that the individual differences in attribution style and perception can lead to positive and negative implications for the individual. For example, "…differences in attributional style may lead to depression…and health problems with those who had a more pessimistic explanatory style. Baseball players with a pessimistic style died earlier than optimistic players ( ATTIBUTION THEOY. Shippensburg University ).
In conclusion, the theory of attribution is important in that it provides a theoretical structure that helps to interpret the individual's actions, behaviors and emotions in terms of the concept of attribution. This concept is also linked to an understanding of low and high self-esteem and motivational factors in education and other areas. The significance of this theory also lies in the fact that attribution enables the individual to have a certain perceived degree…
Attribution Theory (B. Weiner) Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/weiner.html
Attribution Theory: Changing minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/attribution_theory.htm
ATTRIBUTION THEORY. Shippensburg University. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/ambart/PSY_220/attributionol.htm
Introduction to Organizational Behavior. Retrieved from http://www.icmrindia.org/courseware/Organizational%20Behavior/OB-DS9.htm
Attribution Theory Covered in the eadings
Human beings are naturally an inquisitive set of species; they are always wondering how and why things occur. For this reason, they create sciences, philosophies and religions as approaches of answering their questions. For decades, this curiosity has influenced their personal, interpersonal, cultural and societal lives in intricate ways. Much of this is observed in our daily lives through our conversations and mindset interactions with other people. For example, human beings tend to question why some people look the way they do. Eventually, they develop answers according to different situations like why some people do not have jobs while others wonder why other people went overseas (Bains, 1983). The process of developing questions and answers to a series of questions are fundamental such that it figures out the underlying causes of things that happen. esearchers have characterized this tendency as a justified basic human…
Anderson, C.A. & Deuser, W.E. (1993). The primacy of control in causal thinking and attributional style: an attributional functionalism perspective. In G. Weary, F. Gleicher & K.J. Marsh, Control motivation and social cognition. (pp. 94-121). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Antaki, C. (1982). A brief introduction to attribution and attributional theories. Attributions and psychological change: application of attributional theories to clinical and educational practice. London: Academic Press.
Bains, G. (1983). Explanations and the need for control. In M. Hewstone (ed) Attribution theory: social and functional extensions. (pp. 126-143). Oxford: Blackwell.
Bohner, G., Bless, H., Schwarz, N. & Strack, F. (1988). What triggers causal attributions? The impact of valence and subjective probability. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 335-345.
ole Attribution Theory Plays in How Perceptions About Others Are Formed in the Workplace
Anyone who has ever worked in an organizational setting can readily attest to the need to understand others in order to facilitate personal interactions and achieve optimal job performance. Attribution theory holds that people tend to develop perceptions about others based on their empirical observations which are then used, consciously or subconsciously, to form perceptions about their behaviors. In some ways, this process of applying attribution theory is intuitive and ongoing but there are some aspects of attribution theory that require explanation in order to better understand how and why people are motivated in this fashion. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature in order to evaluate the role attribution theory plays in how perceptions about others are formed in the workplace. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings…
Bastounis, M. & Minibas-Poussard, J. (2012, March 15). Causal attributions of workplace gender equality, Just World Belief, and the self/other distinction. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 40(3), 433-439.
Cabanis, M. & Pyka, M. (2013, June). The precuneus and the insula in self-attributional processes. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 13(2), 330-335.
Cagney, T. (2012, July). Supervisor and manager training: Thinking outside the box. The Journal of Employee Assistance, 42(3), 37.
Chadee, D. (2011). Theories in social psychology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Communication and Sociology
The speech by Susan Anthony depicts the way in which the U.S. women were denied their constitution right to vote during the early 1800s. The speech shows that men were the only ones allowed to participate in voting exercise, while, the women played an insignificant role in the process. Similarly, the speech shows that men, resulting in the discrimination of the women, occupied most of the leadership positions in the government. Based on this, the presenter questions the credibility and validity of the reasons given to defend the basis for denying the women to fulfill their constitutional obligations. The speech implies that a society characterized by discrimination of women faces numerous challenges such as poverty, poor economic growth, and inequalities. The speech means a lot to me. It gives me the impression of the injustices underwent by the women in the U.S.A. during 1800s. It provides…
Berg, Gary A.. Low-income students and the perpetuation of inequality higher education in America. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2010. Print.
"The History Place - Great Speeches Collection: Susan B. Anthony Speech - Women's Right to Vote." The History Place - Great Speeches Collection: Susan B. Anthony Speech - Women's Right to Vote. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Aug. 2014. .
