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Younger people (18- to 34-year-olds) are much more likely to view television news as mainly interested in serving the public interest (57.5% vs. 46.7%). Creating a local brand and attracting the most viewers is the name of the game in the battle for ratings and revenues. The local newscast defines the image of the station, and now more than ever local stations need up-to-date newscasts to keep audiences tuned in. Local stations have problems that the bigger markets do not have, tapping into news and information-gathering networks for state, national, and international news, sports, business, entertainment, politics and weather. The newsgathering services they utilize truly define their on-air and online brand. They can even build audience share with videos, audios, graphics, photos, text, newsroom systems and online multimedia. It will take this kind of up-to-date technology and style of newscasts to attract the younger people in today's market.
Anchors and Reporters: Andersen Cooper. Cable News Network, CNN.com. 2007. http://www.cnn.com/CNN/anchors_reporters/cooper.anderson.html .
Archibald, Robert B.; Haulman, Clyde a.; Carlisle E. Moody, Jr. Quality, Price, Advertising, and Published Quality Ratings,. The Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Mar., 1983), pp. 347-356.
Digital.life Report. International Telecommunication Union Internet Report 2006. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/digitalife/docs/digital-life-web.pdf
Geisler, Jill. Russert on his career, his show and his podcast. RTNDA Notebook. 16 April 2007. http://www.poynter.org/column.asp?id=100&aid=121550 .
-in the U.S.A. And Abroad-
It is the purpose of this work to examine and evaluate the impacts that international broadcasting has had on the cultural, political, and economical landscape of society as well as in terms of the impacts effected by law, communication, advertising or public relations. Sources for referencing in this document are explicitly academic and professional journal works.
In the year 1961 America's President John F. Kennedy appointed a young Chicago lawyer, who incidentally was not a member of the Washington D.C. "elite" to the position of Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, commonly known as the "FCC" or the "Commission." Newton N. Minow was the youngest individual in history to fill the position. (Cate, 2003)
With just a few words Minow changed the way that the American citizens viewed the broadcast industry as he said:
"I have confidence in your health [but] not in…
Aufderheide, Patricia (1991) "A Funny Thing is Happening to TV's Public
Forum" Columbia Journalism Review ( 1991 Nov-Dec): 60-63
Boyd, Douglas A. (1998) Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media: The
utilization of direct satellite broadcasting (DBS) in Saudi Arabia." 22
level of public intervention in broadcasting is justified by the existence of market failures that mean, left to itself, the broadcast market would not serve the public interest as well as it could or should'. Discuss.
The ritish roadcasting Corporation is the key player in public service broadcasting in the UK. The organization was established in 1926 as a public corporation. The company is funded with the revenue generated from licenses. All TV owners are required to purchase these licenses. The corporation is prohibited from running advertisements on any of its channels. ritain's public broadcasting became free of state control in the 60s. The relinquishing of state monopoly gave birth to many other broadcasting stations with a commercial bias, but they were still controlled strictly. The new entities were run on revenue generated from advertizing. They also sold licenses that allowed viewers to enjoy their programs. The set up still…
Anon., n.d.. Market Failure in Broadcasting. news.bbc.co.uk, p. 204. Retrieved from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/bbc_funding_review/annex8.pdf
Davies, G., 2004. The BBC and Public Value. London: The Social Market Foundation.
Hesmondhalgh, David. 2007. The Cultural Industries (2nd edition). London: Sage
Keat, R., 2011. Political Philosophy and Public Service Broadcasting. Public Reason, 3(2), pp. 61-79.
Mogel's #5: Carefully read the want ads in trade publications. Mogel's #6: Give thought to going to graduate school in broadcast journalism. You may not want to be a reporter as a career, but Mogel writes that journalism could "give you the edge you need to get the right job." He adds that perhaps a better idea for some individuals would be to work a couple years in radio first, to see if that is really the career you want, then attend graduate school. There are "excellent extension courses offered by some colleges" and they offer a "practical alternative to graduate school" plus they give you a professional education while you are working during the daytime.
Number 7 on Mogel's list: "Take pains with each cover letter. Don't blow the impact of a good resume with a bad cover letter." This is of course good advice no matter what job…
Deitz, Corey. 'How Do I Break Into Radio?" About.com. Retrieved Dec. 7, 2010, from http://radio.about.com .
Keith, Michael. The Radio Station: Broadcast, Satellite and Internet. Burlington, MA: Focal
Mogel, Leonard. Making it in Broadcasting. Orange County, CA: Leonard Mogel Publishing,
wireless content delivery and its implications for sport broadcasting rights fees?
Over the last several years, a technological revolution has taken place in the field of consumer electronics. This is occurring through rapid shifts in the way information is provided, delivered and the formats that are available. At the heart of these changes, are the shifts to wireless devices. This is when various game consoles, computers and cell phones have the capability of performing a variety of applications. This is transforming how consumers are receiving and watching different kinds of TV programs and movies utilizing the Internet. The basic idea is to provide consumers with a more interactive experience. (Kerschbaumer, 2011)
Commenting about these changes is John evie (the Senior Vice President of Samsung's Consumer Business segment) who said, "We expect sales of wireless devices with 'Smart TV' functionality to surpass 9 million this year, a 300% increase. Our app…
Bain, E. (2010). Sports over IP. MIT. Retrieved from: http://cfp.mit.edu/publications/CFP_Papers/Blain_Emmanuel_Thesis_final.pdf
Blackshaw, I. (2012). Sports Marketing Agreements. New York, NY: Springer.
Kerschbaumer, K. (2011). Connected TVs. Sports Video.org. Retrieved from: http://sportsvideo.org/main/blog/2011/01/07/connected-tvs-offer-promise-but-business-challenges-loom/
Battle in Radio Broadcasting
Identify the organization's generic strategy
The organization's generic strategy is important. XM strives to offer a broad and appealing means of selection for the listener. Through this, the individual pays $12.95 a month in order to have the programming as commercial free as possible. However, they also offer a family plan where one can pay $6.99 a month, so that the person can have additional radios within their household. Their target market includes those that are automobile and truck drivers. A person can receive what he or she wants through a portable receiver for their home or personal or to have one installed in their vehicle. They encourage the use of satellite radio vs. The traditional form of it. 2. Identify at least one strategy that supports the generic strategy and describe how it meets the organization's goal and objectives
One strategy that supports the generic…
Sports Clubs and Their Channels
The operations of opening a channel under a soccer sports club depend on a number of factors such as rights, the broadcasting networks in the operating country, and the events broadcasted. This paper will explain the operations of three sports club channels, one in England, Spain and Italy, and show how the process is different for each and what the individual strategies are.
In England the soccer club Manchester United operates its own TV channel called Manchester United TV (MUTV). It began broadcasting in 1998 and was originally owned by ITV plc, BSkyB and Manchester United. Thus, it was not exclusively a soccer club venture but rather a joint venture between broadcasting giants and the sports club. As the Sky platform began to take over the sporting arena in terms of establishing contracts giving it the right to broadcast first team live events, the relevancy…
Anders, R. (2010). MUTV: Is this the road paved with gold? Probably not. The Anders Blog. Retrieved from http://andersred.blogspot.com/2010/09/mutv-is-this-road-paved-with-gold.html
Ed, N. (2013). Reds turn to pay-per-view in search of new revenues. United Rant.
Retrieved from http://www.unitedrant.co.uk/opinion/reds-turn-to-pay-per-view-in-search-of-new-revenues/
MUTV Get Closer. (2015). MANUTD. Retrieved from http://www.manutd.com/en/MUTV-New/MUTV-FaqsNew.aspx
Another main reason why Planet Earth is so successful is that the series delivers substantial quality content. The writing is accessible, lacking jargon, but still never dumbed-down or didactic. Individual episodes are so packed with information that viewers can look forward to watching again and again, and likely learn new things each time.
