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"While wages south of the border were lower than within the United States, lower productivity and higher costs for critical elements such as power and water made Mexico less viable than many originally thought" (Sinclair, 2004). But even so, the factories continued to operate, causing job loses for the American workers. It is rather difficult to give a clear number of the jobs created, according to NAFTA advocates, or the number of jobs lost, according to disclaimers of NAFTA. "When NAFTA was established, it was promised that this trade agreement would create hundreds of thousands of jobs for U.S. workers. However, it is very difficult to determine how many U.S. textile and apparel jobs have been created or lost as a direct result of NAFTA. When looking at a pro-trade source, over a hundred thousand jobs have been created because of NAFTA; when viewing a pro-labor source, however, over a hundred thousand jobs have been lost because of NAFTA. It is nonetheless safe to assume that the jobs that have possibly been created are not in the U.S. textile industry." (Parrish and Oxenham, 2003) the image below presents the workforce occupation in the U.S. textile and apparel industry between 1985 and 2001, revealing a net decreasing trend in the latter years.
Source: Parrish, E.D., Oxenham, W., September 2003, the Effect of NAFTA on the U.S. Spinning Industry, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3
It can be observed that the number of jobs in the U.S. textile industry increased slightly in 1994, the year of NAFTA's implementation, but they continued to decrease following 1995. Specialists explain that however the North American Free Trade Agreement is a primary cause for the job loses, other factors also contributed; the major secondary factor is represented by the technological advancements made, which increase the efficiency of the operational process and require the assistance of fewer employees (Parrish and Oxenham, 2003). In Canada on the other hand, the apparel industry managed to grow nationally after the implementation of the NAFTA and even created more jobs. The number of textile jobs had increased from 82,800 in 1994 to 93,700 in 2000. In Mexico, the number of jobs in the industry has also increased. The statistics of the jobs in the textile industry adherent to the three countries of the NAFTA are presented in the table below:
Source: Spener, D., Gereffi, G., Bair, J., the Apparel Industry and North American Integration, Temple University major implication for the Mexican apparel and textile industry was given by a modification in not just the quantity of the products manufactured and exported to the U.S., but also in their quality. In this particular sense, "Mexico has witnessed the emergence of cutting, laundering and finishing operations, as these parts of the production process are moved south of the U.S. border to various sites that are undertaking 'full package' production. This upgrading of Mexico's productive capacity has, in turn, attracted a number of large textile producers" (Spener, Gereffi and Bair)
The North American Free Trade Agreement was signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada and Mexico and its aim was to stimulate trade between the three countries through the reduction of barriers. The agreement had numerous positive and negative implications on various industries and sectors, including textile and apparel. This particular industry flourished in all countries, but it had varying side effects. For instance, while the number of jobs in Canada and Mexico increased, it decreased within the United States. But overall, the agreement supported the development of the textile and apparel industry in all three countries and it eased their access to numerous resources, including commodities, technologies and labor force.
Cook, K., January 2004, NAFTA: A Clear Success for U.S. And Mexican Textile and Cotton Trade, Manufacturing Industry
Parrish, E.D., Oxenham, W., September 2003, the Effect of NAFTA on the U.S. Spinning Industry, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3
Sinclair, D., May 2, 2004, Future of U.S. Textile Industry, the Daily Home
Spener, D., Gereffi, G., Bair, J., the Apparel Industry and North American Integration, Temple University, Retrieved at http://www.temple.edu/tempress/chapters_1400/1636_ch1.pdfonApril 18, 2008
2008, North American…[continue]
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Bibliography Balance of trade. Retrieved from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balance_of_trade Buchanan, P.J. (2005, July 27). CAFTA: Ideology vs. national interests.The American Cause. Retrieved from Web site: http://www.theamericancause.org/a-pjb-050727-cafta.htm Buchanan, P.J. (2006, March 10). The fruits of NAFTA.WorldNetDaily. Retrieved from Web site: http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=49201 Buchanan. P.J. (2007, February 27). Free trade and funny math. Retrieved from Web site: http://www.theconservativevoice.com/article/23116.html CAFTA, trade deficits and jobs. Business Coalition for U.S.-Central America Trade. Retrieved from Web site: http://www.uscafta.org/policy/view.asp?POLICY_ID=136 Henriques, G. And Patel, R.
and, Buchanan and Nader list the same laundry list of why corporations are trying to circumvent national laws, citing environmental, health-and-safety, wage-and-hour and civil-rights reasons. Impacts on our border are also areas where Buchanan and Nader express similar criticism of NAFTA. Buchanan is concerned that the long-term objective of NAFTA is to erase all United States borders to create a merger of the United States, Mexico and Canada in a
NAFTA Historical Beginning of NAFTA (with specific bibliography) NAFTA Objectives What is NAFTA The Promise of NAFTA NAFTA Provisions Structure of NAFTA Years of NAFTA (NAFTA not enough, other plus and minuses).. Environmental Issues Comparative Statements (Debate) NAFTA - Broken Promises NAFTA - Fact Sheet Based Assessment NAFTA & Food Regulation NAFTA - The Road Ahead NAFTA in Numbers Goal Fulfillment Major Milestones Consolidated Bibliography This study set out to examine the inner workings of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The aim of this study is
Economics of NAFTA There have been a number of changes in the global economy of the world over the past decade. It is important to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and determine if it has helped and/or hindered the economies of all three countries, if it has accomplished what it was established to do, and if over the past ten years it has resulted in additional trade agreements
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Specifically, it will present the pros and cons of NAFTA, and how it will affect the apparel industry, especially in the California and/or Los Angeles market. It will consider such factors as how it affects the job market, manufacturers, contractors, etc. THE EFFECTS OF NAFTA The NAFTA agreement has been controversial since it first began in 1992. Many experts felt that the United States would
North American Free Trade Agreement is one of the most important and influential international relationship formed between the U.S., Canada and Mexico, creating the largest free trade region in the world. The following pages analyze NAFTA's influence on member countries while focusing on the trade relationship between the U.S. And Mexico. The most important facts about U.S. -- Mexico trade are presented, with details on the imports, exports, and trade
nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States." For Mexico does continue to seem to occupy a benighted position vis-a-vis its richer and more powerful neighbor to the north, a position that is in no small measure