Attribution Theory Essays (Examples)

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Attribution Theories

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2421528

Attribution Theories

In general terms, attribution theories are a person's psychological response to a conflict in an effort to explain the cause of the contention. While these theories may apply to any given situation, they are often closely intertwined with more intimate, interpersonal relationships. People in such relationships may attempt to explain their own actions or the actions of the other person in terms that may mitigate their own culpability. The ability to explain why someone would act or behave in a certain way may help a person alleviate the stress associated with the conflict. There are several different types of attribution theories that people use to explain another's behavior but three of them in particular are often cited in relationship studies.

Many people in a relationship may attempt to attribute their counterpart's behavior to personal vs. situational causes. In this way, a person seems to believe that another person…… [Read More]

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Attribution Theories

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91957606

Attribution Bias: Personal Anecdotes

One of the most common sources of conflict in relationships is incorrect interpretations of motivation. Because people are narcissistic and cannot always project themselves into the mindset of others, they focus on personality-based vs. situational reasons for behavior and misbehavior. A good example of this was a source of conflict during one of my years in middle school. My English class consistently ran late. Because it was located on the other side of the building, this meant that I was always late for math class the following period. My math teacher was a stickler about promptness, and was clearly prejudiced against me because she interpreted my lateness as rudeness and saw it as an expression of a lack of concern and respect for her class. However, the fault lay with my earlier teacher and the fact that I was too young and shy to ask my…… [Read More]

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Attributions in Sports Psychology What Is Attribution

Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33391261

Attributions in Sports Psychology

hat is attribution theory? It is a "cognitive approach to motivation that focuses on how individuals interpret the causes of success and failure," according to an article in the Australian Psychologist (Grove, et al., 1995, 92). In that regard, studies that Grove and colleague reference show that high achieving athletes tend to use internal attributions more readily after success than failure, which is reasonable considering that a successful baseball pitcher knows when he has his best "stuff" and when he wins a game, the attribution is rightly aimed at his skill. hen that same pitcher loses, he can chalk it up to the fact that he faced outstanding hitters. And an athlete with less ability tends to use internal attributions "…more after failure than success" (Grove, 92). He might say, "I just didn't come up with the right pitches at the right time." This paper delves…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Grove, J.R., and Prapavessis, H. (1995). The Effect of Skill Level and Sport Outcomes on Dimensional Aspects of Causal Attributions. Australian Psychologist, 30(2), 92-95.

Rees, T., Ingledew, D.K., and Hardy, L. (2005). Attribution in sport psychology: seeking

Congruence between theory, research, and practice. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,

Vol. 6, 189-204.
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Attributions for Success and or Failure in Sport Performance

Words: 2742 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69445574

Performance in Sports

Attribution theory posits that ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck are the major attributional factors that cause success and failure in sport. Effort is considered an internal factor while task difficulty is considered an external factor. Ability is considered a permanent factor while luck is a changeable factor. The reformulated learned helplessness model sought to come up with the most relevant causal dimensions. The model suggests that the specificity of attributions combines with causal internality and stability to influence emotions and behavior. The model avers that global factors influence events like laziness while specific factors influence particular events like temporary fatigue. Adaptive reactions, according to helplessness theory, are occasioned by negative outcomes that are attributed to external, unstable, and specific factors. Adaptive reactions can also be facilitated when positive outcomes are attributed to internal, stable, and global factors. Outcomes that suggest that an athlete has high ability…… [Read More]

References List

Aldridge, L.J. & Islam, M.R. (2011). Cultural Differences in Athlete Attributions for Success

and Failure: The Sports Pages Revisited. International Journal of Psychology, 47(1), 67-75.

Allen, M.S., Jones, M.V., & Sheffield, D., (2009). Attribution, Emotion, and Collective Efficacy

in Sports Teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 13(3), 205-217.
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Attributions for Success or Failure in Sport Performance

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70241170

SUCCESS & AILURE IN SPORT PERORMANCE

Sports can be attributed to drastic changes of emotions and expectations by sports fans from their favourite teams or players, based on their performances. These performeances represent the strength, capability and potential of a sportsman or a team. Sports is one of those things where it is almost inevitable to get a result where there is a victor and loser. Sports can be understood as a non-lethal, healthy combat or duel amongst two sportsmen or teams who fight for awards, honours or even bragging rights over each other. This makes the notions of success and failure an integral function of the nature of sports. Through this paper, it is targeted to carry out a thorough analysis and understand the various reasons for which the success and failure in sports performances are witnessed by sportmen and fans. This discussion would aid in determining and developing…… [Read More]

For sport achievement, a greater influence might be exerted on subsequent attributions and effort related to sport may be more quantifiable and salient. In sport behavior, the abilities related to the cardiovascular fitness and strength is fluctuating over time and unstable, in accordance to the analysis of the sport situation. In intellectual tasks, it was perceived that the ability attributions for failure were precluded by the motivational bias, however in sport tasks, the motivational bias will be reduced in attributions for failure (Rejeski & Lowe, 1980). For failure outcomes in sport, this will result in an increase in perceived personal responsibility.

In compare to intellectual tasks, the perception of effort levels must be more quantitative in sport tasks. In compare to attributions for academic achievement, the epistemological status of effort and ability might be different for sport achievement. In sport settings, the relationship between task difficulty and the outcome might be mediated by the effort information suggested by the significant effort obtained on task difficulty by outcome interaction (Allen & Et.al, 2009). In sport tasks, the effort information is both more quantifiable and more phenomenally salient.

A fundamental role is played by causal ascriptions in the proposed theory about emotion and motivation. Few dominant causal perceptions are found in contexts related to achievement. With globality and intentionality as other possible causal structures, controllability, stability and locus are the three common properties that have been shared by the perceived causes of failure and success (Weiner, 1985). Shame, pride, hopelessness, gratitude, pity, guilt and anger are the variety of general emotional experiences that affect all three dimensions of causality. In expectancy of
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Facts and Theories

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36334300

Theories

Two attribution theories applied to marketing include the correspondent inference theory and self-perception theory. The first applies causal attribution to determine the nature of a customer's behavior based on behavioral cues. The cues are derived from a single behavior in a particular situation. Therefore, information on its generalizability can be inferred from the behavior (Wang, 2008). Self-perception theory operates on the premise that behavioral cues emerge from both the observer and the person being observed. Two sets of causal attribution are therefore possible and can be synthesized on the basis of both sets of observations.

Other theories include the brand personality dimensions framework, which operates to compare measured brand personalities, and the hierarchy of effects models, which help marketers to determine the effect of specific advertising techniques on consumers (Marketing Journal, 2005).