In general terms, attribution theories are a person's psychological response to a conflict in an effort to explain the cause of the contention. While these theories may apply to any given situation, they are often closely intertwined with more intimate, interpersonal relationships. People in such relationships may attempt to explain their own actions or the actions of the other person in terms that may mitigate their own culpability. The ability to explain why someone would act or behave in a certain way may help a person alleviate the stress associated with the conflict. There are several different types of attribution theories that people use to explain another's behavior but three of them in particular are often cited in relationship studies.
Many people in a relationship may attempt to attribute their counterpart's behavior to personal vs. situational causes. In this way, a person seems to believe that another person…
Attribution Bias: Personal Anecdotes
One of the most common sources of conflict in relationships is incorrect interpretations of motivation. Because people are narcissistic and cannot always project themselves into the mindset of others, they focus on personality-based vs. situational reasons for behavior and misbehavior. A good example of this was a source of conflict during one of my years in middle school. My English class consistently ran late. Because it was located on the other side of the building, this meant that I was always late for math class the following period. My math teacher was a stickler about promptness, and was clearly prejudiced against me because she interpreted my lateness as rudeness and saw it as an expression of a lack of concern and respect for her class. However, the fault lay with my earlier teacher and the fact that I was too young and shy to ask my…
Two attribution theories applied to marketing include the correspondent inference theory and self-perception theory. The first applies causal attribution to determine the nature of a customer's behavior based on behavioral cues. The cues are derived from a single behavior in a particular situation. Therefore, information on its generalizability can be inferred from the behavior (Wang, 2008). Self-perception theory operates on the premise that behavioral cues emerge from both the observer and the person being observed. Two sets of causal attribution are therefore possible and can be synthesized on the basis of both sets of observations.
Other theories include the brand personality dimensions framework, which operates to compare measured brand personalities, and the hierarchy of effects models, which help marketers to determine the effect of specific advertising techniques on consumers (Marketing Journal, 2005).
Both propositions and hypotheses are statements; the content of these statements, however, differ significantly. A proposition, for…
Live Science (2012, Jul. 10). Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning. Retrieved from: http://www.livescience.com/21569-deduction-vs.-induction.html
Marketing Journal (2005). 13 Useful Marketing Theories. Retrieved from: http://www.marketingjournalblog.com/2005/11/13-useful-marketing-theories.html
Rao, N. (2012, Nov 2). What is the difference between preposition and hypothesis? Retrieved from: http://phd-research-methodology.blogspot.com/2012/11/what-is-difference-between-proposition.html
Wang, Y.J. (2008, May). The application of attribution theories in marketing research: a critique. Review of Business Research, 8(3). Retrieved from: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Review-Business-Research/190699889.html
("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)
Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?
The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how…
The Beginning of Cognitivist. (2002). All Psych. Retrieved from:
Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs. (2005). Find Psychology. Retrieved from:
29, p > 0.5).
This study set out to test the hypotheses that people from Eastern cultural backgrounds compared to those from Western backgrounds would make fewer dispositional attributions about the behavior of fictitious characters that the read about and would also demonstrate a more collective attitude towards themselves.
With respect to the first hypothesis, that Western participants would make a greater number of dispositional attributions that would participants with Eastern cultural heritages, that hypothesis was supported. However, there are a few caveats that need to be mentioned with regards to this. First, the scenarios that were presented to the participants only provided two alternatives to explain the behavior of the person. One alternative was a negative dispositional explanation, the other was a situational explanation could have been interpreted as far-fetched in some cases. Miller (1984) found that the tendency for Westerners to make internal attributions was higher for…
Chiu, C-y., Morris, M.W., Hong, Y-y., & Menon, T. (2000). Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 247 -- 259.
Choi, I., Dalal, R., Kim-Prieto, C., & Park, H. (2003). Culture and judgment of causal relevance.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 46 -- 59.
Jones, E.E. & Harris, V.A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 3, 2-24.
The four lanchard leadership styles include:
3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)
2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)
V. CHARISMATIC THEORY
Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).
Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.
Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
However, it is more comforting to think that we as individuals have control over our health and can prevent illness through personal responsibility. This means we have no responsibility to extend greater healthcare coverage to others who do not have insurance as presumably they have not 'worked hard' enough to deserve such a benefit.
Instinctively it might seem as if "the greater the cohesiveness or solidarity of a group, the better its decisions will be." Common sense suggests that cohesiveness produces a greater sense of agreement and solidarity. It is easier to enforce a decision that is made in a unified manner. But the problem with solidarity is the phenomenon known as 'groupthink' or the assumption that if the other members of the group think something is right, than it is correct.
