Attribution Theory Essays Examples

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Attribution Theories

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2421528

Attribution Theories

In general terms, attribution theories are a person's psychological response to a conflict in an effort to explain the cause of the contention. While these theories may apply to any given situation, they are often closely intertwined with more intimate, interpersonal relationships. People in such relationships may attempt to explain their own actions or the actions of the other person in terms that may mitigate their own culpability. The ability to explain why someone would act or behave in a certain way may help a person alleviate the stress associated with the conflict. There are several different types of attribution theories that people use to explain another's behavior but three of them in particular are often cited in relationship studies.

Many people in a relationship may attempt to attribute their counterpart's behavior to personal vs. situational causes. In this way, a person seems to believe that another person acted in a certain way because of his personal nature rather than the situation at hand. For instance, a woman may attribute her boyfriend's behavior to his personality quirks, rather than the situation they are confronting. A friend of mine always complained that her boyfriend was impatient and condescending towards…… [Read More]

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Attribution Theories

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91957606

Attribution Bias: Personal Anecdotes

One of the most common sources of conflict in relationships is incorrect interpretations of motivation. Because people are narcissistic and cannot always project themselves into the mindset of others, they focus on personality-based vs. situational reasons for behavior and misbehavior. A good example of this was a source of conflict during one of my years in middle school. My English class consistently ran late. Because it was located on the other side of the building, this meant that I was always late for math class the following period. My math teacher was a stickler about promptness, and was clearly prejudiced against me because she interpreted my lateness as rudeness and saw it as an expression of a lack of concern and respect for her class. However, the fault lay with my earlier teacher and the fact that I was too young and shy to ask my English teacher to let me leave on time (of course, this might have caused my English teacher to become angry at me, creating more conflict).

Another error of attribution occurs when we assume that people's characters are fixed and assume that behavior is stable rather than unstable. A male friend…… [Read More]

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Attributions in Sports Psychology What Is Attribution

Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33391261

Attributions in Sports Psychology

What is attribution theory? It is a "cognitive approach to motivation that focuses on how individuals interpret the causes of success and failure," according to an article in the Australian Psychologist (Grove, et al., 1995, 92). In that regard, studies that Grove and colleague reference show that high achieving athletes tend to use internal attributions more readily after success than failure, which is reasonable considering that a successful baseball pitcher knows when he has his best "stuff" and when he wins a game, the attribution is rightly aimed at his skill. When that same pitcher loses, he can chalk it up to the fact that he faced outstanding hitters. And an athlete with less ability tends to use internal attributions "…more after failure than success" (Grove, 92). He might say, "I just didn't come up with the right pitches at the right time." This paper delves into attribution and sports, a subject which has not seen a great deal of scholarship recently.

Why is it important to use attributions in sports?

According to a peer-reviewed article in Psychology of Sport and Exercise, there has been a "decline" in the number of published research articles on attributions,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Grove, J.R., and Prapavessis, H. (1995). The Effect of Skill Level and Sport Outcomes on Dimensional Aspects of Causal Attributions. Australian Psychologist, 30(2), 92-95.

Rees, T., Ingledew, D.K., and Hardy, L. (2005). Attribution in sport psychology: seeking
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Attributions for Success and or Failure in Sport Performance

Words: 2742 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69445574

Performance in Sports

Attribution theory posits that ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck are the major attributional factors that cause success and failure in sport. Effort is considered an internal factor while task difficulty is considered an external factor. Ability is considered a permanent factor while luck is a changeable factor. The reformulated learned helplessness model sought to come up with the most relevant causal dimensions. The model suggests that the specificity of attributions combines with causal internality and stability to influence emotions and behavior. The model avers that global factors influence events like laziness while specific factors influence particular events like temporary fatigue. Adaptive reactions, according to helplessness theory, are occasioned by negative outcomes that are attributed to external, unstable, and specific factors. Adaptive reactions can also be facilitated when positive outcomes are attributed to internal, stable, and global factors. Outcomes that suggest that an athlete has high ability have been attributed to internal factors more than the outcomes that do not imply high ability. Athletes perceived to be having high ability make more internal, stable, and controllable attributions than athletes with low perceived ability. Grove & Prapavessis (1995) posit that negative emotional and motivational reactions are minimized when…… [Read More]

Aldridge, L.J. & Islam, M.R. (2011). Cultural Differences in Athlete Attributions for Success

and Failure: The Sports Pages Revisited. International Journal of Psychology, 47(1), 67-75.
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Attributions for Success or Failure in Sport Performance