Both propositions and hypotheses are statements; the content of these statements, however, differ significantly. A proposition, for…… [Read More]

References

Live Science (2012, Jul. 10). Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning. Retrieved from: http://www.livescience.com/21569-deduction-vs.-induction.html

Marketing Journal (2005). 13 Useful Marketing Theories. Retrieved from:   http://www.marketingjournalblog.com/2005/11/13-useful-marketing-theories.html  

Rao, N. (2012, Nov 2). What is the difference between preposition and hypothesis? Retrieved from:   http://phd-research-methodology.blogspot.com/2012/11/what-is-difference-between-proposition.html  

Wang, Y.J. (2008, May). The application of attribution theories in marketing research: a critique. Review of Business Research, 8(3). Retrieved from:   http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Review-Business-Research/190699889.html
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Learning Theory Several Theories Are

Words: 1884 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88905473

Learning tends to be associated with specific ways of considering events and establishes a student's "explanatory style," or the components of permanence, pervasiveness, and personalization.

Permanence refers to someone believing that negative events and/or their causes are permanent, despite the fact that evidence, logic, and past experience indicate that they are instead temporary: "I'll never be good in English." Pervasiveness is generalizing, so a negative aspect of a situation is thought to extend to others as well: "I failed math, so I'll fail all my courses." Personalization deals with whether individuals attribute negative events to personal flaws or to outside circumstances or people. They tend to blame themselves for everything: "It's always my fault."

To overcome such helplessness, teachers have to incorporate means of gaining self-worth and learned optimism with activities identifying negative interpretations of events, assessing their accuracy and generating more accurate interpretations. The encouragement of gaining mastery over…… [Read More]

References

Bransford, J.D. (Ed) (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Caine, R.N., & Caine, G. (1997). Education on the edge of possibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic,1983

Goleman, D. (2006) Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantom Books
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George Kelly's Theory Is a

Words: 2361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37419541

("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)

Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?

The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how…… [Read More]

References

The Beginning of Cognitivist. (2002). All Psych. Retrieved from:

http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/kelly.html

Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs. (2005). Find Psychology. Retrieved from:

 http://fiupsychology.com/feist15.htm
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Dispositional Attributions Attribution Differences in

Words: 2216 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50847656

29, p > 0.5).

Discussion

This study set out to test the hypotheses that people from Eastern cultural backgrounds compared to those from Western backgrounds would make fewer dispositional attributions about the behavior of fictitious characters that the read about and would also demonstrate a more collective attitude towards themselves.

With respect to the first hypothesis, that Western participants would make a greater number of dispositional attributions that would participants with Eastern cultural heritages, that hypothesis was supported. However, there are a few caveats that need to be mentioned with regards to this. First, the scenarios that were presented to the participants only provided two alternatives to explain the behavior of the person. One alternative was a negative dispositional explanation, the other was a situational explanation could have been interpreted as far-fetched in some cases. Miller (1984) found that the tendency for Westerners to make internal attributions was higher for…… [Read More]

References

Chiu, C-y., Morris, M.W., Hong, Y-y., & Menon, T. (2000). Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 247 -- 259.

Choi, I., Dalal, R., Kim-Prieto, C., & Park, H. (2003). Culture and judgment of causal relevance.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 46 -- 59.

Jones, E.E. & Harris, V.A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 3, 2-24.
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Leadership Theories the Objective of

Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18598898

The four lanchard leadership styles include:

1) directive;

2) managing;

3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)

2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)

V. CHARISMATIC THEORY

Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).

Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.

Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.

Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
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Leadership Path Goal Theory the Boy Scouts

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16812245

Leadership Path Goal Theory

The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory

Leadership theories

Path Goal Theory

Explain how the theory works and include an example

Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization

Are the followers receptive?

Would you recommend another strategy?

Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization

Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization

Examples

Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization

Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization

If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?

Conclusion

eferences

Introduction:

The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…… [Read More]

References:

Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.

Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.

Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
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Mind and Human Behavior Theories

Words: 4187 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33968140

Mind and Human Behavior

Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness

Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).

The Quantum Theory of Consciousness

The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…… [Read More]

References

Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.

Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.

Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
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Organization Theory and Behavior -

Words: 2014 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81799332


The Philadelphia mayor, and any mayor in general, must be characterized by
power at a certain level. Public administration employees usually hold
great power, and mayors make no exception, on the contrary.
In our case, the mayor's sources of individual power are:
. The power to reward, to control the rewards process within the
organization
. The power to sanction other employees
. The mayor's formal position within the organization
. Personal charisma
. The mayor's authority as an expert
. The mayor's personal drive for power
. Self confidence

The organizational sources of power include elements of the
organizational system and extremely important management situations that
grant certain employees or groups of employees a relatively high ability to
influence others. One of the most important organizational sources of power
resides in controlled resources. The more directly a person controls more
resources, like human resources, financial resources, technical resources,
or…… [Read More]

Reference list:
1. Henry Mintzberg (2008). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved July 5, 2008 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mintzberg%27smanagerialroles#The
oryonOrganizationalForms.
2. Fiedler contingency model (2008). Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia. Retrieved July 5, 2008 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiedlercontingencymodel.
3. Mintzberg, Henry. Developing Theory about the Development of
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Theory of Group Development

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4997968

Group Develoment

Theory of Group Development

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.

Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…… [Read More]

References

Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.

Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.

Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:

Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Attribution Error Is the Tendency

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66312171

However, it is more comforting to think that we as individuals have control over our health and can prevent illness through personal responsibility. This means we have no responsibility to extend greater healthcare coverage to others who do not have insurance as presumably they have not 'worked hard' enough to deserve such a benefit.

Question 2

Instinctively it might seem as if "the greater the cohesiveness or solidarity of a group, the better its decisions will be." Common sense suggests that cohesiveness produces a greater sense of agreement and solidarity. It is easier to enforce a decision that is made in a unified manner. But the problem with solidarity is the phenomenon known as 'groupthink' or the assumption that if the other members of the group think something is right, than it is correct.

Human beings are social animals, and the need to please others and to receive support is…… [Read More]

References

Fundamental attribution error. Changing Minds. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at  http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/fundamental_attribution_error.htm 

What is groupthink? PSYSR. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at  http://www.psysr.org/about/pubs_resources/groupthink%20overview.htm
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Science of Emotional Intelligence and Cultural Evolution

Words: 1611 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77353767

Attribution Theory and Emotional Intelligence

Attribution theory

Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.

The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation…… [Read More]

References

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Macleod, D.V. (2004). Tourism, globalisation, and cultural change an island community perspective. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R.D. (2002). Emotional intelligence science and myth. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
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Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation Any Theory

Words: 2664 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53620833

Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation

Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.

Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…… [Read More]

References

Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.

Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html

Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
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Authorship and Attribution in Early

Words: 3487 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20745555

A certain feeling toward propriety and morality is stamped upon our sex, which does not allow us to appear alone in public, nor without an escort. Thus how can I present my musical work, to the public with anything other than timidity. The work of any lady…can indeed arouse a degree of pity in the eyes of some experts." (owers and Tick, 1987)

owers and Tick state that many composers of this time "Reichardt, Hensel, and Schumann -- published lieder under male authorship. A few of Reichardt's early songs were included in a collection of her father's lieder, 'Duetsche Lieder' and three of Hensel's early songs "appear in each of Felix's Opus 8 and Opus 9; the 'Allegemeine musikalische Zeitung' claimed that 'An des lust'gen runnenes Rand' a duet composed by Fanny, is the best song in the collection" of Opus 8. Additionally three of Schumann's lieder were "included in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Backer, Eric and Kranenburg, Peter van (2004) on Musical Stylometry- a Pattern Recognition Approach. Science Direct 2004 Elsevier.

Bowers, Jane M. And Tick, Judith (1987) Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1059. University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Haynes, Bruce (2007) the End of Early Music. Oxford University Press. U.S., 2007.

Kranenburg, Peter van (2006) Composer Attribution by Quantifying Compositional Strategies. University of Victoria 2006.
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Cognitive Theory Cognition Is the

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29875252

It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).

Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm

2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.

3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439

4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
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Intercultural and or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories

Words: 1848 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32191910

Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.

This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical

Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):

491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008   http://www.proquest.com/  

Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
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Criminological Theories Criminology Theories Have

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35903924

Therefore, in response to criminal actions, the rules and laws of a system are developed. It is their presence that represents the glue of the social parts.

One shortcoming of this theory however is the fact that it cannot explain the motivation behind the actual existence of criminal behavior. It tends to perceive the society as a whole, through statistics and factual dates and tries to predict its evolution. Durkheim notes that the continuous existence of the phenomenon is attributed the need of the society for the eventual contribution to the definition of that community. According to him, crimes have a concrete role, as opposed to other theories which fight against such attributions. Thus, identifying criminals draws the limit of correct behavior, by exerting severe punishment; there is a clear notion of the most valuable values in the respective society. Moreover, criminal activities often result in the change of certain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Larry Siegel, (1992). Criminology. New York: West Publishing.

Lemert, Edwin. (1967). Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Mead, George H. (1934). Mind, Self and Society. C. Morris (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Triplett, Ruth. (1990). Labeling and Differential Association: The Effects on Delinquent Behavior. University of Maryland. Wellford, Charles F.
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David Mcclelland's Acquired-Needs Theory According

Words: 484 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69326702

In my own experiences as a first-year student, I came in conflict with an RA because of his or her strong institutional power orientation. As a freshman at Boston College I was marked as in violation for a relatively minor infraction by my RA. I doubt that I would have been reprimanded -- however, when the RA questioned me, I was relatively casual. I did not act worried and abjectly sorry about his power to affect my future, and in retrospect, I realized that the student's sense of authority had been threatened by what he perceived as my insolence. I saw him as a fellow student, the RA saw me as a threat to his power because I treated him as an equal, not a superior.

In any situation where authority is unclear, clashes of McClelland personality types will always be an issue. Individuals with a strong power orientation will…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"McClelland: Theory of needs." Net MBA. November 24, 2009.

 http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcclelland/
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Management Principles Organizational Theories the Book the

Words: 2141 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92466863

Management Principles: Organizational Theories

The book The manager's bookshelf: A mosaic of contemporary views offers a compilation of a series of short essays on management, specifically how to be a 'good' versus a 'bad' manager. Although all of the managerial theories that are summarized put a slightly different emphasis on particular values over others and use different acronyms to enable readers to comprehend how to put theory into action, the essays are underlined by the same, core principle: people must be motivated by intrinsic motivational factors to succeed. That is why empowering employees and showing respect for their input and accomplishments is so vital.

Summary of management essays

Once upon a time, according to the principles of scientific management, workers were viewed as adversaries of company profitability. Workers, it was believed, had to be heavily micro-managed so they could perform to their highest capabilities. The essay, "The enthusiastic employee: How…… [Read More]

References

Pierce, J. & Newstrom, J. (2010). The manager's bookshelf. (9th Ed). New York: Prentice Hall.
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Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for

Words: 801 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68019423

It is their behavior that has created such great concern and continues to wreak havoc on helpless children who probably feel defenseless. Society should not be shocked or dismayed when occasionally one of these victims grows up with a rage for revenge so painful as to go on a rampage. Of course, when that happens, the media and school administrators proclaim that being teased is no excuse, all students are teased. This is absurdity, since if it were true, psychologist and doctors would not be expressing concern. Conversely, what of the victim who drops out of school to stop the pain or even the ones who commit suicide?

Schools, teachers, parents and others are failing the youngest and most innocent who are victimized by their peers. Many studies have been conducted, surely examining the process of becoming a victim, or who becomes a victim and why. Research about the sad…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Graham, Sandra, Bellmore, Amy, Nishina, Adrienne, & Juvonen, Jaana. (2009) "It Must Be Me": Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization in Middle School. Journal of Youth

and Adolescence: A Multidisciplinary Research Publication, 38(4), pp 487-499. doi: 10.2007/s10964-008-9386-4. Retrieved from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/6ks014wp
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Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14621831

e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]

References

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf

Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from  http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf 

Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-

78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from  http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching and Learning

Words: 2539 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64313066

Learning & Teaching

Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.

To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…… [Read More]

References

Behlol, M., & Dad, H. (2010). Concept of Learning. International Journal Of

Psychological Studies, 2(2), 231-239.

Bradshaw, M.J. (2013). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett.

DeYoung, P.A. (2003). Relational psychotherapy: a primer. New York: Brunner-
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Organizational Behavior Joe Salatino Revision Joe Salatino

Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69825059

Organizational Behavior

Joe Salatino (evision)

Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study

Joe Salatino

Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.

Attribution and Perception

Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…… [Read More]

References

Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning.

Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, April). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved April 29th, 2012 from    http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html   .

Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Self-Efficacy in the Workplace. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 2 ISSN 1047-7039.

Nelson, D.L. & Campbell, Q.J. (2007) Understanding Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
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Sir Richard Branson Development of

Words: 346 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75895402

Today, he challenges his employees, and stimulates them to work in strong, self-monitoring and self-efficacy spirited teams. "Branson […] relishes teamwork and brings it into play in his entrepreneurial ventures. He has 'an advisory team whose job is to capture his entrepreneurial ideas and wrestle them into some kind of corporate structure that is both attractive to investors and palpable to him.' He also gives others opportunities to develop their ideas into business ventures that he backs" (McCuddy and Morgal).