Human beings are social animals, and the need to please others and to receive support is…
Fundamental attribution error. Changing Minds. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/fundamental_attribution_error.htm
What is groupthink? PSYSR. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at http://www.psysr.org/about/pubs_resources/groupthink%20overview.htm
Attribution Theory and Emotional Intelligence
Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.
The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation…
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Macleod, D.V. (2004). Tourism, globalisation, and cultural change an island community perspective. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R.D. (2002). Emotional intelligence science and myth. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.
Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.
Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html
Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
A certain feeling toward propriety and morality is stamped upon our sex, which does not allow us to appear alone in public, nor without an escort. Thus how can I present my musical work, to the public with anything other than timidity. The work of any lady…can indeed arouse a degree of pity in the eyes of some experts." (owers and Tick, 1987)
owers and Tick state that many composers of this time "Reichardt, Hensel, and Schumann -- published lieder under male authorship. A few of Reichardt's early songs were included in a collection of her father's lieder, 'Duetsche Lieder' and three of Hensel's early songs "appear in each of Felix's Opus 8 and Opus 9; the 'Allegemeine musikalische Zeitung' claimed that 'An des lust'gen runnenes Rand' a duet composed by Fanny, is the best song in the collection" of Opus 8. Additionally three of Schumann's lieder were "included in…
Backer, Eric and Kranenburg, Peter van (2004) on Musical Stylometry- a Pattern Recognition Approach. Science Direct 2004 Elsevier.
Bowers, Jane M. And Tick, Judith (1987) Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1059. University of Illinois Press, 1987.
Haynes, Bruce (2007) the End of Early Music. Oxford University Press. U.S., 2007.
Kranenburg, Peter van (2006) Composer Attribution by Quantifying Compositional Strategies. University of Victoria 2006.
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…
Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical
Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):
491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008 http://www.proquest.com/
Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
In my own experiences as a first-year student, I came in conflict with an RA because of his or her strong institutional power orientation. As a freshman at Boston College I was marked as in violation for a relatively minor infraction by my RA. I doubt that I would have been reprimanded -- however, when the RA questioned me, I was relatively casual. I did not act worried and abjectly sorry about his power to affect my future, and in retrospect, I realized that the student's sense of authority had been threatened by what he perceived as my insolence. I saw him as a fellow student, the RA saw me as a threat to his power because I treated him as an equal, not a superior.
In any situation where authority is unclear, clashes of McClelland personality types will always be an issue. Individuals with a strong power orientation will…
"McClelland: Theory of needs." Net MBA. November 24, 2009.
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…
Behlol, M., & Dad, H. (2010). Concept of Learning. International Journal Of
Psychological Studies, 2(2), 231-239.
Bradshaw, M.J. (2013). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett.
DeYoung, P.A. (2003). Relational psychotherapy: a primer. New York: Brunner-
Joe Salatino (evision)
Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study
Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.
Attribution and Perception
Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning.
Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, April). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved April 29th, 2012 from http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html .
Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Self-Efficacy in the Workplace. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 2 ISSN 1047-7039.
Nelson, D.L. & Campbell, Q.J. (2007) Understanding Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
In this way, the article is constructed in a logical way in order to arrive at its more complex presentations and finally at its conclusions. Interestingly, the concepts are explained in very clear language, without an overflow of academic jargon, even while at the same time explicating academic concepts upon the basis of philosophy and neuroscientific research.
Because the article is explicatory in nature, the author does not conduct practical research to establish a hypothesis and prove it, but rather engages in citing research already conducted in order to prove his hypothesis on perception and causation. In this way, the article is generally philosophical in nature, although it makes significant use of practical and scientific data established by others. In this way, it satisfies both the requirements of philosophy and science, while addressing a primarily philosophical idea.
Attribution theory has at its basis the premise the cause and effect relationship…
AllPsych Online. (2004). Our View of Self and Others. Heffner Media Group, Inc. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/attribution_attraction.html
Freeman, Walter J. III (2008). "Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia of intentional action" Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science. 42 (2), pp. 137-143. Postprint available free at: http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/3375
Kearsley, Greg (2009). TIP Database: Attribution Theory. http://tip.psychology.org/weiner.html
Improving Human esource Management at Great Northern America
Because all organizations are comprised of people, there will always be human resource issues involved and the manner in which these issues are resolved can spell the difference between organizational success and failure. This was the situation facing Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern America as he sought to formulate timely and responsive solutions to his company's human resource problems in order to save his company and achieve a competitive advantage in the future. To gain some fresh insights concerning how the president of this company could approach these problems, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to explain why employees need to understand the importance of how people form perceptions and make attributions, an evaluation of the applicability of social learning theory to the circumstances, followed by an examination of ways that the president could use social learning theory…
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Demirbas, M. & Yagbasan, R. (2006, May). An evaluative study of social learning theory-based scientific attitudes on academic success, gender and socio-economical level. Kuram ve
Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 6(2), 37-39.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.
Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory
To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-
Quality of Supervision
These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.
The motivation factors include:
esponsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.
Another related motivational model that…
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531
Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
History Of Social Psychology
Social Psychology studies how people's thoughts emotions and feelings are influenced by what they see, hear or observe from their immediate environment (Feenstra, 2013). It also involves to how the same people respond to these influencers within their living environment. We must appreciate the fact that human beings are sensitive and receptive to all that goes on within their living environment. They react to the stimuli they get through sight or hearing. It the early days before the Second World War, psychologists and sociologists used to interact mostly in their course of action. This interaction resulted in the development of this field of social psychology. It has helped in understanding the intricate aspects of human socio-psychological phenomena (Burns, 2008).
Social Psychology theories
There are more than ten theories developed as from the late mid 20th century concerning the area of social psychology. They all explain the…
Feenstra, J. (2013). Social Psychology. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-62178-578-1
Boundless. (Accessed December 2014). Psychology. Boston: Boundless Learning, Inc. Retrieved from; https://www.boundless.com/psychology
Burns, W.D. (2008). Research only matters if you do research that matters. Journal of College Science Teaching, 37(2), 12-14. (ProQuest Document ID: 1447219371).
Hogg, M. (2013). The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Sage.
child abuse and considers it as the cause for people developing differential perceptions in life and elevating crime rates. It has 15 sources.
Although caregivers give their undivided attention to children, there is always a chance that a child might be exposed to danger. This danger can be in any form, such as a fire in the house, falling and injuring one's self or child abuse. Child abuse may be the unsuitable actions of an adult towards a child that leads the child to develop distorted perceptions of life. These actions by adults may cause a child to grow up and do the same thing to other children or it may simply result in a child lacking trust in people no matter how kind they are or even over trusting people, hoping to let out the emotions held back. (Fergusson et al., 1996)
Child abuse causes instability in the…
Eshtain, J. (1993): "Family Matters: The Plight of America's Children." The Christian Century. 14-21.
McMillan, B. (2000) Transcript Conference with: Holli Marshall & Niki Delson on "Survivors of Sexual Abuse"
Fergusson, D.M., Lynskey M.T., and Horwood, L.J. (1996), 'Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part I: The prevalence of sexual abuse and the factors associated with sexual abuse,' Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 35, pp. 1355-1365.
Child Abuse and Neglect -- A Tragic Trend Continues. Children's Voice. Child Welfare League of America, (1995) Washington, D.C.,Volume #17, Summer, p. 11
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)
Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/
Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.
Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
How can Deci and Ryan's (2008) self-determination theory assist individuals in their personal or professional goals?
Deci & Ryan’s (2008) self-determination theory is a theory of motivation that can help individuals set and achieve personal and professional goals. The theory can be applied to almost every area of life, including health choices or interpersonal relationships. One of the most unique features of self-determination theory is that it can be adapted to different applications. As Deci & Ryan (2008) show, self-determination theory distinguishes between different types of motivation including autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. Self-determination theory also takes into account the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The basic motivational goals people have include competency, relatedness, and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Deci & Ryan (2008) also claim there are two main categories of individual difference regarding motivation: causality orientation and goals. By showing people what motivates them and why,…
Helplessness and Depression
The concept of learned helplessness is most strongly identified with psychologist Martin Seligman. Early animal experimentation by Seligman and colleagues defined the phenomenon of learned helplessness (Overmier & Seligman, 1967). The concept of learned helplessness describes the phenomenon that occurs when an animal or person observes or experiences traumatic events that they can exert little influence or control over. When the animal or person discovers that it can do nothing to escape or affect such an event it may acquire learned helplessness and not attempt to even try to remove itself from potentially harmful situations. In behavioral terms the organism learns that reinforcement and behavior are not contingent on one another (Seligman, 1976). The organism essentially becomes conditioned to form a belief that nothing it can do can affect the situation and it simply "gives up."
The original learned helplessness experiments had dogs learning through classical conditioning…
Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J.D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans:
Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87(1): 49 -- 74.
Bandura A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
(Mc Keachie and Doyle. 1970. p. 552)
This is an often a determining factor in contexts such as interviewing for jobs. esearch shows that "...the perception of a person is strongly influenced by the accuracy of early impressions." (Mc Keachie and Doyle. 1970. p. 552) The immediate perception of a person may therefore be colored by concepts and learnt assumptions that are applied to the individuals according to various cues.