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70241170


Sports can be attributed to drastic changes of emotions and expectations by sports fans from their favourite teams or players, based on their performances. These performeances represent the strength, capability and potential of a sportsman or a team. Sports is one of those things where it is almost inevitable to get a result where there is a victor and loser. Sports can be understood as a non-lethal, healthy combat or duel amongst two sportsmen or teams who fight for awards, honours or even bragging rights over each other. This makes the notions of success and failure an integral function of the nature of sports. Through this paper, it is targeted to carry out a thorough analysis and understand the various reasons for which the success and failure in sports performances are witnessed by sportmen and fans. This discussion would aid in determining and developing the many ways in which sports performances can be altered to achieve success and avoid failure using the analysis conducted which would incorporate analyzing physical as well as mental traits and functionalities of a sportsman.


Performance, expectations and emotions are ultimately influenced by people, situations and time. Within sport…… [Read More]

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Facts and Theories

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36334300


Two attribution theories applied to marketing include the correspondent inference theory and self-perception theory. The first applies causal attribution to determine the nature of a customer's behavior based on behavioral cues. The cues are derived from a single behavior in a particular situation. Therefore, information on its generalizability can be inferred from the behavior (Wang, 2008). Self-perception theory operates on the premise that behavioral cues emerge from both the observer and the person being observed. Two sets of causal attribution are therefore possible and can be synthesized on the basis of both sets of observations.

Other theories include the brand personality dimensions framework, which operates to compare measured brand personalities, and the hierarchy of effects models, which help marketers to determine the effect of specific advertising techniques on consumers (Marketing Journal, 2005).

Both propositions and hypotheses are statements; the content of these statements, however, differ significantly. A proposition, for example states relationships among concepts. A proposition would explain a logical link between concepts by making a statement regarding a universal connection. This connection is far too general to test empirically. An example might be the link between being friendly in a classroom and loyal, happy students. This is, however,…… [Read More]

Live Science (2012, Jul. 10). Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning. Retrieved from:

Marketing Journal (2005). 13 Useful Marketing Theories. Retrieved from:
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Learning Theory Several Theories Are

Words: 1884 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88905473

Learning tends to be associated with specific ways of considering events and establishes a student's "explanatory style," or the components of permanence, pervasiveness, and personalization.

Permanence refers to someone believing that negative events and/or their causes are permanent, despite the fact that evidence, logic, and past experience indicate that they are instead temporary: "I'll never be good in English." Pervasiveness is generalizing, so a negative aspect of a situation is thought to extend to others as well: "I failed math, so I'll fail all my courses." Personalization deals with whether individuals attribute negative events to personal flaws or to outside circumstances or people. They tend to blame themselves for everything: "It's always my fault."

To overcome such helplessness, teachers have to incorporate means of gaining self-worth and learned optimism with activities identifying negative interpretations of events, assessing their accuracy and generating more accurate interpretations. The encouragement of gaining mastery over acquiring new learning is essential to alter this personal perception. The teacher needs to incorporate ways of offering praise and positive reinforcement, goal attainment, activities geared toward a student's level, choices in activities, and multiple opportunities. The students who feel helpless can elect to do activities that lead to success.…… [Read More]

Bransford, J.D. (Ed) (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Caine, R.N., & Caine, G. (1997). Education on the edge of possibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
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George Kelly's Theory Is a

Words: 2361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37419541

("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)

Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?

The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how they react to different situations.

At the heart of these concepts, are the ideas of moral competence and moral performance. Moral competence is when there is an emphasis on the ability of the individual to perform moral actions. While moral performance is used by the person to motivate them to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
The Beginning of Cognitivist. (2002). All Psych. Retrieved from:
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Dispositional Attributions Attribution Differences in

Words: 2216 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50847656

29, p > 0.5).


This study set out to test the hypotheses that people from Eastern cultural backgrounds compared to those from Western backgrounds would make fewer dispositional attributions about the behavior of fictitious characters that the read about and would also demonstrate a more collective attitude towards themselves.

With respect to the first hypothesis, that Western participants would make a greater number of dispositional attributions that would participants with Eastern cultural heritages, that hypothesis was supported. However, there are a few caveats that need to be mentioned with regards to this. First, the scenarios that were presented to the participants only provided two alternatives to explain the behavior of the person. One alternative was a negative dispositional explanation, the other was a situational explanation could have been interpreted as far-fetched in some cases. Miller (1984) found that the tendency for Westerners to make internal attributions was higher for deviant behaviors. Morris and Peng (1994) found that explanations provided by Westerners for certain behaviors focused on negative dispositional aspects. There were no instances of positive explanatory behaviors in the survey, nor was there much information about the event to go on. Thus, Western subjects may have simply picked the…… [Read More]

Chiu, C-y., Morris, M.W., Hong, Y-y., & Menon, T. (2000). Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 247 -- 259.