But not only that he guided himself by attributions, he also became their target. Probably the most relevant example in this sense is offered by the years spent in educational institutions, where he struggled due to dyslexia and poor eyesight, resulting in a poor social perception of the future entrepreneur. It could be possible that his being attributed the perceived characteristics of laziness and stupidity motivated him to prove his…… [Read More]

Reference:

McCuddy, M.K., Morgal, M.L., Sir Richard Branson: Development of an Entrepreneur
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Perception of Time and Causation

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42421381



In this way, the article is constructed in a logical way in order to arrive at its more complex presentations and finally at its conclusions. Interestingly, the concepts are explained in very clear language, without an overflow of academic jargon, even while at the same time explicating academic concepts upon the basis of philosophy and neuroscientific research.

Because the article is explicatory in nature, the author does not conduct practical research to establish a hypothesis and prove it, but rather engages in citing research already conducted in order to prove his hypothesis on perception and causation. In this way, the article is generally philosophical in nature, although it makes significant use of practical and scientific data established by others. In this way, it satisfies both the requirements of philosophy and science, while addressing a primarily philosophical idea.

Attribution theory has at its basis the premise the cause and effect relationship…… [Read More]

References

AllPsych Online. (2004). Our View of Self and Others. Heffner Media Group, Inc. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/attribution_attraction.html

Freeman, Walter J. III (2008). "Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia of intentional action" Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science. 42 (2), pp. 137-143. Postprint available free at: http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/3375

Kearsley, Greg (2009). TIP Database: Attribution Theory. http://tip.psychology.org/weiner.html
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Improving Human Resource Management at Great Northern

Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50914166

Improving Human esource Management at Great Northern America

Because all organizations are comprised of people, there will always be human resource issues involved and the manner in which these issues are resolved can spell the difference between organizational success and failure. This was the situation facing Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern America as he sought to formulate timely and responsive solutions to his company's human resource problems in order to save his company and achieve a competitive advantage in the future. To gain some fresh insights concerning how the president of this company could approach these problems, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to explain why employees need to understand the importance of how people form perceptions and make attributions, an evaluation of the applicability of social learning theory to the circumstances, followed by an examination of ways that the president could use social learning theory…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Demirbas, M. & Yagbasan, R. (2006, May). An evaluative study of social learning theory-based scientific attitudes on academic success, gender and socio-economical level. Kuram ve

Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 6(2), 37-39.
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Educational Psychology A Student Learning

Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65007225

33). Investigations conducted by Wheelok, Bebell, and Haney (2000) provide overwhelming proof that students derive very little, if any, benefit from high-stakes testing.

Indeed, examining the self-portraits of students engaged in high-stakes testing show them to experience their environment in a way that makes them "anxious, angry, bored, pessimistic, and withdrawn" from the processes of learning and testing. Although almost nothing was positive in these assessments, older students were more pessimistic than younger students about the testing process as a tool for learning.

The main interpretation from this could be that cognitive development is smothered by high-stakes testing, resulting in the negative emotions associated with the experience, as mentioned above. Younger students are less aware of the infringement of their cognitive development, while older students are more likely to require cognitively stimulating activities to thrive in the classroom situation.

Question 2

Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1992) has several implications for academic…… [Read More]

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Social Psychology Social Beliefs and

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79190155

I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.

Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…… [Read More]

References:

David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Motivation at Southwest Motivation Is

Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21552508

Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.

Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory

To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-

Working Conditions

Quality of Supervision

Salary

Status

Security

Interpersonal relations

These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.

The motivation factors include:

Achievement

esponsibility for task

Interest in the job

Advancement to higher level tasks

Growth

Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.

Another related motivational model that…… [Read More]

References

Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531

Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.

Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.

Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
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Understanding the Facets of Social Psychology

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18936398

History Of Social Psychology

Social Psychology studies how people's thoughts emotions and feelings are influenced by what they see, hear or observe from their immediate environment (Feenstra, 2013). It also involves to how the same people respond to these influencers within their living environment. We must appreciate the fact that human beings are sensitive and receptive to all that goes on within their living environment. They react to the stimuli they get through sight or hearing. It the early days before the Second World War, psychologists and sociologists used to interact mostly in their course of action. This interaction resulted in the development of this field of social psychology. It has helped in understanding the intricate aspects of human socio-psychological phenomena (Burns, 2008).

Social Psychology theories

There are more than ten theories developed as from the late mid 20th century concerning the area of social psychology. They all explain the…… [Read More]

References

Feenstra, J. (2013). Social Psychology. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-62178-578-1

Boundless. (Accessed December 2014). Psychology. Boston: Boundless Learning, Inc. Retrieved from; https://www.boundless.com/psychology

Burns, W.D. (2008). Research only matters if you do research that matters. Journal of College Science Teaching, 37(2), 12-14. (ProQuest Document ID: 1447219371).

Hogg, M. (2013). The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Sage.
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Aspect of Human Development Social Work

Words: 2353 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39911377

child abuse and considers it as the cause for people developing differential perceptions in life and elevating crime rates. It has 15 sources.

Although caregivers give their undivided attention to children, there is always a chance that a child might be exposed to danger. This danger can be in any form, such as a fire in the house, falling and injuring one's self or child abuse. Child abuse may be the unsuitable actions of an adult towards a child that leads the child to develop distorted perceptions of life. These actions by adults may cause a child to grow up and do the same thing to other children or it may simply result in a child lacking trust in people no matter how kind they are or even over trusting people, hoping to let out the emotions held back. (Fergusson et al., 1996)

Thesis:

Child abuse causes instability in the…… [Read More]

Sources:

Eshtain, J. (1993): "Family Matters: The Plight of America's Children." The Christian Century. 14-21.

McMillan, B. (2000) Transcript Conference with: Holli Marshall & Niki Delson on "Survivors of Sexual Abuse"

Fergusson, D.M., Lynskey M.T., and Horwood, L.J. (1996), 'Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part I: The prevalence of sexual abuse and the factors associated with sexual abuse,' Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 35, pp. 1355-1365.

Child Abuse and Neglect -- A Tragic Trend Continues. Children's Voice. Child Welfare League of America, (1995) Washington, D.C.,Volume #17, Summer, p. 11
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Psychology Learning Outcome the Best Method for

Words: 5136 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78750258

Psychology

Learning Outcome

The best method for conducting the study would involve the use of a case study. Since this would be a group, setting, the case study method would allow the researcher to conduct in-depth investigations. Case studies offer the researcher an opportunity to use various data gathering sources like interviews, and observations (Halligan & Marshall, 2013). In order for the researcher to conduct an in-depth study of the subjects, the case study would offer an effective method for data gathering. The researcher would manage to immerse him/herself into the group or could make observations as the participants attend their quit smoking classes. Being a participant would allow the other participants to open up to the researcher more easily. Since the classes mostly consist of around 20 people, this makes it a small number and easy for the researcher to deal with. A case study method would ensure that…… [Read More]

References

Everly, J.B., Holtyn, A.F., & Perone, M. (2014). Behavioral functions of stimuli signaling transitions across rich and lean schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, 101(2), 201-214.