One aspect in this regard that strands out in many studies is that while first- time perceptions can be erroneous and might be based on false preconceptions and stereotypes, yet these first impression can be extremely strong and also tend to influence later assessments of the person. This relates to the previously mentioned finding that first impressions tend often to focus on abnormal or different attributes, rather than on conventional or more positive attributes. This can, for instance, have a…
Attribution Theory of Fritz Heider. [Online] Available from: http://www.afirstlook.com/archive/attribut.cfm?source=archther [14July 2006].
Bodenhausen G. And Macrae C. 2001. Social cognition: Categorical person perception. [Online] British Journal of Psychology; 2/1/2001, Available from: http://www.highbeam.com [14 July 2006].
First Impressions Of Beauty May Demonstrate Why The Pretty Prosper. [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060124223317.htm [14July 2006].
Gassner L. 2004. Don't rush to judgment: relying on first impressions when assessing a job applicant can lead to a poor hiring decision. [Online] HRMagazine; 1/1/2004, Available at
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
Psychologists’ Roles, the Law, and Juries
The role of the psychologist as a consultant in jury selection is like that of an advisor: the psychologist assesses the pool of jurors, their responses to questions put to them by the defense or prosecution, the demographics, and the demographic that would be most favorable to the defense or the prosecution. The psychologist then gives advice to either side in terms of describing which jurors should be selected and which should be challenged.
Three examples of psychological concepts that are applied to the selection of juries are: (a) self concept, (b) prejudice and discrimination, and (c) attribution theory, which is the idea that a person will attempt to understand another’s actions by attributing feelings or beliefs to that person. A psychologist will make advice based on these concepts: the self concept is the image that the individual projects—the ideas that make up…
Interactions with peers are one way a person creates or enhances a self-concept. How Jean reacted to social strife or conflict in her environment predicted her reactions to future situations. In addition to her interactions with peers, culture has an enormous impact on Jean's development. Jean has soaked up her self-concept partly from the media but also from peer and parental influences. Jean's parents provided her with a foundation set of values, beliefs, and methods of ethical reasoning.
Several social psychological theories apply to developmental psychology. Social identity theory, observational learning, attribution theory, and the theory of social schemas can all help explain Jean's unique developmental path. Although not overly impacted by the theories of social identity, Jean noted shifting her social affiliations frequently throughout her adolescence. One of the features she notices emerging in herself is less of a tendency to create in-group boundaries. At the same time, Jean…
Huitt, W. (2004). Observational (social) learning: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/soccog/soclrn..html
Schema." (nd) Changing Minds.org. retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/schema.htm
Schema Theory of Learning." (1998). Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 from http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/SchemaTheoryOfLearning.htm
Social Identity Theory." (2004). Universiteit Twente. Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Interpersonal%20Communication%20and%20Relations/Social_Identity_Theory.doc
(McShane; Glinow; Ann, 2009) the difficulty with the staff may not be with the emoluments but with the emotions. Therefore the doctor can try a little novelty by projecting the business itself in a different manner by giving the work a new set of names. Managing emotions at work is one of the problems that all staff and worker face and at this stage the problems could be elsewhere instead of the clinic. By arranging for social interaction between his staff, especially using the week end party for appraisal the problems that the staff have emotionally could be addressed.
2. Infuse new blood and technology and replace old with new staff: The personal aptitude is important. The current staff may be lacking the zeal and aptitude for the job. Especially when the technology is changing they may have become redundant. It is therefore better to remove those who are extreme…
Dundon, Tony; Rollinson, Derek. (2004) "Employment relations in non-union
firms" Routledge: London.
McShane, Steven L.; Glinow, Von; Ann, Mary. (2009) "Organizational Behavior" (5th
That is the beauty of the successful and rising platform established through successful investments; it all becomes quite circular. Then, by reinvesting and refinancing earnings, everything becomes stronger. Just as easily, however, this corporation could have been buried.
1. What is a franchising arrangement? And how is this reflective of business expansion? Moreover, how does this support business growth? From HighBeam Business, these key-terms set the stage from here on out:
MLA: Pondent, Corr S. "About eacquired Franchise ights" (29 December 2010). Highbeam Business: Money. eHow. Demand Media, Inc. Web. 18 March 2011.
About eacquired Franchise ights
A franchising arrangement is a way to expand a company's business without investing a lot of additional money. The franchisee gets the use of an existing business model, or franchise rights, as well as business support, and pays the franchisor a franchise fee in return.