Choi, I., Dalal, R., Kim-Prieto, C., & Park, H. (2003). Culture and judgment of causal relevance.
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Motivation Theories and Organization Behavior

Words: 347 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58544178

Guarding against stasis while allowing employees to have a sense of control and mastery are some of the important lessons to be learned from these theories. Still other theories of motivation allow for individual differences in what does or does not motivate the subject: Attribution theory's advocates classify individuals into three general categories: achievers who desire personal recognition, affiliation seekers who value relationships, and power seekers who desire control (Straker, 2010, Acquired needs theory). Each type requires a different motivational strategy on the part of the supervisor to ensure the employee functions at an optimal level.


Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive.

Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from

Straker, David. (2010). Acquired needs theory. Changing minds. Retrieved February 16, 2010


Straker, David. (2010). Motivation theory. Changing minds. Retrieved February 16, 2010

from… [Read More]

Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive.

Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from
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Leadership Theories the Objective of

Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18598898

The four Blanchard leadership styles include:

1) directive;

2) managing;

3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)

2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)


Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's mission. (Clawson,

Charismatic leaders have the following: (1) high self-confidence; (2) strong conviction in their own beliefs; (3) creation of the impression that they are competent; (3) are able to articulate ideological goals well for subordinates; (4) appeal to the hope and ideals of followers; (5) use role-modeling; (6) communicate…… [Read More]

Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).

Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
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Leadership Path Goal Theory the Boy Scouts

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16812245

Leadership Path Goal Theory

The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory

Leadership theories

Path Goal Theory

Explain how the theory works and include an example

Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization

Are the followers receptive?

Would you recommend another strategy?

Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization

Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization


Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization

Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization

If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?




The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also deploy various leadership and management practices in order to motivate their members. It further leads them for successful operations and achievement of desired objectives. The businesses incorporate different techniques and leadership practices including transformational and transactional styles to achieve results.

The boy scouts and military use path goal theory in…… [Read More]

Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.

Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
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Mind and Human Behavior Theories

Words: 4187 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33968140

Mind and Human Behavior

Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness

Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).

The Quantum Theory of Consciousness

The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer having synapses and neurons, functioning as bit states. The following perplexing issues, in particular, are still unsolved: (1) conscious experience's nature (conscious experience is also termed as inner life or qualia), (2) combining of dissimilar processes of the brain into unified objects, concepts, and self-image (3) switch from pre-consciousness to…… [Read More]

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Organization Theory and Behavior -

Words: 2014 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81799332

The Philadelphia mayor, and any mayor in general, must be characterized by
power at a certain level. Public administration employees usually hold
great power, and mayors make no exception, on the contrary.
In our case, the mayor's sources of individual power are:
. The power to reward, to control the rewards process within the
. The power to sanction other employees
. The mayor's formal position within the organization
. Personal charisma
. The mayor's authority as an expert
. The mayor's personal drive for power
. Self confidence

The organizational sources of power include elements of the
organizational system and extremely important management situations that
grant certain employees or groups of employees a relatively high ability to
influence others. One of the most important organizational sources of power
resides in controlled resources. The more directly a person controls more
resources, like human resources, financial resources, technical resources,
or information, deciding upon their allocation, the greater the influence
that person has on its subordinates.
Another organizational source of power consists in the formal
authority and competence that a person holds. This authority resides in the
rights that a person has in making decisions and taking actions. In other
words,…… [Read More]

5. Contingency Theory- Fiedler (2008). Value Based Management.
Retrieved July 5, 2008 from
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Theory How the Attachment Theory Accounts for

Words: 2176 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83501642


How the attachment theory accounts for differences in the development of social relationships in aging adults?

The attachment theory is one of the common theories in the specification of child development and growth in the world. Indeed, several influencing factors are concerned with the generation and establishment of the relationship that exists between parents and their children in the society. According to psychological understandings and studies in the world, there is a common feature of child growth and development that can be developed within the parameters of assumption and specification. For instance, it becomes very possible to have children growing and developing within the parameters and precepts set by their parents or caregivers. The attitudes and treatments from the caregiver appear to have innate influence on the general growth and development of the child (Sigelman & Rider, 2011).