Graham, S., & Folkes, V.S. (2014). Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Halligan, P.W., & Marshall, J.C. (2013). Method in madness: Case studies in cognitive neuropsychiatry. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Huitema, B. (2011). The analysis of covariance and alternatives: Statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies (Vol. 608). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology

Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4872492

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

aseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

arriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

andura…… [Read More]

Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)

Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web:  http://www.campuscomputing.net/ 

Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
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Helplessness and Depression the Concept of Learned

Words: 2210 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58707196

Helplessness and Depression

The concept of learned helplessness is most strongly identified with psychologist Martin Seligman. Early animal experimentation by Seligman and colleagues defined the phenomenon of learned helplessness (Overmier & Seligman, 1967). The concept of learned helplessness describes the phenomenon that occurs when an animal or person observes or experiences traumatic events that they can exert little influence or control over. When the animal or person discovers that it can do nothing to escape or affect such an event it may acquire learned helplessness and not attempt to even try to remove itself from potentially harmful situations. In behavioral terms the organism learns that reinforcement and behavior are not contingent on one another (Seligman, 1976). The organism essentially becomes conditioned to form a belief that nothing it can do can affect the situation and it simply "gives up."

The original learned helplessness experiments had dogs learning through classical conditioning…… [Read More]

References

Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J.D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans:

Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87(1): 49 -- 74.

Bandura A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Impressions the Subject of First

Words: 2485 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22087158

(Mc Keachie and Doyle. 1970. p. 552)

This is an often a determining factor in contexts such as interviewing for jobs. esearch shows that "...the perception of a person is strongly influenced by the accuracy of early impressions." (Mc Keachie and Doyle. 1970. p. 552) The immediate perception of a person may therefore be colored by concepts and learnt assumptions that are applied to the individuals according to various cues.

One aspect in this regard that strands out in many studies is that while first- time perceptions can be erroneous and might be based on false preconceptions and stereotypes, yet these first impression can be extremely strong and also tend to influence later assessments of the person. This relates to the previously mentioned finding that first impressions tend often to focus on abnormal or different attributes, rather than on conventional or more positive attributes. This can, for instance, have a…… [Read More]

Reference List

Attribution Theory of Fritz Heider. [Online] Available from: http://www.afirstlook.com/archive/attribut.cfm?source=archther[14July 2006].

Bodenhausen G. And Macrae C. 2001. Social cognition: Categorical person perception. [Online] British Journal of Psychology; 2/1/2001, Available from: http://www.highbeam.com[14 July 2006].

First Impressions Of Beauty May Demonstrate Why The Pretty Prosper. [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060124223317.htm[14July 2006].

Gassner L. 2004. Don't rush to judgment: relying on first impressions when assessing a job applicant can lead to a poor hiring decision. [Online] HRMagazine; 1/1/2004, Available at http://www.highbeam.com[14 July 2006].
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Motivation in Sport

Words: 19272 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9769558

Motivation in Sport

Take a look at the animal world and you will find the proof that game is an inherent feature of the virtually evaluated species. This has an important part in literacy and evolution. We witness many a mock fights between kittens and pups so as to enhance their stamina, speed, tolerance and will. Through such hatred free games, they rub their hands for survival and satisfy their urge for challenge and ecstasy. The human species is not just a species of animals based on reason. There is an unquenchable thirst in the humans for wisdom, truth and joy. These spiritual features are the ones which differentiate human beings from animals. In the proceeding development of human civilization, sports and games have had a part in revealing the human ability.

At each and every phase of the evolutionary process, sport has had an important part in giving a…… [Read More]

References

Anshel, M.H. (1997). Sport Psychology: from Theory to Practice. (Third Edition). Scottsdale, Arizona: Gorsuch Scarisbrick

Bakker, F.C., De Koning, J.J., Van Ingen Schenau, G.J., & Gert, D.G. (1993).

Motivation of young elite speed skaters. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 24, 432-

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
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Detection and Intervention in Childhood Mental Health

Words: 10566 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97642961

detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?

Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…… [Read More]

References

AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).

Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964

Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp. Accessed on 12/08/2003

Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
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Adulthood the Transition Between Adolescence

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25043157

Interactions with peers are one way a person creates or enhances a self-concept. How Jean reacted to social strife or conflict in her environment predicted her reactions to future situations. In addition to her interactions with peers, culture has an enormous impact on Jean's development. Jean has soaked up her self-concept partly from the media but also from peer and parental influences. Jean's parents provided her with a foundation set of values, beliefs, and methods of ethical reasoning.

Several social psychological theories apply to developmental psychology. Social identity theory, observational learning, attribution theory, and the theory of social schemas can all help explain Jean's unique developmental path. Although not overly impacted by the theories of social identity, Jean noted shifting her social affiliations frequently throughout her adolescence. One of the features she notices emerging in herself is less of a tendency to create in-group boundaries. At the same time, Jean…… [Read More]

References

Huitt, W. (2004). Observational (social) learning: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/soccog/soclrn..html

Schema." (nd) Changing Minds.org. retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at  http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/schema.htm 

Schema Theory of Learning." (1998). Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 from http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/SchemaTheoryOfLearning.htm

Social Identity Theory." (2004). Universiteit Twente. Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Interpersonal%20Communication%20and%20Relations/Social_Identity_Theory.doc
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Dr Perry Was Informed by

Words: 2883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99709420

(McShane; Glinow; Ann, 2009) the difficulty with the staff may not be with the emoluments but with the emotions. Therefore the doctor can try a little novelty by projecting the business itself in a different manner by giving the work a new set of names. Managing emotions at work is one of the problems that all staff and worker face and at this stage the problems could be elsewhere instead of the clinic. By arranging for social interaction between his staff, especially using the week end party for appraisal the problems that the staff have emotionally could be addressed.

2. Infuse new blood and technology and replace old with new staff: The personal aptitude is important. The current staff may be lacking the zeal and aptitude for the job. Especially when the technology is changing they may have become redundant. It is therefore better to remove those who are extreme…… [Read More]

References

Dundon, Tony; Rollinson, Derek. (2004) "Employment relations in non-union

firms" Routledge: London.

McShane, Steven L.; Glinow, Von; Ann, Mary. (2009) "Organizational Behavior" (5th

Edition) McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
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Roman Holiday For Part One

Words: 9639 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70819218



That is the beauty of the successful and rising platform established through successful investments; it all becomes quite circular. Then, by reinvesting and refinancing earnings, everything becomes stronger. Just as easily, however, this corporation could have been buried.