The producers opted for each episode to be about a familiar but broad ecosystem: such as caves, deserts, shallow seas, and deep ocean. This allows each individual episode to contain information about several different types of animals that exist in that ecosystem, and shows how the flora and fauna interact and coexist. Thus, no episode becomes bogged down by too much emphasis on one creature or one process of nature. At the same time, the producers select a few animals and processes to focus on instead of overwhelming the audience with too much data. To deliver scientific…
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Planet Earth. 2006.
First Amendment rights are not absolute, particularly in regards to advertising. For example, there has been a great deal of pressure to regulate advertising directed at children that promotes unhealthy junk food. "There is a legal test for judging whether commercial speech qualifies for protection under the First Amendment. Called the Central Hudson test, it says that such speech must be truthful and not 'actually or inherently misleading'" and it has been argued that much of commercial advertising targeting children takes advantage of a credulous consumer's inability to tell the difference between truth and fiction (Bittman, 2012, par.11). In this instance, however, the objections raised to our new advertising campaign are not targeted at children. Rather, the concern is merely that children may see inappropriate material, even if it is not intended that they purchase the product.
In the past, the U.S. Supreme Court has allowed censorship of certain types…
The program director also typically fulfills duties in the realm of direct negotiations with recording labels and other professional management and representation in connection with establishing product or talent exposure goals that are mutually agreeable to all parties. This often requires polished negotiating and communications skills, particularly because the interests of the station and those of artists and their representation may not necessarily coincide (Hall & Hall, 2000).
Finally, the broadcast radio program director must also supervise technical elements of radio broadcast operations, including the production, recording, and airing of programs, (Paro, 2009) and for ensuring that engineering personnel follow strict FCC and other regulatory compliance requirements (Stern, 1993; Stern, 1995). The compliance element of radio operations can be extremely challenging because a radio station program
director must master the terminology and many of the complex legal concepts and standards that govern broadcast media (Paro, 2009).
While the actual legal…
Hall, C., Hall, B. (2000). This Business of Radio Programming. New York: St. Martin's
Paro, B. (2009). "What is a Radio Program Director" Music X-Press Magazine Retrieved
April 14, 2009 from:
Marketing and Childhood Obesity
In the twenty-first century obesity is growing out of control in many counties in the developed world. A combination of a sedentary lifestyle, a high-fat diet, and sugary drinks, have driven up the average human weight to the point in which it is having a serious negative effect on the overall health of a large number of individuals. This is particularly serious with regards to our younger population. Childhood obesity, a condition in which excess body fat negatively affects a child's health, is reaching epidemic proportions in the developed world. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010) childhood obesity has more than tripled over the last 30 years. Incidences of obesity among children ages 6 to 11 has risen from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008. Among adolescents ages 12 to 19 the obesity rate increased from 5% to 18.1percent during the same…
Center for Disease Control. (2010, June 3). Childhood obesity. CDC/Healthy youth. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/obesity/index.htm
Goodman, B. (Dir.). (2001, February 27) The merchants of cool. Frontline, Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved March 26, 2013 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/
Lluch, A., Herbeth, B., Mejean, L, & Siest, G. (2000, November). Dietary intakes, eating style and overweight in the Stanislas family study. International Journal of Obesity. Vol. 24, Issue11, 1493-1499. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=15c2f4f6-9ef7-47d3-8df7-4ec14ae58e1d%40sessionmgr13&hid=3
Nelson, J. & Zeratsky, K. (February 19, 2010). Schools say NO to sugary foods.
challenges face Director-General BBC maintain eithian tradition British public service broadcasting face technological change crises funding content ? Are lessons draw past?
The eithian tradition comes from John eith who was the British Broadcasting Corporation's director general. He created a concept of broadcasting that was centered along educating viewers. He was an autocratic leader which made the approach of educating viewers successful. He built internal checks which helped to control his benevolent style of dictatorship. He was greatly convinced that the strategy of educating viewers would greatly help the organization. He in fact summarized the purpose of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in three words which were to educate, to inform and to entertain. These remain to be a part of the mission statement of the organization to this very day. Other broadcasters around the world such as the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) which is located in the…
Feintuck, M., & Varney, M. (2006). Media Regulation, Public Interest And the Law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Kumar, S. (2009). The BBC and digital inclusion and participation Retrieved August 30th, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/aboutthebbc/2009/11/the-bbc-digital-inclusion-and.shtml
Moore, C. (2012). It's time the BBC learnt its lessons. Gulf Daily News Retrieved August 30th, 2012, from http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/NewsDetails.aspx?storyid=333146
The British Broadcasting Corporation. (2012). Jubilee coverage: BBC receives more than 2,000 complaints Retrieved August 30th 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-18337851
He doesn't mention Apple's iPod, iPod Touch, and iPad, but those devices also pose a challenge for traditional radio broadcasting. People can "…select music that suits their individual tastes and many have wider repositories of music in their own libraries" -- thanks to the iTunes and similar services -- than are offered on the playlists of radio broadcasters (Picard, p. 1).
Moreover, Satellite and Internet radio are offering "hundreds of choices of highly focused music formats," Picard continues, making radio "…a less relevant platform" for music and entertainment than it was previously (p. 1). Besides using Satellite radio -- and being willing to pay for a service that specializes in exactly the music genre listeners prefer -- users are downloading podcasts on a number of topics that interest them, Picard explains. The problems for radio resulting from these alternative audio choices are "compounded" in the United States due to the…
Clear Channel. "Corporate Fact Sheet." Retrieved November 10, 2011, from http://www.clearchannel.com .
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). "How do public broadcasters obtain programming?"
Retrieved November 9, 2011, from http://www.cpb.org/aboutpb/faq/programming.html .
Forbes. "CBS Radio Faces Pandora Threat." Retrieved November 10, 2011, from http://www.forbes.com . 2011.
News stations have strict rules regarding the ethics of monetary compensation for stories (i.e. It isn't allowed), however, and this is likely an effort to bolster local sales by highlighting certain local businesses. This also provides a way for Denver news organizations to remain connected -- and appear connected -- to the community. internet advertising has found a fairly steady pattern, and the television stations that have news websites have employed the same types of banners, though often in more muted tones, that are found on most commercial websites.
What is the projected growth of the news broadcasting industry in the next 3-4 years in Denver?
Unfortunately, growth foes not seem very likely in the area of television news broadcasting in the Denver area for some time. Even assuming that the economic troubles end within the next year, the broadcast industry in the Denver area is largely saturated. Though there…
"Denver Colorado Local News Media." Accessed 30 June 2009. http://www.mondotimes.com/1/world/us/6/402
"Denver Population Growth Statistics." Accessed 30 June 2009. http://www.clrsearch.com/RSS/Demographics/CO/Denver/Population_And_Growth
Rocky Mountain Media Watch. Accessed 30 June 2009. www.bigmedia.org
adio Corporation of America
Company ole in Shaping Culture
esponse to Change
The communication is seen as a major contributor in terms of its wide range of impacts on society, culture, and technology developments. There are only few events in the history that completely reformed the communications functions. These events are movies, talkies, radio, television, and innovations of internet. The company chosen as a case study has influenced technology used to broadcast including radio and television. The significance of the company is also evident through their commitment to innovation. The corporation played an important role in shaping global cultures and societies through radio, television, and recorded music.
The idea of wireless communications originated from multiple sources and it is also a significant development. The history reveals that sound was introduced in films through experimentation in late 19th and early 20th century. The…
Campbell, R., Martin, C.R., & Fabos, B. (2011). Media and culture: An introduction to mass communication. USA: Bedford Books.