According to the growth and development of the attachment theory, children are part of the regenerative entities in the human society. This is also applicable in the animal world. In a study involving monkeys, it is evident that all living creatures exhibit tenderness to the young. Evidently, it is becomes possible to have elements of concern that are directed at influencing…… [Read More]

George, C., & West, M.L. (2012). The adult attachment projective picture system:

Attachment theory and assessment in adults. New York: Guilford Press.
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Theory of Group Development

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4997968

Group Develoment

Theory of Group Development

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.

Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the reason why the Cognitive Behavior Therapy advocated for equitable management and development of employee behavior within workstations and in every human endeavor. There are different approaches through which human beings are categorical of resting in unity with the existent parameters of control (Arrow et al., 2000). The control measures in…… [Read More]

Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.

Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
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Attribution Error Is the Tendency

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66312171

However, it is more comforting to think that we as individuals have control over our health and can prevent illness through personal responsibility. This means we have no responsibility to extend greater healthcare coverage to others who do not have insurance as presumably they have not 'worked hard' enough to deserve such a benefit.

Question 2

Instinctively it might seem as if "the greater the cohesiveness or solidarity of a group, the better its decisions will be." Common sense suggests that cohesiveness produces a greater sense of agreement and solidarity. It is easier to enforce a decision that is made in a unified manner. But the problem with solidarity is the phenomenon known as 'groupthink' or the assumption that if the other members of the group think something is right, than it is correct.

Human beings are social animals, and the need to please others and to receive support is hard-wired into the human psyche. Furthermore, it can be very difficult to assume that others are wrong, even if you believe you are right even on factual matters: one study of a group found that, when shown two obviously different-sized lines, people still tended to agree with planted confederates in…… [Read More]

Fundamental attribution error. Changing Minds. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at 

What is groupthink? PSYSR. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at
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Science of Emotional Intelligence and Cultural Evolution

Words: 1611 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77353767

Attribution Theory and Emotional Intelligence

Attribution theory

Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.

The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation that determines one's behavior. Factors such as the ability, task, difficulty, task, and luck affect individuals' attribution for achievement of their desired personal and professional objectives. Classifying attributions takes into consideration three dimensions of causation that include locus of control, controllability, and stability. Internal locus of control vs. external locus…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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Family Stress Adaptation Theory of Family Stress

Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55781916

Family Stress Adaptation

Theory of Family Stress Adaptation

Family is the basic social unit of people sharing the same attributes. It is a group of people tied to the same kinship descent consisting of parents, guardians and children. It is necessitated that commitment and upkeep of the family be maintained, and for this reason, there has been introduced a number of theories implicating on the activities carried out in this social setting. However, amid these activities, negative attributions arise. They include marital challenges, inter-family relational problems and financial constrains, among others. These issues bring about stress related problems, leading to the development of theoretical results of how the stress should be handled and tailored. This is in conjunction to this context's topic on the theory of family stress theory adaptation by McCubbin and McCubbin.

Theory Description

The proposition of the theory asserts on the developmental perception of family science. The theoretical aspect explores the reasons behind systematic adaptation and growth of situational stressors among family units. Similarly, theses stressors have been deteriorating and disintegrating various circumstances at these special units. In understanding the core comprehension of the theory, a family's strengths, type and behavioral characteristics are to be first focused…… [Read More]

Beckett, C. (2000). Family Theory as a Framework for Assessment. Family Nursing. Vol 35.

Fitzpatrick, J.J. (2006). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research (book). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
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Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation Any Theory

Words: 2664 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53620833

Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation

Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.

Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides the same opportunity. However, proponents of the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation argue that reading and studying the Bible provides an even richer opportunity -- that of engaging in interactive communication -- a conversation -- with God. The Scripture communicates in particular ways, according to this theory, and readers have…… [Read More]

Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.
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Authorship and Attribution in Early

Words: 3487 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20745555

A certain feeling toward propriety and morality is stamped upon our sex, which does not allow us to appear alone in public, nor without an escort. Thus how can I present my musical work, to the public with anything other than timidity. The work of any lady…can indeed arouse a degree of pity in the eyes of some experts." (Bowers and Tick, 1987)

Bowers and Tick state that many composers of this time "Reichardt, Hensel, and Schumann -- published lieder under male authorship. A few of Reichardt's early songs were included in a collection of her father's lieder, 'Duetsche Lieder' and three of Hensel's early songs "appear in each of Felix's Opus 8 and Opus 9; the 'Allegemeine musikalische Zeitung' claimed that 'An des lust'gen Brunnenes Rand' a duet composed by Fanny, is the best song in the collection" of Opus 8. Additionally three of Schumann's lieder were "included in a collection of twelve songs published under the joint names of Robert and Clara Schumann." (Bowers and Tick, 1987) So it was that women first published under the names of their father's and husbands prior to possessing the self-confidence and freedom within society to express themselves through compositions which they…… [Read More]

Backer, Eric and Kranenburg, Peter van (2004) on Musical Stylometry- a Pattern Recognition Approach. Science Direct 2004 Elsevier.