1. What is a franchising arrangement? And how is this reflective of business expansion? Moreover, how does this support business growth? From HighBeam Business, these key-terms set the stage from here on out:

MLA: Pondent, Corr S. "About eacquired Franchise ights" (29 December 2010). Highbeam Business: Money. eHow. Demand Media, Inc. Web. 18 March 2011.

About eacquired Franchise ights

A franchising arrangement is a way to expand a company's business without investing a lot of additional money. The franchisee gets the use of an existing business model, or franchise rights, as well as business support, and pays the franchisor a franchise fee in return.

eacquired ights

The franchisor could decide to buyback…… [Read More]

References:

HighBeam Business: Issues in Accounting Education: The hole in the doughnut: accounting for acquired intangibles at Krispy Kreme. Web. 16 March 2011.

Citation: Bollinger, Michael a. CMA, CFM, CPA, CIA, CGFM, CDFM. "Fair value, Accounting procedures." Publication title: Strategic Finance. Montvale: Mar 2011. Vol. 92, Iss. 9; pg. 25, 1 pages 4K9S4PXGS8 at CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY - SACRAMENTO MAIN ACCOUNT via ProQuest, an information service of ProQuest LLC.

5. Auditor impairment analysis on book value of reacquired franchise rights for Arizona acquisitions. The four present values should allow you to reach a conclusion about the acceptability of the client's impairment analysis. Up to this point you are performing a conventional analysis of accounting estimates as per CAS 540. Become thoroughly acquainted with this CAS and refer to it in your report. Call this conventional analysis, and its conclusion, Part I of your report. It is worth 5 marks. The solution posted in BB for class 7 to the class discussion a&B company case, and the Hilton and O'Brien article in class 6 link may help in doing this part of the assignment.

You can use any accounting standards you prefer to support your conclusions, the U.S. ones mentioned in the case, or comparable CICA Handbook sections, or international standards, but be specific about which ones you are using so that the marker can follow your analysis and give you full credit.
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Kurt Lewin Is Widely Acknowledged as a

Words: 2522 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50588420

Kurt Lewin is widely acknowledged as a seminal theorist (Smith, 2001) who made an indelible impact on the field of psychology through his work on the cognitive and motivational processes of individuals, the dynamics of intra- and intergroup relationships, and the relevance of psychology for social programs (Lewin, 1998, p. 105). Lewin is also credited for his pioneering work in the area of experiential learning and action research (Smith, 2001). It is the objective of this paper to trace Lewin's contribution to the field of psychology from both a historical as well as present day perspective.

The influence of Kurt Lewin's life on his work

It would be useful to begin a historical perspective of Kurt Lewin's work with an analysis of his biography in order to examine the influences, if any, of his personal life on the theories that he later went on to develop. As it happens, in…… [Read More]

References

Bavelas, A., & Lewin, K. (1946). Training in Democratic Leadership. Twentieth Century

Psychology: Recent Developments in Psychology. Editors: Freeman, L., Harriman, P.L., Hartmann, G.W., & Lewin, K. New York: The Philosophical Library.

Chaplin, J.P., & Krawiec, T.S. (1974). Systems and Theories of Psychology. New York:

Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
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Community Leadership

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22400161

Community Leadership

Written documents on Leadership in political, public, governmental, social, industrial and community organization is something that began in the early 1900s and is quite broad in scope and content. Various dimensions of the topic have been explored such as perspectives of leadership, leadership sources and roots, traits in leadership, functions of leaders and how the environment impacts roles in leadership. This chapter looks at various literatures in the field with emphasis being on theories and studies on leadership within the human service and community service organizations. The paper is a personal reflection on some of the issues discussed in the chapter.

There are several leadership theoretical approaches that have developed and evolved over the years. These include traits approach whose main focus was the personal attributes of a leader with the assumption that leaders are born and not made. Studies that followed reveled that leadership is a dynamic…… [Read More]

References

Schmid H. (2009).Leadership styles and leadership change in human and community service organizations.
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Mackey Liu Xiaobo http thelede blogs nytimes com 2010 12 10 text-of-chinese-dissidents-final-statement Liu Xiaobo Won

Words: 1468 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87441913

Mackey, Liu Xiaobo

http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/12/10/text-of-chinese-dissidents-final-statement/

Liu Xiaobo won the Nobel Peace Prize, and then was jailed as a Chinese dissident who made what he called his "final statement" before beginning his jail term.

Liu had rallied for causes and done a lot of public speaking and publication in China before he was jailed, and realized when he was imprisoned that he had lost the platform he had to help and encourage others to right wrongs and speak out against injustices.

He still stands by the beliefs he expressed that resulted in his imprisonment, and holds no anger or hatred toward those who prosecuted and imprisoned him.

He is treated fairly in prison, even though he still states that he is innocent and should not be there at all because he should have the right to freedom of expression and speech.

People's Daily Online -- Human Rights in China

http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/whitepaper/4%2810%29.html

China fully…… [Read More]

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How the Mind Works Memory and Motivation

Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54211499

Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.

Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…… [Read More]

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Conflict Management I Was Pleased

Words: 516 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93587526

I sometimes go for long periods of time where I do not talk to my brother, because it can just be too much stress. I still love my brother, but when the cost of maintaining that relationship becomes too high for me I start to re-evaluate it and withdraw.

Just understanding where these types of attitudes and conflicts come from has made me so much more aware of my own feelings, and what is going on inside of me that contributes to how I see others. Just understanding how these things work makes it easier for me to manage how I relate to others. I feel that I already caught myself getting mad the clerk at the coffee shop for taking too long with one of the customers in front of me, chatting away. I realized, though, that I was hungry and tired, and maybe if I was feeling better…… [Read More]

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Piney Woods Hospital Satisfaction Is the Pivotal

Words: 3021 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20804499

Piney Woods Hospital

Satisfaction is the pivotal problem for Piney Woods Hospital to address. Satisfaction across all stakeholders has a substantive impact on the other key challenges the hospital is facing. When customers are satisfied with the service and care they receive at hospital, they let others in the community know about it. When hospital employees are satisfied, they provide superior hospital services. When physicians are satisfied, they provide excellent medical care. It is an obvious and intractable cycle. Further, levels of satisfaction are indicators of other symptoms or successes regarding the operations of the hospital and its relationship to the community. This paper will focus on the challenges of increasing patient and employee satisfaction within the Emergency Department at Piney Woods Hospital.

The health care industry has in common with other service industries the pivotal importance of employee engagement on the customer-facing -- or patient-facing, as the case may…… [Read More]

References

Atkins, P.M., Marshall, B.S., and Javalgi, R.G. (1996), Happy employees lead to loyal patients, Journal of Health Care Marketing, 16, 4, 14-23.