Graham, M.B. (1989). The business of research: RCA and the VideoDisc. Australia: Cambridge University Press.
Malanowski, G. (2011). The Race for Wireless: How Radio Was Invented (or Discovered?). USA: AuthorHouse.
RCA.(n.d.). The rcastroy. Retrieved from http://www.rca.com/about/the-rca-story/
Government officials and elected officers become unwilling to provide limited public funds to broadcasters whose audiences are becoming smaller, forcing public service programmers to reach for larger audiences with different types of program content. "While multiple program sources -- cable, home video -- make it unlikely that these systems will move toward "mass audience programming" it is the case that the face of broadcasting is changing in these contexts" (Narrowcasting, 2012).
Digital signage networks for narrowcast advertising are becoming part of the mainstream and not some sort of on the edge experimental medium reserved for the daring and advanced. ather than being seen as a risk in the eyes of media buyers, they are becoming a vital communications path for marketers and advertisers wishing to sway consumer spending decisions at the point of purchase. It isn't particularly surprising that narrowcast digital signage networks are entering the mainstream. Advertising buyers and…
Little, D. (2007). Digital signage -- InfoTrends sees significant growth for narrowcasting.
Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Digital-Signage-InfoTrends-Sees -
Narrowcasting. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=narrowcasting
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Entman, Robert M., and Kimberly A. Gross. "Race to Judgment: Stereotyping Media and Criminal Defendants." Law and Contemporary Problems 71.4 (2008): 93+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park. "The "I" of Embedded Reporting: An Analysis of CNN Coverage of the "Shock and Awe" Campaign." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.1 (2006): 36+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Johnny Carson's primacy in the history of television cannot be understated. Carson's thirty-year stint as the host of NBC's Tonight Show from 1962 to 1992 remains the measuring-stick against which success in the American media must be measured. As Bill Carter -- a New York Times journalist who wrote the substantial history of the machinations and fiascos that ensued when Carson announced his retirement, and the effort to replace Carson began -- states outright "Johnny Carson was the single biggest money generator in television history. He was also the greatest individual star the medium had ever created." (Carter 3). This is astonishing when we consider that Carson took no part in the synergistic strategies that we associate with television in 2012: he did not appear in films, or regularly promote himself elsewhere in the media, he published no memoirs (and indeed published nothing save two joke-books from the earliest years…
Carson, Johnny. Happiness is a Dry Martini. New York: Fawcett, 1968. Print.
Carter, Bill. The Late Shift: Letterman, Leno, and the Network Battle for the Night. New York: Hyperion, 1994. Print.
DeMain, Bill. "Sex in a Box: The Twisted History of Twister." Mental Floss. 3 Nov 2011. Web. Accessed at: http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/105708
Ess, Ramsey. "Looking Back at Richard Pryor's Return to the Tonight Show." 24 February, 2012. Splitsider. Web. Accessed at: http://splitsider.com/2012/02/looking-back-at-richard-pryors-return-to-the-tonight-show
It is important that we be allowed to pursue our business interests with a minimum of government interference. Given that the FTC and DoJ already enforce antitrust legislation, it seems unethical that the FCC also enforce such codes, specifically focused on our particular business.
I believe DI should support the proposed changes. The company would benefit from the opportunity to expand our media properties both horizontally and vertically. It would also give us greater opportunity to exit the business should we so desire in future. Ethical concerns about media consolidation are largely unfounded, especially in light of the way that the Internet provides a low-cost voice for alternative media outlets. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 has significantly reduced barriers to entry in the television business, so the free market can dictate which outlets will have an audience and which will not. Moreover, the FCC's Fairness Doctrine, upheld by the Supreme…
Klinenberg, Eric. (2006). Mega-Merger Mania. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060703/klinenberg
No author. (2008). Hart-Scott-Rodino. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.ftc.gov/bc/hsr/
McChesney, Robert W. & Nichols, John. (2008). Who'll Unplug Big Media? Stay Tuned. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080616/mcchesney
No author. (2008). Telecommunications Act of 1996. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.fcc.gov/telecom.html
Terrorism Media in a minimum pages ( including title reference pages): Discuss broadcasting terrorist activities successes psychologically impacts individuals (e.g., victims, recovery teams, responders, general population).
Terrorism is one of the most discussed subjects in the last ten years. A terrorist attach that takes place in one place of the world usually captures the headlines in the next day's main newspapers and television broadcasts. This is largely due to the fact that terrorism is a phenomenon that can affect in an instant thousands of people and the futures of even more.
Given the importance of the subject, the media usually plays a key role in the relationship between terrorism and its target public. Through the media in particular terrorist activists send their message across to decision makers, to the public, and most importantly, through the immense coverage terrorism receives on all media channels, it has become an even more global…
Al Jazeera. (2010) "U.S. kills al-Qaeda 'number three'." Around the world . Retrieved from http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2010/06/20106143751105245.html
Homeland security (2008). "Assessing the Nuclear Attack Threat" Testimony of Under
Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis Charles E. Allen before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/testimony/testimony_1207151676007.shtm.
Joyner, J. (2006) "Media Coverage Fuels Terrorism." Outside the beltway. Retrieved from http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/media_coverage_fuels_terrorism
News organizations are a critical source of information, and as such should be held to the highest standards of objectivity. News organizations that promote specific agendas, or attempt to entertain, should cease to present themselves to the public as news agents and be honest about their motivations and methods.
The desire for objective voices in the news is a longstanding one. In 1967, the Public Broadcasting Act required "strict adherence to objectivity and balance in all programs or series of programs of a controversial nature." (H., 1975). Canada has a law that insists news broadcasts deal only in factual information, with no conjecture or misrepresentation, thus preventing news agencies from promoting specific agendas. Proponents of such laws, and of objectivity in news in general, point to the role that news agencies play as the "fifth estate," a public service role to provide information that the public can then digest…
The Economist. (2011). The Foxification of news. The Economist. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://www.economist.com/node/18904112
Gillmore, D. (2011). Objectivity is a worthy goal -- but we are only human. The Economist. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://www.economist.com/ideasarena/news/by-invitation/guest-contributions/objectivity-worthy-ideal%E2%80%94-we-are-only-human
H., D.E. (1975). Balance and objectivity in public broadcasting: Fairer than fair? Virginia Law Review. Vol. 61 (3) 643-678.
Hall, J. (1993). Public broadcasting board Oks objectivity measures. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://articles.latimes.com/1993-01-27/entertainment/ca-1997_1_public-broadcasting-board
Fans of science fiction are fond of recalling a remark by novelist Arthur C. Clarke, to the effect that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. I am currently typing these sentences onto a laptop, where I am also currently watching a grainy YouTube video of the legendary magician Harry Houdini, performing one of his legendary escapes -- from a straitjacket, in this case. Houdini is probably the most famous stage magician of the twentieth century, as witnessed by the fact that his name is familiar to my generation although he died almost a century ago. If Houdini were to suddenly reappear in front of me right now -- in the flesh, I mean, and not merely on YouTube -- how would I explain to him that the way in which all of this is taking place? To someone who has been dead for a century, the…
Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Boston: MIT Press, 1999. Print.
Babbage, Charles. Table of the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108000 by Charles Babbage, Esq., M.A. London: Clowes and Sons, 1841. Print.
Babbage, Charles. "On a method of expressing by signs the action of machinery." Address to the Royal Society, 1826. Web.
Bryant, John H. "Heinrich Hertz's Experiments and Experimental Apparatus: His Discovery of Radio Waves and His Delineation of Their Properties." In Baird, Davis; Hughes, R.I.G.; and Nordman, Alfred. Heinrich Hertz: Classical Physicist, Modern Philosopher. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. Print.