Bowers, Jane M. And Tick, Judith (1987) Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1059. University of Illinois Press, 1987.
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Gender Role Theory & Male

Words: 1548 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64782239


Anderson, I. (2007). What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception. The British Psychological Society, 46, 3225-245.

Anderson, I. & Lyons, a. (2005). The Effect of Victims Social Support on Attribution of Blame in Female and Male Rape. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(7), 1400-1417.

Davies, M. & McCartney S. (2003). Effects of Gender and Sexuality on Judgments of Victim Blame and Rape Myth Acceptance in a Depicted Male Rape. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 13, 391-398.

Doherty, K. & Anderson, I. (2004). Making sense of male rape: constructions of gender

Sexuality, and experience of male rape victims. Journal of Community & Applied

Social Psychology, 14(2), 85-103.

Kassing, L.R. & Prieto, L.R. (2003). The Rape Myth and Blame-Based Beliefs of Counselors-in-Training Toward Male Victims of Rape. Journal of Counseling & Development, 81(4), 455-461.

Groth, a.N. & Burgess, a.W. (1980). Male Rape: offenders and victims. Retrieved from: 9, 2009.

Kaufman, a. et al. (1980). Male rape victims: noninstitutionalized assault. Retrieved from, a.M. et al. (2007). Abnormal Psychology 10th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Leedy, P.H. (1993). Purpose of review of related literature. Retrieved from…… [Read More]

Anderson, I. (2007). What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception. The British Psychological Society, 46, 3225-245.

Anderson, I. & Lyons, a. (2005). The Effect of Victims Social Support on Attribution of Blame in Female and Male Rape. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(7), 1400-1417.
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Cognitive Theory Cognition Is the

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29875252

It thus becomes the concern of CBT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).

Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. But it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users. However, it fails to consider and address the aspect of gender differences between depressed men and women.

On the whole, the cognitive behavior therapy promises a lot of help to depressed persons, as shown by surveys and researchers but both findings and methods have been limited and require further study.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida.

2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
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Intercultural and or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories

Words: 1848 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32191910

Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.

This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized communication styles, and also when researching the concept of 'face' and loss thereof, to examine aspects of the individual's self-concept, based in gender, but also perhaps based in culture. Or would individuals from less individualistic cultures than the United Sates exhibit a less wide gender range of self-associations than other…… [Read More]

Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical

Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):
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Criminological Theories Criminology Theories Have

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35903924

Therefore, in response to criminal actions, the rules and laws of a system are developed. It is their presence that represents the glue of the social parts.

One shortcoming of this theory however is the fact that it cannot explain the motivation behind the actual existence of criminal behavior. It tends to perceive the society as a whole, through statistics and factual dates and tries to predict its evolution. Durkheim notes that the continuous existence of the phenomenon is attributed the need of the society for the eventual contribution to the definition of that community. According to him, crimes have a concrete role, as opposed to other theories which fight against such attributions. Thus, identifying criminals draws the limit of correct behavior, by exerting severe punishment; there is a clear notion of the most valuable values in the respective society. Moreover, criminal activities often result in the change of certain social realities, one example being the actions of Martin Luther King. One final concluding fact is that the existence of crimes shows a limited control over the citizens.

Opposing this view is the labeling theory. It takes a distinctive approach from the functionalist models by emphasizing the negative consequences categorizing…… [Read More]

Larry Siegel, (1992). Criminology. New York: West Publishing.

Lemert, Edwin. (1967). Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
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David Mcclelland's Acquired-Needs Theory According

Words: 484 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69326702

In my own experiences as a first-year student, I came in conflict with an RA because of his or her strong institutional power orientation. As a freshman at Boston College I was marked as in violation for a relatively minor infraction by my RA. I doubt that I would have been reprimanded -- however, when the RA questioned me, I was relatively casual. I did not act worried and abjectly sorry about his power to affect my future, and in retrospect, I realized that the student's sense of authority had been threatened by what he perceived as my insolence. I saw him as a fellow student, the RA saw me as a threat to his power because I treated him as an equal, not a superior.