Brown, C.L. (2002), A theory of the process of creating power in relationships, Nursing Administration Quarterly, 26, 2, 15-33.

Cunningham, P. (2011, May11). Nonurgent use of hospital emergency departments. Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) [BEFORE THE U.S. SENATE Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging Hearing on ?Diverting Non-urgent Emergency Room Use: Can It Provide Better Care and Lower Costs?]. Retrieved  http://hschange.org/CONTENT/1204/1204.pdf 

Electronic Health Records Overview (2006, April). National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources.
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Behavior-Based Safety Bbs Is a

Words: 2139 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89601095



7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.

8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.

9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.

10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.

11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.

Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and…… [Read More]

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Service Recovery in Successful Relationships

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34232345

al.). Organizations that are attaining the highest levels of performance in services industries have created processes for internalizing lessons learned in service recovery and transforming them into processes and strategies (Boshoff, 43, 44). Based on the accumulated research a proposed Services Recovery Model is also defined in this analysis. This proposed model defines the need for coherence and consistency between organizational and individual service recovery strategies, based on the foundation of accumulated expectations of customers. The focus of the Services Recovery Model is the validation and reinforcement of trust through coherency and consistency of organizational and individually-oriented recovery strategies.

From these theoretical foundations, the developments of strategic responses to service recovery are possible to design, implement and monitor over time. Service recovery has progressed as an academic discipline and business practice due to the increasingly commoditized product strategies that rely increasingly on price and service, less on product or services…… [Read More]

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Perceptions Summary Researchers Have Identified Three Important

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17760561

Perceptions Summary

Researchers have identified three important areas which influence human perception. These are: artificial intelligence, neuroscience, and the Gestaldt Tradition (129). Human psychology has been researched, analyzed, and theorized. In recent years, psychological researchers have endeavored to apply psychological ideas to the concept of environment and also how the environment affects the psychology of the individual. J.J. Gibson founded the idea of the Gestaldt tradition and was the first individual credited with a new concept to psychology in many years. His specific insights had much to do with how the visual stimuli of the environment impacts and influences the psychology of the individual.

There is far more to stimulus than what is directly visible to the naked eye. hen describing stimuli, there are both distal and proximal types of stimuli. Distal stimuli are those which are perhaps on the peripheries of vision or which are not immediately recognized to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"Environmental Perception and Aesthetics." Conceptual Areas of Study. 129-145.
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Perceptions of Organizational Change A

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75672658

The authors begin with the understanding that "organizations are cooperative systems that rely on the willingness of members to behave in ways that support the organization" (p. 453). They use attribution theory to develop their hypotheses regarding not only how influence tactics affect employee resistance to change, but also the ways these relationships are moderated by the leader-member exchange.

A total of 167 employee surveys, from two different companies entitled OIL and BANK to protect their anonymity, were received and analyzed. It was found that most change efforts fail to reach the objectives. econciling past findings, Furst and Cable (2008) surmise that for managerial influence tactics to be effective, the leader-member exchange had to be strong. Employees used the quality of their relationship with their management to determine the intent and meaning of the influence tactics being utilized. When high levels of leader-member exchange is available, employees exhibited lower resistance…… [Read More]

References

Furst, S. & Cable, D. (2008). "Employee resistance to organizational change: Managerial influence tactics and leader-member exchange." Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2). p. 453-462.

Rafferty, a. & Griffin, M. (2006). "Perceptions of organizational change: A stress and coping perspective." Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5). p. 1154-1162.
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Leading Organization Case Study 5

Words: 1444 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11887389



Moreover, there were a number of smaller issues which augmented the overall failure of the project as a whole. Part of this was a result of the team members not wanting to obscure the fast paced frequency the project was being created in. There was essentially too much of a focus on getting the project done fast, rather than allowing the opportunity for creative differences to become a part of the process in order to mold the idea into a more appropriate direction for the client. Yes, the fast pace strategy completed the project a month ahead of schedule, but it failed the team by rushing an idea that was not properly matched to the client's needs and approved by the client before progressing further towards a final presentation. The client was not properly informed of the decision before the shooting process began. This created a situation where the team…… [Read More]

References

Robbins, Stehpen P. & Judge, Timothy a. (2008). Organizational Behavior. Prentice Hall.
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Organizational Behavior Case This Case Is Interesting

Words: 465 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94374409

Organizational Behavior Case

This case is interesting because it portrays the cultural variances that an employee might find in different cultures from a first person perspective. First, an American employee shares his perspective about his experience working on a project in Germany. He finds that the employees are extraordinarily methodological during the planning phase of the project; then rather autonomous throughout the duration of the project. In his experience American firms generally set a goals and performance targets earlier in the project and do not require that the entire team comes to a consensus about the underlying ideologies that are driving the project while also expecting that the team leader takes a more authoritarian type approach.

From the German perspective, they feel as if they can devote all of the team's resources and energies in the planning phase then they can save a bunch of time down the road because…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Rawski, S. (2011). A Tale of Two Paradigms: The Impact of Psychological Capital and Reinforcing Feedback on Problem Solving and Innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 333-350.
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Social Psychology Bringing it All Together

Words: 2439 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41289536

Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.

Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.

Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.

Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
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Correspondence Bias and Why Might it Occur

Words: 2232 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40719035

correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?

In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).…… [Read More]

References

Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D., and Akert, R.M., (2007). Social Psychology. 6th edition. Uppers Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Brandon, Emeralda (2008). Psychiatric Fundamentals. New York: Academic Press.

Bundel, Maison (2011). Fundamentals of Sociology and Psychology. Detroit: Lavemon Publications, 75, 78, 85-89.

Festinger, L., and Carlsmith, J.M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58,203-210.
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Classic Social Psychology Experiments

Words: 5609 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63362377

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics

Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.

While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.

Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's

(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.

Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
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William Mcdougall Problems With Instinct

Words: 3740 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49715382

Not all humans exhibit the same jealously levels, behaviors, etc.); and, 2. Today, instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all (like aggression and sex). but, there is still a strong instinct perspective in the study of animals (ethology) (p. 2).

Notwithstanding this lack of consensus, there have been much attention directed to the relationship between instinct theory and the various dimensions of the human experience, which are discussed further below.

elationship of Instinct Theory to Dimensions of Human Experience.

A) Paradoxes in Human Experience. Indeed, in their book, Psychologies of 1925: Powell Lectures in Psychological Theory, Madison Bentley (1928) asked early on, "By what theory can it be explained how it comes about that an individual can exhibit so many and such extreme and even seemingly paradoxical phases, or alterations of his character, and such contrasting contradictory traits and behavior?" (p. 259). The duality…… [Read More]

References

Adler, a., Bentley, Boring, E.G. et al. (1930). Psychologies of 1930. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

Alic, M. (2001). McDougall, William (1871-1938). In Gale encyclopedia of psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group.