The franchisor could decide to buyback…
HighBeam Business: Issues in Accounting Education: The hole in the doughnut: accounting for acquired intangibles at Krispy Kreme. Web. 16 March 2011.
Citation: Bollinger, Michael a. CMA, CFM, CPA, CIA, CGFM, CDFM. "Fair value, Accounting procedures." Publication title: Strategic Finance. Montvale: Mar 2011. Vol. 92, Iss. 9; pg. 25, 1 pages 4K9S4PXGS8 at CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY - SACRAMENTO MAIN ACCOUNT via ProQuest, an information service of ProQuest LLC.
5. Auditor impairment analysis on book value of reacquired franchise rights for Arizona acquisitions. The four present values should allow you to reach a conclusion about the acceptability of the client's impairment analysis. Up to this point you are performing a conventional analysis of accounting estimates as per CAS 540. Become thoroughly acquainted with this CAS and refer to it in your report. Call this conventional analysis, and its conclusion, Part I of your report. It is worth 5 marks. The solution posted in BB for class 7 to the class discussion a&B company case, and the Hilton and O'Brien article in class 6 link may help in doing this part of the assignment.
You can use any accounting standards you prefer to support your conclusions, the U.S. ones mentioned in the case, or comparable CICA Handbook sections, or international standards, but be specific about which ones you are using so that the marker can follow your analysis and give you full credit.
Kurt Lewin is widely acknowledged as a seminal theorist (Smith, 2001) who made an indelible impact on the field of psychology through his work on the cognitive and motivational processes of individuals, the dynamics of intra- and intergroup relationships, and the relevance of psychology for social programs (Lewin, 1998, p. 105). Lewin is also credited for his pioneering work in the area of experiential learning and action research (Smith, 2001). It is the objective of this paper to trace Lewin's contribution to the field of psychology from both a historical as well as present day perspective.
The influence of Kurt Lewin's life on his work
It would be useful to begin a historical perspective of Kurt Lewin's work with an analysis of his biography in order to examine the influences, if any, of his personal life on the theories that he later went on to develop. As it happens, in…
Bavelas, A., & Lewin, K. (1946). Training in Democratic Leadership. Twentieth Century
Psychology: Recent Developments in Psychology. Editors: Freeman, L., Harriman, P.L., Hartmann, G.W., & Lewin, K. New York: The Philosophical Library.
Chaplin, J.P., & Krawiec, T.S. (1974). Systems and Theories of Psychology. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Mackey, Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo won the Nobel Peace Prize, and then was jailed as a Chinese dissident who made what he called his "final statement" before beginning his jail term.
Liu had rallied for causes and done a lot of public speaking and publication in China before he was jailed, and realized when he was imprisoned that he had lost the platform he had to help and encourage others to right wrongs and speak out against injustices.
He still stands by the beliefs he expressed that resulted in his imprisonment, and holds no anger or hatred toward those who prosecuted and imprisoned him.
He is treated fairly in prison, even though he still states that he is innocent and should not be there at all because he should have the right to freedom of expression and speech.
People's Daily Online -- Human Rights in China
Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.
Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…
I sometimes go for long periods of time where I do not talk to my brother, because it can just be too much stress. I still love my brother, but when the cost of maintaining that relationship becomes too high for me I start to re-evaluate it and withdraw.
Just understanding where these types of attitudes and conflicts come from has made me so much more aware of my own feelings, and what is going on inside of me that contributes to how I see others. Just understanding how these things work makes it easier for me to manage how I relate to others. I feel that I already caught myself getting mad the clerk at the coffee shop for taking too long with one of the customers in front of me, chatting away. I realized, though, that I was hungry and tired, and maybe if I was feeling better…
Piney Woods Hospital
Satisfaction is the pivotal problem for Piney Woods Hospital to address. Satisfaction across all stakeholders has a substantive impact on the other key challenges the hospital is facing. When customers are satisfied with the service and care they receive at hospital, they let others in the community know about it. When hospital employees are satisfied, they provide superior hospital services. When physicians are satisfied, they provide excellent medical care. It is an obvious and intractable cycle. Further, levels of satisfaction are indicators of other symptoms or successes regarding the operations of the hospital and its relationship to the community. This paper will focus on the challenges of increasing patient and employee satisfaction within the Emergency Department at Piney Woods Hospital.
The health care industry has in common with other service industries the pivotal importance of employee engagement on the customer-facing -- or patient-facing, as the case may…
Atkins, P.M., Marshall, B.S., and Javalgi, R.G. (1996), Happy employees lead to loyal patients, Journal of Health Care Marketing, 16, 4, 14-23.