In any situation where authority is unclear, clashes of McClelland personality types will always be an issue. Individuals with a strong power orientation will be angry if they are not obeyed, while individuals with a strong achievement orientation will worry about their status. Individuals with a high affiliation orientation may tend to blur friendship with work. It is difficult to envision the perfect character orientation for an RA, given McClelland's assumptions regarding human behavior.…… [Read More]

"McClelland: Theory of needs." Net MBA. November 24, 2009.
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Management Principles Organizational Theories the Book the

Words: 2141 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92466863

Management Principles: Organizational Theories

The book The manager's bookshelf: A mosaic of contemporary views offers a compilation of a series of short essays on management, specifically how to be a 'good' versus a 'bad' manager. Although all of the managerial theories that are summarized put a slightly different emphasis on particular values over others and use different acronyms to enable readers to comprehend how to put theory into action, the essays are underlined by the same, core principle: people must be motivated by intrinsic motivational factors to succeed. That is why empowering employees and showing respect for their input and accomplishments is so vital.

Summary of management essays

Once upon a time, according to the principles of scientific management, workers were viewed as adversaries of company profitability. Workers, it was believed, had to be heavily micro-managed so they could perform to their highest capabilities. The essay, "The enthusiastic employee: How companies profit by giving workers what they want" suggests that employee eagerness to act independently is an asset for companies. This interpersonal quality must be treasured just as much as other organizational resources. Employees are eager to give back to organizations and management and employees need to exist in a…… [Read More]

Pierce, J. & Newstrom, J. (2010). The manager's bookshelf. (9th Ed). New York: Prentice Hall.
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Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for

Words: 801 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68019423

It is their behavior that has created such great concern and continues to wreak havoc on helpless children who probably feel defenseless. Society should not be shocked or dismayed when occasionally one of these victims grows up with a rage for revenge so painful as to go on a rampage. Of course, when that happens, the media and school administrators proclaim that being teased is no excuse, all students are teased. This is absurdity, since if it were true, psychologist and doctors would not be expressing concern. Conversely, what of the victim who drops out of school to stop the pain or even the ones who commit suicide?

Schools, teachers, parents and others are failing the youngest and most innocent who are victimized by their peers. Many studies have been conducted, surely examining the process of becoming a victim, or who becomes a victim and why. Research about the sad consequences probably exist even though the effects stare out at people every day. Teachers must learn the difference between typical teasing and the creation of victims being damaged on a regular basis. The focus must be directed on the perpetrators of abuse, which to call it as clearly as possible,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Graham, Sandra, Bellmore, Amy, Nishina, Adrienne, & Juvonen, Jaana. (2009) "It Must Be Me": Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization in Middle School. Journal of Youth

and Adolescence: A Multidisciplinary Research Publication, 38(4), pp 487-499. doi: 10.2007/s10964-008-9386-4. Retrieved from:
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Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14621831

e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership however defined, those traits probably exist in many who never encounter opportunities for leadership deployment, and so environmental factors probably affect how those characteristics or traits are expressed or displayed. In democracies for example, stakeholder and electorate preferences and objectives constrain who occupies public office and thus exercises leadership, in…… [Read More]

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from

Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from 
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Analyzing and Supporting Psychological Egoism Theory

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77852164

Psychological Egoism Theory

Egoism in every form necessitates explication of well-being, welfare, or self-interest. Two chief theories exist in this regard. Self-interest has been identified with personal desire satisfaction by desire or preference accounts. Usually, and most conceivably, such desires will be restricted to those that are self-regarding. Though what constitutes a self-regarding desire is debatable, clear instances and counter-instances exist: desires for one's personal pleasure will be self-regarding, while those for others' welfare won't. In objective account, self-interest is identified with state possession (e.g. knowledge or virtue) assessed separately whether or not they're desired/preferred (Shaver para.1).

The empirical principle of psychological egoism states that the defining motive behind all voluntary actions is the desire for personal welfare. In this approach, despite all actions being considered self-interest actions, egoists readily highlight the fact that individuals normally attempt to mask the defining motives underlying their actions, since this concealment will often be to their personal advantage. This name has been ascribed to a hypothesis popularly held by lay people, and once accepted almost universally by political philosophers, psychologists, and economists. According to this theory, every action committed by mankind, if properly understood, will reveal that it has been motivated by egotistic…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching and Learning

Words: 2539 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64313066

Learning & Teaching

Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.