The Ottoman Empire itself was a colonial entity, creating the illusion of cultural unification under the rubric of Islam. Yet beneath the surface uniformity, there were vast differences in ethnicity, worldview, and beliefs. The weakening of the Ottoman Empire toward the end of the modern era created opportunities for European colonial powers to divide and conquer, ruling mainly from afar but also imposing the modern nation-state construct as the new normative vision for geo-political entities. Many Islamic nation-states did, and continue to, see their membership in a broader nation of Islam as trumping nationalism.
However, the method by which colonial European powers managed former Ottoman colonies has determined much of the 21st century's political landscape. There were also vast differences in methods and policies toward Islamic colonies, as France, Britain, and Italy had different political agendas. This can be seen throughout Africa and the Middle East, even today. Esposito…
Esposito, J. (1999). The Oxford History of Islam.
PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ub5Ng8MMiH4 Part 1 and Part 2
Media companies play a crucial role in the multibillion dollar sports industry. They help sports clubs and leagues broadcast their events to tens or hundreds of millions of viewers locally and internationally. ESPN is one of the major broadcasters of sports events. The company broadcasts diverse sports events including basketball, football, soccer, baseball, and cricket. It has particularly been a major broadcaster of National Basket Association (NBA) events since the early 2000s. NBA is the top and most popular men's professional basketball association not only in North America, but also worldwide. In 2014, NBA and ESPN renewed their deal to the tune of $24 billion to broadcast the league's events up to 2025 (Riccobono, 2014). Focusing on the ESPN-NBA deal, this paper discusses why media companies acquire the rights to broadcast sports events.
Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the U.S., with NBA events attracting…
Televised violence can in some cases be harmless, mainly because film directors overstress it to the point where it becomes obvious that it cannot possibly take place in real life. hen it is presented in a way that makes it even more real violence can be very harmful. "Reviews of the effects literature have concluded that exposure to television violence portrayed with particular contextual characteristics can lead to such negative effects as fear, desensitization, and disinhibition" (Potter, and Smith 301). The negative effect of televised violence is apparently highlighted by graphicness, as people are influenced to a larger degree if what they see on television is explicit. Images of blood and gore can be much more harmful when presented in a high-detail vivid nature (Potter, and Smith 301). As the level of realness increases, the level of shock also increases, making it possible for viewers to feel as if they…
Gunter, Barrie and Harrison, Jackie. Violence on Television: An Analysis of Amount, Nature, Location, and Origin of Violence in British Programmes (London: Routledge, 1998).
Gunter, Barrie; Harrison, Jackie and Wykes, Maggie. Violence on Television: Distribution, Form, Context, and Themes (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
Potter, W. James and Smith, Stacy. "The Context of Graphic Portrayals of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.2 (2000): 301.
Krcmar, Marina. "The Contribution of Family Communication Patterns to Children's Interpretations of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 42.2 (1998).
The morning sessions were composed of information sessions that included a vast degree of tangible information such as numbers pertaining to enrollment and programs, as well as specific examples. Following the presentations, the conference participants were invited to discuss the presentations. In the afternoon, however, an electronic team-decision center was used to identify successful models for collaberation, and ways in which the Sloan Foundation could become involved in the integration. In fact, it was the electronic team-decision center, which recorded the data and suggestions offered by the program participants, which was used to evaluate the program, which was evaluated by the Sloan Foundation, which funded the conference. Upon evaluation, the only problems that were identified included the size of the event, which was intended to host over 50, and length, which was originally intended to last over one day. The program planner identifies the sponsor's need to cut budget for…
Psychological abuse and psychological neglect: Neglect is the "failure to protect a child from exposure to any kind of danger," according to Sneddon, et al., in Child Abuse Review (2010). Emotional / psychological neglect involves the persistent emotional "ill-treatment or rejection of a child," Sneddon explains. It involves the "…failure to provide for a child's needs" by, for example, being "emotionally unresponsive or passive in the presence of a child" (Sneddon, 41). Psychological / emotional abuse on the other hand is the rejection of a child, or the emotional ill-treatment of a child, carried out in "the sustained repetitive, inappropriate emotional response to the child's experience" (Sneddon, 41). A child that is being psychologically abused is told things like, "you're stupid" and "you're lazy and no good" and "you are ugly"; that same child may also be subjected to a "withdrawal of affection" and experience "humiliation" and "degradation" psychologically (Sneddon,…
Lillywhite, Ralph, and Skidmore, Paula. (2006). Boys Are Not Sexually Exploited? A Challenge
to Practitioners. Child Abuse Review, 15(5), 351-361.
Public Broadcasting Service. (2009). NOW / Fighting Child Prostitution. Retrieved January 21
2012, from http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/422/index.html .
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an IMC Strategy
Given the complexities of IMC strategies and programs and their highly integrative nature, the metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs) used for evaluating them often align to every stage of the selling cycle. As the sales cycles for consumer products are often significantly faster and more focused on transaction speed than on long-term selling relationships, the metrics and KPIs of IMC strategies in these markets tend to focus on trial and repeat purchasing in addition to brand awareness (Caemmerer, 2009). In Business-to-Business (B2B) selling scenarios, the IMC strategies often have short, intermediate and long-term objectives that seek to attain a very high level of trust with potential and future prospects (Kliatchko, 2005). The truest measure of an effective IMC strategy in B2B markets is the company becoming a trusted advisor to potential and present customers (Caemmerer, 2009). Measuring the performance of IMC strategies…
The 2012 Digital All-Stars. (2012). Broadcasting & Cable, 142(33), 8-10,12,14-16,18.
Caemmerer, B. (2009). The planning and implementation of integrated marketing communications. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 27(4), 524-538.
Gonring, M.P. (1994). Putting integrated marketing communications to work today. Public Relations Quarterly, 39(3), 45-45.
Hongcharu, B., & Eiamkanchanalai, S. (2009). A comparative study of traditional mass media, the internet and mobile phones for integrated marketing communications. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 7(12), 31-40.
N.D.). In the case of Adaand thei submission bid was the lowest howeve, unde the 1987 Suface Tanspotation and Unifom Relocation Assistance Act "not less than 10% of the appopiated funds shall be expended with small business concens owned and contolled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals" (Reed, O. & et all. 2008). The fim Gonzales Constuction Company which had also submitted a competing yet highe bid was chosen ove Adaand because "Gonzales is cetified as a small business contolled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals" (Reed, O. & et all. 2008). Adaand was not cetified as such and as a esult thei bid while lowest was not awaded.
What is the conflict between the opinions in Coson and Meto Boadcasting?
The Coson and Meto cases examine the teatment of ace- based pefeences at the state and local level and at the fedeal level. Unde Coson, the Cout held that…
references, the question still remained how a federal racial preference standard would be interpreted. The assumption would be that "it would be unthinkable that the same
Though they can cooperatively work well with other people, they would rather spend time for learning by themselves.
Distant teacher. If traditional education teachers act as directors of learning - telling learners what, when, and how is it to be learned - distant teachers act as resource to the learners. As in traditional education where learners respond to the teachers, in Independent Learning and Teaching it is the teachers who respond to the learners. Teaching is seen as helping and the teacher as helper. They do not instruct students what to do; rather, they guide the learners in making independent decisions by opening their minds to various possibilities. Distinction between help and control are highlighted in the learner-teacher relationship. Their relationship shows that help vs. control trade-off is not necessary; a learner may receive help from the teacher without losing control or responsibility over the conduct of his or her…
4. Do you think that Astro Boy will be successful? Why?
This is a difficult question to answer simply and unequivocally. On the one hand, it is relatively certain that the character of Astro Boy will be a success in a financial and commercial sense. Part of the reason for this is that the impetus and popularity of global youth culture is behind anime and characters like Astro Boy. The large companies like Sony have taken cognizance of this global enthusiasm and popularity and they are fully prepared to exploit it and to raise the character to the level of cult status through marketing, advertising and film.
