Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
Rise of Mixed Martial Arts
Mixed martial arts combat is a sport with an immense popularity that is still growing. This sport is also widely known as cage fighting, it is a full contact sport that allows fighters with different fighting styles and disciplines to compete. The popularity of this sport has increased from being an obscure and savage sideshow, to what it is now; a full blown mainstream and culturally iconic sport. There are various factors that contributed to the rapid and large growth of the sport. Since its early beginnings many companies and corporations have been established in the industry in order to meet the demands of fans all across the globe. Some of the more popular organizations within MMA include: Strike Force, UFC, Belator, Pride and WEC. MMA's rise in popular culture amongst mainstream sports can be attributed to a variety of factors. Many enjoy seeing the mixture of styles and cultures in the octagon, others like for its highly competitive and extremely athletic nature.
Some fans of MMA state that the violence and blood attracts them as they seek the thrill of knockouts and submissions. It is undeniable that MMA has edged out its place among the major sports due to its entertaining bouts and athletic showings. Mixed Martial Arts owes a lot of its success to Masterminds like Dana White, the current president and owner the UFC or Ultimate Fighting Championship. This organization is the most successful and recognized in the ranks of MMA. Thanks to the ingenuity and smart business management of White the UFC has become one of the most recognizable brands in sports and entertainment.
Having a successful organization such as the UFC within MMA has allowed for the sport to grow both in popularity and in profit. The athletes in MMA are some of the most recognized and admired athletes in the world, with legions of fans cheering them on. This MMA craze however, did not occur overnight. There were ingenious developments and business moves that had to occur in for MMA to become the sport that it is today.
The beginnings of Mixed Martial Arts competition can be traced to Brazil in the 1920's with a sport known as "Vale Tudo" whose literal translation from the Portuguese language is "anything goes." This sport was known as a combat sport with no rules except for the prohibition or weapon use, it was popular due to dangerous qualities and thrilling actions. From here the spirit of MMA and the UFC was born and adapted, from a renegade attitude that sought to please and satisfy the fans with a dangerous brand of sport. Vale Tudo or anything goes combat, was first seen in the United States when it was introduced by the Gracies, a family of mixed martial arts athletes who competed and dominated the sport in its early stages.
The Gracies have a prominent athletic combat history and are credited with creating the fighting style known as Brazilian Ju-Jitzu. America and world caught its first glimpse of MMA during the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament held in Denver Colorado on November 12, 1993. The tournament was broadcast live on pay-per view and was later released on video cassette. The format consisted of an 8 competitor tournament without weight classes, time limits or rules except for the prohibition of eye gouging and biting. The fights could only end by an opponent being knocked out, submitted or if the trainers decided to throw in the towel. The champion of the first tournament was Royce Gracie, he defeated Gerard Gordeu via submission with a rear naked choke hold and by doing so, took home a reported 50,000 dollars.
The UFC was first owned by Bob Meyrowitz who owned the company from its beginnings in 1993 and until he sold it for a reported two million dollars in 2000. During its initial stages the UFC and MMA as whole were not interested in being recognized, or being considered as legitimate sport. The owners and associates of organizations in MMA were unable to see the potential for the growth and popularity of the sport. They were more interested in turning in a quick profit, they did not recognize the huge economic potential of the sport, they could not imagine the UFC and MMA branching off into the many directions that it has. It is now associated with clothing apparel, food, soft drinks, fitness clubs, fitness equipment, film and a host of other ventures.
Studies have been conducted in order to understand not only the actual growth of the sport, but the spectator motivation behind the growth as well. There are various factors that determined the level of interest behind attending fans at MMA events according to various surveys here are some of the factors that contribute to the growth of the sport.
Aesthetic qualities (Milne & Macdonald, 1999 ), some MMA fans that are truly dedicated to possessing and understand the technical knowledge of the sport enjoy witnessing fighters with great mastery of the sport battling to establish supremacy in the octagon, skill is the appealing factor that draws this type of fan. These fans are more sophisticated in their judgment of the fight, they possess a deeper understanding than the fan that simply appreciates and is satisfied with a cheap thrill and the spilling of blood. Aesthetic qualities certainly appear to have contributed in the growth of the sport because as the sport grows skill and mastery becomes increasingly important for fighters in order to have success and fan appeal. The growth in popularity has created an influx of fighters attempting to enter the ranks of the sport, as this happens fighters already within the sport work harder to aesthetically please fans and promoters in order to keep their place within the organizations and the ranks of MMA.
Vicarious achievement (Wann, 1995), fans of MMA are able to somewhat dream and imagine themselves in the matches fighting and battling. Most fans are probably not avid fighters and do not train in the sport, nevertheless they gain satisfaction from seeing the action and stating opinions on what they would do if they were in that combat situation. They are able to share a moment with their favorite athletes and envision themselves in the octagon; this provides a thrill and a sense of excitement for fans that would otherwise be foreign to the concept of combat and fighting.
Socializing (Trail & James 2001), as with many other sporting events MMA functions are used as means or venues for socialization. It is not uncommon for friends and family to see MMA pay-per view events as an opportunity to spend and share time together as a group. Attending MMA events in person is also an opportunity to meet and interact with persons that have and share similar interests considering the demographics of gender, race and age that are involved. At smaller venues it is not uncommon for groups of ten or more to arrive together to cheer and share the experience together.
National pride (Lee 2002), In the Asian markets national pride played a considerable role in attracting fans to attend and watch MMA events. This has probably a lot to do with the history of martial arts in Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea and it might also have something to do with the cultural philosophies of these countries which advocate the success of their population as whole. According to Lee national pride did not factor significantly in attracting American fans that instead choose to root for fighters in an individualistic manner. This also probably correlates with American values which emphasize individual rights and successes. This however has apparently begun to change as organizations like the UFC globalize the market and introduce fighters from different cultural backgrounds; fans are more likely to root for fighters that are of their same cultural and national origin.
Economic Factors (Guttman, 1986; Wann 1995), According to these authors combat sports like boxing and MMA provide fans an opportunity to wager and make money on bets, this adds to the excitement of the sport and fuels the popularity. In well-known gambling cities like Las Vegas, betting on MMA fights has become very popular, fans and gamblers can bet on various aspects of the fight. Creating excitement and indirect financial revenues allows the sport of MMA to become more interesting and more acclaimed amongst a different segment of the population.
Adoration ( Lee, 2006), This author claimed that many MMA spectators are captivated by some of these athletes who appear heroic and unbeatable. Considering the strong and sculpted bodies of many of these athletes and the brave performance they have inside the ring, it would not be erroneous to assume that they take on a hero like status in the eyes of many. Thanks to advertisement and complex marketing the heroic image of these athletes and fighters continues to increase and it results in a loyal following of fans that become…[continue]
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