To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more set in their ways. The more hard-edged approach to take is to make clear what can and might happen if a bad behavior is not changed. For example, if a person is always eating fatty foods and lives a sedentary lifestyle, then there is at least a possibility that the…… [Read More]

Behlol, M., & Dad, H. (2010). Concept of Learning. International Journal Of

Psychological Studies, 2(2), 231-239.
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Organizational Behavior Joe Salatino Revision Joe Salatino

Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69825059

Organizational Behavior

Joe Salatino (Revision)

Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study

Joe Salatino

Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.

Attribution and Perception

Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior, and others behavior. Employees are supposed to understand the way customers perceive things differently, and try to influence the customer's attribution; this is the first step in making sales (Nelson & Campbell, 2007, pg 84).

Joe expects his employees to understand attribution, as it affects the sales process directly. There…… [Read More]

Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning.

Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, April). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Retrieved April 29th, 2012 from .
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Sir Richard Branson Development of

Words: 346 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75895402

Today, he challenges his employees, and stimulates them to work in strong, self-monitoring and self-efficacy spirited teams. "Branson […] relishes teamwork and brings it into play in his entrepreneurial ventures. He has 'an advisory team whose job is to capture his entrepreneurial ideas and wrestle them into some kind of corporate structure that is both attractive to investors and palpable to him.' He also gives others opportunities to develop their ideas into business ventures that he backs" (McCuddy and Morgal).

But not only that he guided himself by attributions, he also became their target. Probably the most relevant example in this sense is offered by the years spent in educational institutions, where he struggled due to dyslexia and poor eyesight, resulting in a poor social perception of the future entrepreneur. It could be possible that his being attributed the perceived characteristics of laziness and stupidity motivated him to prove his worth.


McCuddy, M.K., Morgal, M.L., Sir Richard Branson: Development of an Entrepreneur… [Read More]

Works Cited:
McCuddy, M.K., Morgal, M.L., Sir Richard Branson: Development of an Entrepreneur
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Perception of Time and Causation

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42421381

In this way, the article is constructed in a logical way in order to arrive at its more complex presentations and finally at its conclusions. Interestingly, the concepts are explained in very clear language, without an overflow of academic jargon, even while at the same time explicating academic concepts upon the basis of philosophy and neuroscientific research.

Because the article is explicatory in nature, the author does not conduct practical research to establish a hypothesis and prove it, but rather engages in citing research already conducted in order to prove his hypothesis on perception and causation. In this way, the article is generally philosophical in nature, although it makes significant use of practical and scientific data established by others. In this way, it satisfies both the requirements of philosophy and science, while addressing a primarily philosophical idea.

Attribution theory has at its basis the premise the cause and effect relationship in all human action. This is also the premise of the article. What particularly interests me about Freeman's article above other possibilities I investigated is the construction of his article. Attribution theory considers mainly philosophical ideas and proof. Yet Freeman has made a point of substantiating his ideas not only…… [Read More]

AllPsych Online. (2004). Our View of Self and Others. Heffner Media Group, Inc.

Freeman, Walter J. III (2008). "Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia of intentional action" Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science. 42 (2), pp. 137-143. Postprint available free at:
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Improving Human Resource Management at Great Northern

Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50914166

Improving Human Resource Management at Great Northern America

Because all organizations are comprised of people, there will always be human resource issues involved and the manner in which these issues are resolved can spell the difference between organizational success and failure. This was the situation facing Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern America as he sought to formulate timely and responsive solutions to his company's human resource problems in order to save his company and achieve a competitive advantage in the future. To gain some fresh insights concerning how the president of this company could approach these problems, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to explain why employees need to understand the importance of how people form perceptions and make attributions, an evaluation of the applicability of social learning theory to the circumstances, followed by an examination of ways that the president could use social learning theory to improve employee performance. Finally, a discussion concerning ways that the president of this company could leverage the value of self-efficacy to ensure the most successful salespeople are hired is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Importance of Understanding How…… [Read More]

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Social Psychology Social Beliefs and

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79190155

I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.

Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can also be explained by proximity and interaction. Being closer to a person physically allows them to become more attractive since one is exposed to them almost daily (Myers, 2012). Our interactions on a daily basis, according to Myers (2012), also mediated this friendship and increased our attraction toward one another.…… [Read More]

David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Women Studies and Communications Women's

Words: 1244 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30509408

Communication Studies

Key Concepts

Communication Studies examine the way human beings communicate with one another and how that communication reflects meaning. Thus, there are a number of key concepts which relate to the process of communication itself and how those concepts reflect a larger cultural structure or phenomenon. First, symbols are those elements which we use to describe particular objects and/or phenomenon. Meaning is the associated definition of the symbols we work with in our communicative strategies.