Alvarado, C.S. (2003). Reflections on Being a Parapsychologist. The Journal of Parapsychology, 67(2), 211.

Arieti, S. (1974). The foundations of psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
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Christian Counseling

Words: 3353 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90557897

Christian Counseling

Presenting Problems

Diane seems to be undergoing many different problems that are present today because of her past. The way she was treated by her family and her husband now has gone to affect her psychologically and emotionally. The combination of post traumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective symptoms and previous satanic ritual abuse is very severe and psychological intervention is greatly required.

One of her presenting complaints is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a form of anxiety disorder that occurs as an emotional reaction to something that occurred in the patient's life. This trauma could be pain, injury, threat, or death of a loved one. (Valente, 2010) Some common examples of traumatic disorders are natural disasters, military combat or terrorist incidents. It is normal to have an adverse or a stressed response to a traumatic event. Normally, people come to back to their usual state of mind…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Brewin, C. And Holmes, E. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical psychology review, 23 (3), pp. 339 -- 376.

Clark, D. And Ehlers, A. (2004). Posstraumatic stress disorders from cognitive theory to therapy. In: Leahy, R. eds. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, pp. 141-160.

Clohessy, S. And Ehlers, A. (1999). PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (3), pp. 251 -- 265.
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Tylenol Case Analysis Johnson and

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83393004

Johnson and Johnson issued a public relations response immediately naming their number one priority: to aggressively protect any consumer from the potential hazards that may be present in any of their family of products.

Symptoms of the Problem -- Quickly, the crisis reached epic nationwide coverage. The panic that ensued, somewhat as the result of the twenty-four hour media coverage, fueled this panic into a frenzy. One hospital in Chicago, for instance, received 700 calls in one day; while Johnson and Johnson received averaged almost 150 calls per day. Across the country people were admitted into hospitals on suspicion of cyanide poisoning (Tifft, 18). Johnson and Johnson worked rapidly and decisively with the media to disseminate information. When the news spread, copycat criminals began to tamper with the products on the shelves of stores, which only deepened the crisis. ndeed, the FDA confirmed more tampering had taken place, but this…… [Read More]

Identification of Goals - in 1982, Tylenol controlled 37% of the pain killer market, approximately $1.2M and was the leading painkiller in the American market, outselling Anacin, Bayer, Bufferin, and Excedrin. Seventeen to eighteen percent net earnings of Johnson and Johnson were from Tylenol sales. Profits placed Johnson and Johnson in the top half of the Fortune 500 (Berg, 1998). The company had been doing well for years. Stock analysts had actually predicted that Tylenol's market share was poised for up to a 15% growth. In fact, Tylenol was to the product that would lead this company to further success- hat is until the Tylenol laced cyanide crisis came to be. This calamity changed the strategic plan, management goals, and parent to subsidiary goals across the organization -- within a 24-hour period. Instantly, an immediate crisis mode was assumed and a reassessment and reprioritization of their goals and immediate actions required jolted every executive, manager and employee in the organization (Mikkelson, 2004).

Immediate Goals once Crisis was Revealed-

Reacting to the news, when Johnson and Johnson was faced with the initial situation; it had to make some tough decisions that would severely impact the future of the company. Rather than think in financial terms only, CEO James Burke immediately turned to the
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Intercultural Film Analysis on Up in the

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71582083

Intercultural Film Analysis on Up in the Air

Interpersonal attraction

Interpersonal attraction is one of the themes at the heart of Up in the Air. For the purposes of this analysis, interpersonal attraction is taken to mean the ways in which people are drawn toward one another. The main character, yan Bingham, is a challenging character to analyze in this regard because he has experienced significant success through resisting interpersonal attraction, and yet he eventually comes to realize that people cannot simply shelter themselves from interpersonal attractions, even if they desire to live in complete alienation from others. yan makes his living through flying to workplaces and firing employees so that the bosses do not have to perform the unpleasant task, and yet he also doubles as a motivational speaker. His character is unusual in that he effectively tells people they are not suitable for their jobs (in his job…… [Read More]

References

Peterson, B.J. (2007). An Instructional Design Model for Heuristics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Potts, K. (2007). George Clooney: The Last Great Movie Star. New York: H. Leonard Corporation.

Selden, P. (Date Unknown). Darwin's gift: Acceptable and amorally gifted verbal communication or: The evolutionary phenomenon of pc language. University of Hawaii. Retrieved from hawaii.edu.
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Social Order and Inequality

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93626626

Social Order and Inequalities

Social order and inequality

Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.

Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…… [Read More]

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Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64594759



A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…… [Read More]

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Learning Styles and College Students

Words: 4864 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64521808

Community Colleges in America

In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.

Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.

Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
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Joe Salatino President of Great

Words: 1640 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35748867

Joe Salatino should as such focus on leveraging an understanding of the value of self-efficacy in order to hire the most successful sales people. At this level then, he could consider the following:

Leadership by power of example, in order to motivate the staffs to overcome their limitations and increase their performances

The pursuit of individuals with previous expertise in sales operations

The pursuit of candidates with innate abilities, such as good communication skills or personal discipline

The capitalization on the expertise of the sales staffs and its usage as material to inspire and drive others

The employment of training operations in order to promote sales skills, but also the improvement of the personal skills to gain more discipline, more drive and more commitment to attaining the personal and professional goals.

7. Conclusions

The Great Northern America corporation is a sales company focused on the retail of various components throughout…… [Read More]

References:

Kusluvan, S. (2003). Managing employee attitudes and behaviors in the tourism and hospitality industry. Nova Publishers.

Panagopoulos, N. (2010) Sales technology: making the most of your investment. Business Expert Press.

Social learning theory. University of South Alabama. http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/mobile/theory_workbook/social_learning_theory.htm accessed on January 28, 2013

Case: self-efficacy. Joe Salatino, President of Great Northern America.
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Leadership How Can Perceptions Affect

Words: 905 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9913103

This theory also suits me well as I believe that the greater the effort and intensity, the higher the probabili8ty of attaining ones' objectives. There is also the element of continual learning, both at work and school to interpret and when applicable, use the lessons learned. Expectancy theory also is well-suited for accounting for environmental factors that can at times be uncontrollable yet capitalized on, leading to the attainment of objectives in the future. Finally, expectancy theory also concentrates on how the concepts of valence, or strength of a person's preference for a given outcome, when combined with instrumentality and expectancy, can accurately predict the attainment of objectives over time. The concept of linking effort and results is appealing.

6. What are the common characteristics of charismatic and transformational leadership? Compare Colin Powell and Osama bin Laden as charismatic or transformational leaders. Would your answer differ if you were sympathetic…… [Read More]