However, there is a certain degree of danger in this commercialization. It may have the effect of alienating the hardcore fans and fan base. Anime as a global youth culture has been firmly rooted in the unconventional aspects of the medium and in…
Kahn R. And Kellner D. Global Youth Culture. November 12, 2007. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Q5IwlKLQ-4UJ:www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/essays/globyouthcult.pdf+Japanese+indicative+of+the+emergence+of+a+global+youth+culture%3F&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=uk
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…
Cognitive compression effect. In (2000). M. Danesi (Ed.), Encyclopedic dictionary of semiotics, media, and communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Frontani, M.R. (2004). Embedded: Weapons of mass deception-how the media failed to cover the war on iraq. Journalism History, 30(2), 111.
Gaither, T.K. (2007). Advertising's war on terrorism: The story of the U.S. state department's shared values initiative. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(4), 843-844.
Goodman, A., & Goodman, D. (2006). Static: Government liars, media cheerleaders, and the people who fight back. New York: Hyperion.
Vending Machine Businsess Plan
Maketing business plan
Location, envionment and taget maket
Value poposition and competitive edge
Maketing and sales stategy
Online maketing technique
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending -- Healthy Seven Vending
Location, envionment and taget maket
Ameica's obesity epidemic has been spialing out of contol in the past two decades, and will continue to gow unless dastic measues ae taken to change Ameican eating habits. It is of paticula concen that the ate of childhood and adolescent obesity is gowing so apidly. H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending (Healthy Seven Vending) believes that it is essential that food copoations pai with local municipalities, educational institutions, and othe oganizations that play a vital ole in young people's lives. "Moe than half of U.S. middle and high schools still offe suga dinks and less healthy foods fo puchase. Students have access to suga dinks and less healthy foods at school thoughout the…
references even when they are not eating from vending machines.
A growing problem. (2013). Overweight and obesity. Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).
Not even public health experts entirely agree why the obesity rate has skyrocketed in recent decades. This website provides an overview of some of the leading proposed causes, including the popularity of marketing junk food to teens.
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy vending machines. (2013). http://www.healthyvending.com/machines
BARTNICKI v. VOPPER
In Bartnicki v. Vopper, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protects the news media even when they broadcast private cellular-phone conversations that were illegally intercepted by someone else. Ruling in its first major press-freedom case in a decade, the high court said the federal law making it a crime to intercept and disseminate phone conversations cannot be used against the news media when they report on matters of public concern. This decision is of great legal significance due to its political and practical effects.
This paper analyzes and examines the United States Supreme Court case of Bartnicki v. Vopper. In Part II, the facts of the case are discussed. Part III outlines the Court's ruling, including the dissenting justices' position. In Part IV, the legal basis for the ruling and the political and practical effects of the Court's ruling are reviewed.
Bartnicki v. Vopper (99-1687) 200 F.3d 109.
First Amendment Center: Supreme Court Files." Retrieved at http://www.freedomforum.org/fac/2000-01/bartnick_ind.htm . On October 6, 2002.
Mauro, Tony (5/22/01). "Press Rights Outweigh Privacy in Wiretapping Cases, Justices Find." Retrieved at http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=13976on October 6, 2002.
Paulson, Kenneth A. (5/22/01). "Stolen Conversations and Freedom of the Press: Inside the First Amendment." Retrieved at http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=14015 on October 6, 2002.
roadband Internet Service: What it Is and Where It's Going
Explanation of roadband
Current State of roadband
The Future of roadband
The current frontier of high speed internet technology and digital communications is broadband. Although it has been available for several years now to both homes and businesses, broadband has not spread as rapidly as some proponents of the technology had hoped or expected, leading to the failure of some companies involved in this business. What is broadband, and what is its future? These are questions that are taking on increasing importance as broadband usage is finally increasing around the world. Of equal importance is which broadband technology will survive and how telecommunications regulations in this country will impact the digital world.
Explanation of roadband
Simply put, broadband is high-speed internet access. roadband allows for the high-speed transmission of large amounts of data. It is expected to revolutionize communications, entertainment,…
Abe, George. Residential Broadband. Second Edition. Indianapolis: Cisco Press,
Borland, John. "Microsoft Outlines Role in Broadband Future." CNET News.com. 24 July 2001. 1 March 2003. http://news.com.com/2100-1033-270489.html?legacy=cnet .
Broadband's Bright Future." The Industry Standard. 7 May 2001. 2 March 2003. http://www.thestandard.com/article/0,1902,23972,00.html?nl=dnt .
Electronic Business. "Broadband's Growth Defies Downturn." Newsedge. 11 January 2003.
Managing Fisheries and How Perceptions Affect the Management of Ecosystem Services Provided by Fisheries in the Pacific Ocean
Carl Safina is the host of the Public roadcasting Service 'Saving the Ocean" and as well has written several books and at focus in this work is the book of Safina entitled "Song for the lue Ocean." Safina emphasizes how the oceans are the last and dying unconquered territories on earth. Safina brings to the attention of the reader that threats that are caused to the oceans in the name of progress and growth for the human race.
Safina's book reports a truth seeking mission as he traveled the world's oceans. Safina relates in his book that "the scientists grossly underestimate the numbers" of bluefin tuna in the northern Atlantic and relates that the "legendary great shoals of cod…along the Grand anks of Canada…have been decimated, causing the government of…
Safina, C. (nd) Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas, Henry Holt and Company.
Norse, EA (nd) Review of the book "Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's
Coasts and Beneath the Seas,' by Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://mcbi.marine-conservation.org/publications/pub_pdfs/Norse_NaturalHistory_1998.pdf
"Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas" (nd) Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://carlsafina.org/publications/books/song-for-the-blue-ocean/
However, in their early years, their main objective was to make a fortune either through getting an acceptable system that will be used by the Navy in equipping their ships or a dependable wireless replacement for the wired telephone. Yet, evidence has it that in those early days, Lee de Forest (the first one) already had ideas on the ways of using his radiotelephone for more than two-way purposes. Just as the Navy experiment was taking place, Lee de Forest writes in an article on his radiotelephone "still another feature of the invention…the supplying of music and other forms of entertainment to passengers travelling on the passenger vessels. A service of this kind, aided by a large receiver, so that all of the passengers gathered in a large salon could hear the music or operatic air…" (De Forest, Lee, 1950).
In 1900-1920, known as radiotelephone years, were largely recognized more…
Aitken, Hugh G.J., The Continuous Wave: Technology and American Radio, 1900-1932, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1985, see de Forest chapter
Campbell, Richard, Christopher R. Martin, and Bettina Fabos. "Sounds and Images." Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. 113, additional text.
De Forest, Lee, Father of Radio, Chicago, Wilcox and Follett, 1950
De Forest, Lee, "Milestones in Radio History," Radio World, 1929
New York: Prager Publishers.
Marilyn E. Lashley, "Even in Public Television, Ownership Changes Matter," (Communication Research, 19:6 (December 1992), 770-86.
Ledbetter, James. (1997). Made possible by. . .: the death of public broadcasting in the United States. London: Verso.
Paletz, David L. (1998). The media in american politics: contents and consequences. New York: Longman.
Public Broadcasting Service. (2010). "About pbs." Retrieved from
Behind any successful non-profit organization is a set of governance principles, and the better instructed leadership is in these principles, the more effectively the organzation may fulfill its mission. Number thirty-one of Pointer and Orlikoff (2002)'s governance principles (p. 59-63) outlines the triple "core roles" of a board. In order to effectively govern the organization, a board must fulfill policy formulation, decision making, and oversight. These roles provide a focus for governance so that management has room to implement the major directives.