Brown, C.L. (2002), A theory of the process of creating power in relationships, Nursing Administration Quarterly, 26, 2, 15-33.
Cunningham, P. (2011, May11). Nonurgent use of hospital emergency departments. Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) [BEFORE THE U.S. SENATE Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging Hearing on ?Diverting Non-urgent Emergency Room Use: Can It Provide Better Care and Lower Costs?]. Retrieved http://hschange.org/CONTENT/1204/1204.pdf
Electronic Health Records Overview (2006, April). National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources.
7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.
8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.
9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.
10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.
11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.
Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and…
al.). Organizations that are attaining the highest levels of performance in services industries have created processes for internalizing lessons learned in service recovery and transforming them into processes and strategies (Boshoff, 43, 44). Based on the accumulated research a proposed Services Recovery Model is also defined in this analysis. This proposed model defines the need for coherence and consistency between organizational and individual service recovery strategies, based on the foundation of accumulated expectations of customers. The focus of the Services Recovery Model is the validation and reinforcement of trust through coherency and consistency of organizational and individually-oriented recovery strategies.
From these theoretical foundations, the developments of strategic responses to service recovery are possible to design, implement and monitor over time. Service recovery has progressed as an academic discipline and business practice due to the increasingly commoditized product strategies that rely increasingly on price and service, less on product or services…
Researchers have identified three important areas which influence human perception. These are: artificial intelligence, neuroscience, and the Gestaldt Tradition (129). Human psychology has been researched, analyzed, and theorized. In recent years, psychological researchers have endeavored to apply psychological ideas to the concept of environment and also how the environment affects the psychology of the individual. J.J. Gibson founded the idea of the Gestaldt tradition and was the first individual credited with a new concept to psychology in many years. His specific insights had much to do with how the visual stimuli of the environment impacts and influences the psychology of the individual.
There is far more to stimulus than what is directly visible to the naked eye. hen describing stimuli, there are both distal and proximal types of stimuli. Distal stimuli are those which are perhaps on the peripheries of vision or which are not immediately recognized to…
"Environmental Perception and Aesthetics." Conceptual Areas of Study. 129-145.
The authors begin with the understanding that "organizations are cooperative systems that rely on the willingness of members to behave in ways that support the organization" (p. 453). They use attribution theory to develop their hypotheses regarding not only how influence tactics affect employee resistance to change, but also the ways these relationships are moderated by the leader-member exchange.
A total of 167 employee surveys, from two different companies entitled OIL and BANK to protect their anonymity, were received and analyzed. It was found that most change efforts fail to reach the objectives. econciling past findings, Furst and Cable (2008) surmise that for managerial influence tactics to be effective, the leader-member exchange had to be strong. Employees used the quality of their relationship with their management to determine the intent and meaning of the influence tactics being utilized. When high levels of leader-member exchange is available, employees exhibited lower resistance…
Furst, S. & Cable, D. (2008). "Employee resistance to organizational change: Managerial influence tactics and leader-member exchange." Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2). p. 453-462.
Rafferty, a. & Griffin, M. (2006). "Perceptions of organizational change: A stress and coping perspective." Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5). p. 1154-1162.
Moreover, there were a number of smaller issues which augmented the overall failure of the project as a whole. Part of this was a result of the team members not wanting to obscure the fast paced frequency the project was being created in. There was essentially too much of a focus on getting the project done fast, rather than allowing the opportunity for creative differences to become a part of the process in order to mold the idea into a more appropriate direction for the client. Yes, the fast pace strategy completed the project a month ahead of schedule, but it failed the team by rushing an idea that was not properly matched to the client's needs and approved by the client before progressing further towards a final presentation. The client was not properly informed of the decision before the shooting process began. This created a situation where the team…
Robbins, Stehpen P. & Judge, Timothy a. (2008). Organizational Behavior. Prentice Hall.
Organizational Behavior Case
This case is interesting because it portrays the cultural variances that an employee might find in different cultures from a first person perspective. First, an American employee shares his perspective about his experience working on a project in Germany. He finds that the employees are extraordinarily methodological during the planning phase of the project; then rather autonomous throughout the duration of the project. In his experience American firms generally set a goals and performance targets earlier in the project and do not require that the entire team comes to a consensus about the underlying ideologies that are driving the project while also expecting that the team leader takes a more authoritarian type approach.
From the German perspective, they feel as if they can devote all of the team's resources and energies in the planning phase then they can save a bunch of time down the road because…
Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Rawski, S. (2011). A Tale of Two Paradigms: The Impact of Psychological Capital and Reinforcing Feedback on Problem Solving and Innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 333-350.