Intrapersonal communication refers to the thinking processes and internal communication that occurs within an individual. This is the opposite of interpersonal communication, which is the communication which takes place between individuals. Interpersonal communication can be both formal and informal, taking place within a wide variety of contexts (Fiske, 2012). Group communication is that which is being spread within particular members of a group. This type of communication reinforces cultural norms and differentiates members of the group from other groups. This is often associated with mass communication and the media. The media and the role it plays within larger communications is another major concept that is found within communication studies. It is responsible for most of the mass communication which takes place within any…… [Read More]

Fiske, John. (2012). Key Concepts in Communication and Cultural Studies. Taylor & Francis.

Pilcher, Jane & Whelehan, Imelda. (2004). Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies. Sage Publications.
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Motivation at Southwest Motivation Is

Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21552508

Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.

Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory

To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-

Working Conditions

Quality of Supervision




Interpersonal relations

These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.

The motivation factors include:


Responsibility for task

Interest in the job

Advancement to higher level tasks


Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.

Another related motivational model that seems to be close fit to the operations at Southwest is the Existence Relatedness, Growth (ERG) model of human motivation, which identifies the existence needs, such as water air, shelter, and so on. Relatedness needs, where individuals need to be recognized as part of a group, family or culture. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from

Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
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Understanding the Facets of Social Psychology

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18936398

History Of Social Psychology

Social Psychology studies how people's thoughts emotions and feelings are influenced by what they see, hear or observe from their immediate environment (Feenstra, 2013). It also involves to how the same people respond to these influencers within their living environment. We must appreciate the fact that human beings are sensitive and receptive to all that goes on within their living environment. They react to the stimuli they get through sight or hearing. It the early days before the Second World War, psychologists and sociologists used to interact mostly in their course of action. This interaction resulted in the development of this field of social psychology. It has helped in understanding the intricate aspects of human socio-psychological phenomena (Burns, 2008).

Social Psychology theories

There are more than ten theories developed as from the late mid 20th century concerning the area of social psychology. They all explain the phenomena touching on the human life and other aspects that are of the psychological aspect. One such theory is the attribution theory (Boundless, 2013). The theory defines how people attribute causes to events. It is divided into two as the external and the internal attribution. The former relates to how…… [Read More]

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Aspect of Human Development Social Work

Words: 2353 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39911377

child abuse and considers it as the cause for people developing differential perceptions in life and elevating crime rates. It has 15 sources.

Although caregivers give their undivided attention to children, there is always a chance that a child might be exposed to danger. This danger can be in any form, such as a fire in the house, falling and injuring one's self or child abuse. Child abuse may be the unsuitable actions of an adult towards a child that leads the child to develop distorted perceptions of life. These actions by adults may cause a child to grow up and do the same thing to other children or it may simply result in a child lacking trust in people no matter how kind they are or even over trusting people, hoping to let out the emotions held back. (Fergusson et al., 1996)


Child abuse causes instability in the character and perceptions of a child which results in the distorted image of the child's self causing the child to have an ambiguous attitude towards other people in the future.

Literature Review:

Child abuse can occur at any time and by anyone. The child maybe even more severely affected if…… [Read More]

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Psychology Learning Outcome the Best Method for

Words: 5136 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78750258


Learning Outcome

The best method for conducting the study would involve the use of a case study. Since this would be a group, setting, the case study method would allow the researcher to conduct in-depth investigations. Case studies offer the researcher an opportunity to use various data gathering sources like interviews, and observations (Halligan & Marshall, 2013). In order for the researcher to conduct an in-depth study of the subjects, the case study would offer an effective method for data gathering. The researcher would manage to immerse him/herself into the group or could make observations as the participants attend their quit smoking classes. Being a participant would allow the other participants to open up to the researcher more easily. Since the classes mostly consist of around 20 people, this makes it a small number and easy for the researcher to deal with. A case study method would ensure that the researcher manages to study each participant and establishes the subject's life, and history (Huitema, 2011). The information gathered would allow the researcher to understand the background of the subject and understand why they begun smoking. The reason behind their desire to quit smoking would also be discovered using case…… [Read More]

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Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology

Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4872492

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

Baseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

Barriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, Bandura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

Bandura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

Bandura believed that the effects of self-efficacy beliefs on cognitive processes take many directed by individually selected, and personal goal setting is influenced by self-appraisal of capabilities. The stronger the teacher perceives their self-efficacy, the higher the goals and challenges people will set for themselves and the firmer is their commitment…… [Read More]