In my experience, sticking…
Pointer, D.D., & Orlikoff, J.E. (2002). The high-performance board. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
In the 1980's, KDKA had another first, as they were the first station to broadcast in AM stereo ((Schecter, 5).
While there is dispute about the birth of radio, the first transmission, the first transcontinental broadcast, and the first morning show, there can be no question that KDKA was at least a pioneer within a small group of stations dedicated to making radio a world-wide phenomenon. Their commitment to news, listener preferences, technology, and the relaying of live information has allowed the station to remain on the air for over 80 years. Such an achievement shows clearly that KDKA is a landmark of radio broadcasting, and that from their first broadcast atop the Westinghouse building, the station has provided listeners with enjoyable programming that can stand the test of time.
Dunning, John M. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time adio. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Dunning, John M. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Finn, Bernard S. "Electronic Communications." Technology in Western Civilization. Ed. Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll Pursell. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967. 293-310.
KDKA. "It All Started in Pittsburgh." KDKA Radio. 2005. 12 June 2007. http://www.kdkaradio.com/pages/15486.php .
Kittross, John M. Stay Tuned: A History of American Broadcasting. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
It was a film based on a novel authored by E.B. White and it received widespread critical acclamation. The limited animation technique posed threat to the success of the company later in the 1970's. With the earning of $60million a year Hanna Barbera now failed to produce new characters and shows. Hence in 1987 the Great American Communications Group acquired the company. Further in the year 1991, Turner Broadcasting System was purchased by Hanna Barbera. In 1992, the Cartoon Network was aired by Turner Broadcasting and this set the need for library of cartoons. So the Hanna Barbera buy provided them with 3000 half-hours cartoons. The marketing strategy of Hanna Barbera was now changed with the help of Fred Siebert, the company's president. More importance was given to the international market as a result of shift in its production to Asia. The extension gave birth to new characters and a…
Austen, Jake. TV a-Go-Go: Rock on TV from American Bandstand to American Idol. Chicago Review Press, 2005.
Gerber, Louis. Tom and Jerry Directed by William Hanna & Joseph Barbera, produced by Fred
Inkblot Communications. History of Cartoon Network. 2007. http://www.historyofbranding.com/cartoonnetwork.html
High resolution television fro example may cost anywhere from $6,000 to $10,000, though the primary marketing strategy with regard to price is to emphasize that with time price will decrease (Brown-Kenyon, et. al, 20000).
Japanese HDTV which is now more than 10 years old has still failed however largely due to price limitations from consumers (Brown-Kenyon, et. al, 2000).
Heavy emphasis has been put on the select benefits having HDTV would do for sports broadcasting which is vastly popular throughout many regions of the world, and cable and satellite companies are targeted because they can make high definition broadcasts of special sporting events to those willing to pay for them (Brown-Kenyon, et. al, 2000).
There is also a push to promote HDTV as film like image quality that would promote 'outdated' modes of delivery from traditional cable services. The major push is bringing a virtual home theater system into consumer…
Datamonitor. "European sofas brace for HDTV." (2004, August). The Register. 10,
October 2004, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/08/13/european_hdtv/
Berry, William; Chudzik, Douglas; Gilbode, Michael; Lipstein, Matthew. "The
Revolution in Television Technology." (Spring, 1998). University of Delaware. 11, October, 2004, http://www.physics.udel.edu/wwwusers/watson/student_projects/scen167/ateam/
Superiority of the anadian Government over that of the United States Regarding Access to the Media by Political Parties
The media, with its diverse modes of mass communication, plays a pivotal role in electoral campaigns both in anada and the United States. andidates for political office thoroughly understand the infinite potential in utilizing the media for their campaign platforms. With just one brief thirty-second advertisement during a commercial break either on the radio or on television, a candidate instantaneously speaks to millions of attentive listeners and/or viewers. By launching a national communications campaign, a political nominee essentially creates the most efficient and mesmerizing tool in his electoral arsenal.
Though the media has admittedly proven to be an invaluable tool in bridging the gap between a candidate and his constituency, there are a myriad of ethical issues that constrict a candidate from utilizing this resource to it's fullest potential. The main…
Center for Governmental Studies. "Grading State Disclosure 2003: Campaign Disclosure Laws. http://www.campaigndisclosure.org/gradingstate/lawfindings.html
Alliance for Better Campaigns. "All Politics is Local; But you wouldn't Know it by Watching TV. http://www.bettercampaigns/org/reports/display.php?ReportID=12.
Zhenshi, Guo " Playing the Game by the Rules" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Zhengrong, Hu (2004) the Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Induistries and the Consequences of Capitalism." Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Fong, Chien-san (2004) "It is Legitimate to Imagine China's Media as Socialist?"
Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Ampuja, Marko (2004) "Critical Media Research, Globalization, Theory and Commercialization" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
rants, Kees (2003) "Auditing Public roadcasting Performance: Its Theory and Practice" Javnost -- the Public Vol.10 No.3 November 2003.
McQuail, Denis (2003) "Public roadcasting: oth Free and Accountable" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Media Shakeup: Public What Readers Want or Perish" (2004) China Daily News [Online] located at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003/09/02 / content 260549.htm
Feng, Chien-san (2004) "Is it Legitimate to Imagine China's Media…
Zhenshi, Guo " Playing the Game by the Rules" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Zhengrong, Hu (2004) the Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Induistries and the Consequences of Capitalism." Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Fong, Chien-san (2004) "It is Legitimate to Imagine China's Media as Socialist?"
Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Strategy Document for TV Company
Digital terrestrial television (DTT), which utilizes the analog infrastructure of traditional broadcast television to provide viewers with digital programming, is a land-based open platform with a strong enough signal to reach hundreds of millions without the need for a satellite dish or cable lines.
We have just commenced operations with our new channel, ONYX TV, on the DTT platform with a national license from the Nigerian Broadcasting Commission. We are broadcasting first in Abuja, the capital of Nigeria, and will roll out services nationwide over the next 12 months.
While EbonyLife TV is a premium channel, Onyx TV will cater to the mass market and offer a unique proposition as 'the channel that gives you more for less'. With ONYX TV, viewers can enjoy an exciting new channel that brings them entertaining and exciting Nigerian programming, including Talk, Drama, Comedy, Fashion, Lifestyle, Reality and…
Simultaneous auctions are held only when they are needed, such as when a new areas of bandwidth are opened up for use by the FCC, yet dozens of such auctions were held in the first decade following their inception alone (Cramton 2004; Webpaz 2010). Using web-based technologies greatly assists in the practical functioning of simultaneous ascending auctions, as it allows bidders form disparate geographical locations to participate in the process quite easily, making the process more fair than it might otherwise be (Millgrom 1999).
In order to participate in a simultaneous ascending auction, companies must make these initial deposits according to the rules set out by the Federal Communications Commission at each auction, which can vary somewhat depending on the sections of bandwidth being auctioned and the number of different "items" being offered for sale (Milgrom 1999; Cramton 2004; FCC 2010a). Technically, any entity is allowed to participate in…
Cramton, P. (2004). "Simultaneous ascending auctions." Accessed 18 October 2010. http://www.cramton.umd.edu/papers2000-2004/cramton-simultaneous-ascending-auction.pdf
Cringely, R. (2008). "Everything You Always Wanted to Know About the 700-MHz Auction but Were Afraid to Ask." Accessed 18 October 2010. http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/news/4246037
FCC. (2010). "Online table of frequency allocations." Accessed 18 October 2010. http://www.fcc.gov/oet/spectrum/table/fcctable.pdf
FCC. (2010a). "Spectrum allocation, assignment, and enforcement." Accessed 18 October 2010. http://www.fcc.gov/connectglobe/sec7.html
Strategic Marketing Management for VYP Company
Strategic Marketing Management
Conceptualization of V and P. Productions (VYP) Company
The VYP Company was conceptualized as an independent company for TV Productions, in October 2004. The owners of the organization and its initial founders include Voddil and Young, who were both experienced TV Production makers, working as program directors in big broadcast companies. The corporation initially had only twelve employees, but currently constitutes over sixty employees inclusive of the directors. Its founders and a number of directors, who constitute the board, currently own the company's share. The other shareholders include Shah and Maas, who are currently positioned as directors overseeing the videotape (VT) editing, Black the financial director and Fisher, who is in charge of Legal Affairs and Business activities of the organization (The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants, 2012, p. 3).