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?
In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D., and Akert, R.M., (2007). Social Psychology. 6th edition. Uppers Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brandon, Emeralda (2008). Psychiatric Fundamentals. New York: Academic Press.
Bundel, Maison (2011). Fundamentals of Sociology and Psychology. Detroit: Lavemon Publications, 75, 78, 85-89.
Festinger, L., and Carlsmith, J.M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58,203-210.
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's
(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.
Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
Not all humans exhibit the same jealously levels, behaviors, etc.); and, 2. Today, instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all (like aggression and sex). but, there is still a strong instinct perspective in the study of animals (ethology) (p. 2).
Notwithstanding this lack of consensus, there have been much attention directed to the relationship between instinct theory and the various dimensions of the human experience, which are discussed further below.
elationship of Instinct Theory to Dimensions of Human Experience.
A) Paradoxes in Human Experience. Indeed, in their book, Psychologies of 1925: Powell Lectures in Psychological Theory, Madison Bentley (1928) asked early on, "By what theory can it be explained how it comes about that an individual can exhibit so many and such extreme and even seemingly paradoxical phases, or alterations of his character, and such contrasting contradictory traits and behavior?" (p. 259). The duality…
Adler, a., Bentley, Boring, E.G. et al. (1930). Psychologies of 1930. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Alic, M. (2001). McDougall, William (1871-1938). In Gale encyclopedia of psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group.
Alvarado, C.S. (2003). Reflections on Being a Parapsychologist. The Journal of Parapsychology, 67(2), 211.
Arieti, S. (1974). The foundations of psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
Johnson and Johnson issued a public relations response immediately naming their number one priority: to aggressively protect any consumer from the potential hazards that may be present in any of their family of products.
Symptoms of the Problem -- Quickly, the crisis reached epic nationwide coverage. The panic that ensued, somewhat as the result of the twenty-four hour media coverage, fueled this panic into a frenzy. One hospital in Chicago, for instance, received 700 calls in one day; while Johnson and Johnson received averaged almost 150 calls per day. Across the country people were admitted into hospitals on suspicion of cyanide poisoning (Tifft, 18). Johnson and Johnson worked rapidly and decisively with the media to disseminate information. When the news spread, copycat criminals began to tamper with the products on the shelves of stores, which only deepened the crisis. ndeed, the FDA confirmed more tampering had taken place, but this…
Identification of Goals - in 1982, Tylenol controlled 37% of the pain killer market, approximately $1.2M and was the leading painkiller in the American market, outselling Anacin, Bayer, Bufferin, and Excedrin. Seventeen to eighteen percent net earnings of Johnson and Johnson were from Tylenol sales. Profits placed Johnson and Johnson in the top half of the Fortune 500 (Berg, 1998). The company had been doing well for years. Stock analysts had actually predicted that Tylenol's market share was poised for up to a 15% growth. In fact, Tylenol was to the product that would lead this company to further success- hat is until the Tylenol laced cyanide crisis came to be. This calamity changed the strategic plan, management goals, and parent to subsidiary goals across the organization -- within a 24-hour period. Instantly, an immediate crisis mode was assumed and a reassessment and reprioritization of their goals and immediate actions required jolted every executive, manager and employee in the organization (Mikkelson, 2004).
Immediate Goals once Crisis was Revealed-
Reacting to the news, when Johnson and Johnson was faced with the initial situation; it had to make some tough decisions that would severely impact the future of the company. Rather than think in financial terms only, CEO James Burke immediately turned to the
Intercultural Film Analysis on Up in the Air
Interpersonal attraction is one of the themes at the heart of Up in the Air. For the purposes of this analysis, interpersonal attraction is taken to mean the ways in which people are drawn toward one another. The main character, yan Bingham, is a challenging character to analyze in this regard because he has experienced significant success through resisting interpersonal attraction, and yet he eventually comes to realize that people cannot simply shelter themselves from interpersonal attractions, even if they desire to live in complete alienation from others. yan makes his living through flying to workplaces and firing employees so that the bosses do not have to perform the unpleasant task, and yet he also doubles as a motivational speaker. His character is unusual in that he effectively tells people they are not suitable for their jobs (in his job…
Peterson, B.J. (2007). An Instructional Design Model for Heuristics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Potts, K. (2007). George Clooney: The Last Great Movie Star. New York: H. Leonard Corporation.
Selden, P. (Date Unknown). Darwin's gift: Acceptable and amorally gifted verbal communication or: The evolutionary phenomenon of pc language. University of Hawaii. Retrieved from hawaii.edu.
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…