In depth Analysis and Evaluation of the VYP Company
Armstrong, M. 2007. A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Greaver, F.M. 1999. Strategic Outsourcing: A Structured Approach to Outsourcing Decisions and Initiatives. New York: AMACOM Division American Management Association.
Hunter, I. 2006. HR Business Partners. London: Gower Publishers Limited.
Jacques, V. 2006. International Outsourcing Strategy and Competitiveness: Study On Current Outsourcing Trends: IT, Business Processes, Contact Centres. New York: Editions Publibook Publishers.
1923, in a letter to the editor of the New York Times, Gernsback wrote, "If the future of radio rests upon a foundation of advertising, it would be better that broadcasting did not exist at all." As much as radio advertisements bothered listeners, and continue to do so, advertising has been integral to radio's success. In the early days of radio at the beginning of the 20th century, "most radio stations were owned by businessmen, who used their stations to promote their own businesses," ("Advertising and Broadcasting go Hand in Hand"). In the 1920s, AT&T developed the model known as "toll broadcasting," which set the standard for all radio since then ("Advertising and Broadcasting go Hand in Hand"). By 1930, almost all (90%) of the radio stations in the United States broadcasted using the "toll" model, where operational costs were defrayed by selling advertisements. This "changed the way broadcast was…
"Advertising and Broadcasting go Hand in Hand." Retrieved online: https://www.voices.com/solutions/radio/history-of-radio-advertising
Gernsback, H. (1923). Radio and advertising [EXCERPTS FROM LETTERS]. New York Times, May 6, 1923, page XX8. Retrieved online: http://earlyradiohistory.us/1923ads.htm
McDonough, J. (2012). First Radio Commercial Hit Airwaves 90 Years Ago. NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/2012/08/29/160265990/first-radio-commercial-hit-airwaves-90-years-ago
Barack Obama and his wife Michele are regularly presented as symbols of a new era of responsibility and altruistic concern. They are cleaning up the mistakes of the past and represent a future that was presaged by the likes of Abraham Lincoln. They are likable and glamorous, their everyday lives worthy of detailed attention. ABC employs a combination of serious news stories and non-events to put across its message. It edits content to suit the theme. Clips are carefully selected to slant one way or another. ABC News conforms to prevailing news norms wherein much contemporary news coverage has come to emphasize news as a form of entertainment, entertainment that is also meant to be informative in some fashion. News must be entertaining and conform to perceived viewer biases or else viewers will switch to another network. At the same time, ABC's coverage shapes the very views it sells, helping…
Tedesco, John. "Arledge, Roone: U.S. Media Producer/Executive." The Museum of Broadcasting Communications Encyclopedia of TV. The Museum of Broadcasting, No Date. URL: http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/A/htmlA/arledgeroon/arledgeroon.htm .
Tedesco, John, "Arledge, Roone: U.S. Media Producer/Executive," The Museum of Broadcasting Communications Encyclopedia of TV, The Museum of Broadcasting, (No Date).
The ability of DISH to continually bundle new services that are sports-oriented in addition to offering price-competitive services has emerged as a signification differentiator and core competency for the company (Solman, 2006).
The third major strength of DISH networks is their pioneering work in the area of providing MPEG-4 Service. Beginning in ugust, 2008 the company initiated offering MPEG-4 programming as part of its TurboHD Service. MPEG-4 is considered the best possible format or resolution for high definition television broadcasting. The technological advancements in MPEG-4 programming has emerged as a competitive advantage for the company, giving them a lead technologically against TiVo Services (Wildstrom, 2007).
The three major weaknesses of DISH Network Corporation are the Operations being too concentrated in specific areas, programming content is often difficult to access, and the subscriber base is dwindling through churn and attrition. For each of these specific weaknesses, strategies of minimizing them are…
A third weakness the company is facing is their dwindling number of subscribers. In the last calendar year for example, DISH reports subscriber declines in three of their four quarters, which is the first company-wide decline ever seen in the satellite TV industry. In the 3rd quarter of 2008 alone, the company lost over 10,000 subscribers. To overcome this loss of customers, DISH spent 10.8% on subscriber-related expenses including equipment and product upgrades from the previous 2007 timeframe and also began introducing higher-end services including HDTV-capable satellite systems. These were all significant investments for DISH yet did not deliver exceptional results. The company needs to embrace a more focused strategy of segmenting only on the most profitable customers, minimize churn in these highly profitable segments and quit trying to be all things to all people. A more focused marketing message would help significantly, one focus only on the highest value customers.
Section III: Analysis of Opportunities and Threats
Despite the weaknesses DISH has, there is also an abundance of opportunity for the company to grow well into the 21st century. Accessibility to the technologies for digital broadcasting and content, the potential of bundling more services to increase customer loyalty, and high definition television market growth are the top three
In 1995, Infinity Broadcasting agreed to settle FCC claims against Stern in a $1.7 million dollar settlement. By 2004, according to the Center for Public Integrity, the FCC had levied over $3.95 million in fines against indecency on the radio, and half of that total was levied against Stern and Infinity. Still further, the FCC has issued over $1.9 million in fines to shows syndicating the Stern program (Dunbar, 2004).
Perhaps Stern's most notable infraction was the 2004 fines, totaling $495,000 against 18 Clear Channel stations airing a single program of the Howard Stern Show. The fines were the first on record by the FCC citing more than one infraction of FCC regulations during a single show. Clear Channel Communications had pulled the Stern show from six stations in February of that year, after complaints of a show involving sexual descriptions and racist remarks. The sexual content cited in the…
Associated Press. (2004, June 30). Howard Stern announces nine new markets. USA Today, 18.
Dauidson, S. (1999). Censoring rock and rap music. Westport, C.T.: Greenwood Press.
Dunbar, M. (2004, April 9). Indecency on the air: shock-radio jock Howard Stern remains 'King of All Fines'. Well Connected. Retrieved April 29, 2005 from Center for Public Integrity. Web site: http://www.publicintegrity.org/telecom/report.aspx?aid=239&sid=200 .
Foerstel, H. (1997). Free expression and censorship in America: an encyclopedia. Westport, C.T.: Greenwood Press.
Wile te umbrella organization provides good press coverage, it does not provide financial security. Because it as no commercial base, it is easy to maintain its journalistic integrity in reporting, never avoiding certain topics out of respect or necessity; to te contrary, it is forced to rely on te generosity and te government for its funding. Listener support is valued at 34% of its total operating budget, but 6% of its funding comes from local and state funding, as well as 13% from Corporation for Public Broadcasting allocations.
Never as tis organizational pique been more at risk tan it was tis summer, wen at te President's urging, a House subcommittee voted to sarply reduce te government's support for CPB and NPR, reducing te organization's operating budget from $400 million to $300 million. Suc drastic measures put te wole NPR sceme at risk; sould te Congress not ave rallied last minute…
National Public Radio. "How is NPR Supported?" National Public Radio. Available Online: http://www.npr.org/about/privatesupport.html
Fatri, Paul. "Public Broadcasting Targeted by House. Panel Seeks to End CPB's Funding Within 2 Years." Washington Post. Friday, June 10, 2005; Page A01.
In 1996 Westinghouse/CS bought Infinity radio broadcasting and outdoor advertising group for $4.7 billion, a deal that was largely the result of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The Telecommunications Act heavily deregulated the media industry and allowed a company to significantly increase the amount radio stations it could own. In 1997, Viacom dealt its educational, professional and reference publishing businesses to Pearson for $4.6 billion, and retains Simon & Schuster. In 1999, CS bought King World Productions, the leading television program syndicator at that time, for $2.5 billion. On September 7, 1999, Viacom and CS announced their merger, a $50 billion deal. This was the largest media merger of that era, which came one-month after the FCC approved duopolies. Under this merger, the new Viacom had 33 television stations, eclipsing the FCC's 35% ownership cap. This cap was based on the amount of stations one company owns that reach 35%…
America Online. (2005). AOL.com. Retrieved October 2, 2005 at http://www.corp.aol.com/ .
Bloomberg News. (2005). Viacom Explains Slip into Units. Retrieved October 4, 2005 at
Telecommunications Act of 1996 was a high point in the history of telecommunications in the United States. It was coming twelve years after the breakup of AT&T; the Act endeavored to reposition all telecommunications markets in the direction of opposition. The Act imagined antagonism in all telecommunications markets, both in the markets for the numerous elements that included the telecommunications network, along with the final services the network generated. Going on the knowledge of the long distance market, which was distorted from a monopoly to a successfully competitive market over the last twelve years, the Act attempted to endorse opposition in the hitherto dominate local exchange markets. The Act acknowledged the telecommunications network as a network of consistent networks. Telecommunications contributors were obliged to intersect with applicant at any possible point the entrant desires. Most prominently, the Act commanded that current local exchange carriers ("ILECs") lease parts of their network…
Overbey, Jason. (1996) Telecommunication Act of 1996,
October 23,2002. www.telecommunications.com
OET, (2001) OET Telecommunications,.
October, 23, 2002. www.oet.com
inning the Election in Florida's 15th District
Running and winning a political campaign today has moved steadfastly from issues to an overwhelming focus on how much money a candidate can spend. In most political races, the dollars allocated to a campaign far exceed the salary that will be paid once the successful politician is voted into office.
ith this in mind, it is important to understand that in order to win an election in Florida's 15th district it is key that a campaign strategy is designed and expertly implemented. The strategy must focus on maximizing the impact of the candidates message to the people, generate as much frequency to voters in the district as possible and keep advertising costs to an absolute minimum.
Before we focus on the campaign it is important to analyze and understand the needs and trends of voters in Florida's 15th district. According to…
Complete Campaigns.com. Ed. Complete Campaigns. 07 Apr. 2003 http://www.completecampaigns.com/home.asp.
Keena, J. Bradley. "Recalculating Campaign Finance." The World & I 01 Dec. 1998: 80.
Marshalling Black Voting Power to Increase African-American Higher Education." Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (1998): 94.
Pinkleton, Bruce E., et al. "An Exploration of the Effects of Negative Political Advertising on Political Decision Making." Journal of Advertising (2002): 13.
For the government and the companies involved, the resultant lack of competition is easily controlled in terms of what is broadcast. The government can then more easily dictate what the public is to receive via the airwaves. For the companies involved, increased growth means increased revenue and success.
For the public, the most obvious disadvantage of the lack of competition means a probably lack of objectivity in broadcasting. This has implications for the ideals of freedom of the press and the public right for accurate information. On the other hand, an advantage is an increase of choice in terms of products offered by the large broadcast networks. Some for example have begun to offer Internet broadcasting stations, providing users with a wider variety of listening choices.
According to ret a. Fausett (2003), the FCC's new directive towards FM radio during the 1960s stimulated healthy competition and experimentation. New audiences were…
Fausett, Bret a. (2003, Jan. 13). Radio, Radio. Dr. Dobb's Portal. http://www.ddj.com/architect/184411623
Noam, Eli M. Media Concentration in the United States: Industry Trends and Regulatory Responses. http://www.vii.org/papers/medconc.htm
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
The governments of China clearly believe that if they do not ban shows where the premise is based on the voting then it could lead their citizens to want the right to vote in the government on their own opinions. The influence that television has, in this case by indirectly helping Chinese citizens move in the direction of being slightly more "democratic," is seen as a threat- it is hard to believe that television could threaten the national security of a world super power.
The current influence that television has on individual's lives is only growing stronger as technology continues to develop. Recent developments have shown that television will now be in "three-dimensions," so that individuals who view TV can be full immersed in the movie or show they are watching ("ho Needs It"). But is that even necessary when nine out of ten homes have televisions in their homes…
Adams, Paul C. "Television as a Gathering Place." Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 82.1 (1992): n. page. Print.
"An Interactive Feature." Economist. 29 April 2010: n. page. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. .
Blockbuster Bankruptcy, . "Blockbuster Bankruptcy 2010." Blockbuster, 2011. Web. 18 Oct 2011. .
Chen, Jason. "Google TV Review: It's Kinda the Future." Gizmodo, 26 Oct 2010. Web. 18 Oct 2011. http://gizmodo.com/5672946/google-tv-review-its-kinda-the-future .
Perceptions and Expectations:
Analyzing The Concert Experience In A Live
versus televised format
Perceptions and Expectations: Analyzing the Concert Experience in a Live vs. Televised Format
In experiencing a real-life situation in the flesh rather than in viewing its projection through a medium such as television, one's experience differs significantly. The expectations one brings to a live performance vs. The expectations one brings to the viewing of that same performance on television are radically different, as experiencing the performance in the flesh brings with it an entirely different experience that one expects to achieve upon deciding to attend. This type of expectation can be seen in viewing the example of attending a rock concert vs. watching the same concert on television. In looking at the two situations in comparison to one another, it can be seen that several factors come into play to distinguish the two from one another most…
Balzer, W. (2004) Boredom: Practical Consequences and a Theory. Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. 49(1): 289-294.
Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2009) Gatekeeping: A Critical Review. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 43(1): 433-478.
Eilders, C. (2002) Conflict and Consonance in Media Opinion. European Journal of Communication. 17(1): 25-63.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Available at: http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/methods / publications/frameanalysis/.
Sirius and XM Satellite Radio
Satellite radio has emerged in the past few years as the hot new trend in broadcasting. Operating similar to DirecTV, satellite radio companies bounce their signals off satellites to beam high-quality digital service coast-to-coast, offering exclusive ad-free programming. Satellite radio offers listeners the opportunity to hear any show anywhere in the United States, combining the benefits of premium quality sound and convenience when traveling on the road. Research indicates that similar to the way FM radio grew against dominant AM radio, satellite radio is becoming known for "edgier" alternative programming (McCarthy, at http://www.usatoday.com/money/media/2004-10-6-radio-compare_x.htm). The entire satellite radio industry is currently made up only two companies, XM Radio, which started broadcasting in 2001 and has 2.5 million customers, and Sirius, with 600,000 subscribers since going live in 2002. This paper will offer a comparative analysis of the two companies and a general overview of the satellite…
Deitz, C. "A Step-by-step Comparison of XM and Sirius Satellite Radio Features." Radio.
2005. About. < http://radio.about.com /od/satelliteradio/ss/blsatstepbystep.htm >.
Gustafson, C.J. "Sirius Satellite Radio vs. XM Satellite Radio- Which Streams Should You
Choose?" Ezine Articles. 2005. Ezine Articles. 21 Mar. 2005