Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Aboriginal School System in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise of hundreds of communities with a wide range of cultures, languages, as well as nation-based governance. In year 2006, over one million people in Canada identified themselves as Aboriginal. This represented about 3.8% of the total population in the country. The population of Aboriginal people in Canada is growing at a substantial rate. This rate is almost six times faster than the growth rate of the non-Aboriginal population (Asch 2007). For quite a long time, the Aboriginal people in Canada have understood the role of education in building a healthy, as well as a thriving community. Despite the substantial cultural and historical disparities, the Aboriginal communities in Canada share a clear vision regarding a holistic and lifelong process (Nguyen 2011).
Currently, Aboriginal communities, organizations, and governments are increasingly making realistic decisions and developing various policies, which reflect a better understanding…
Aboriginal off-reserve education: Time for action. 2004. Commentary - C.D.Howe Institute (198): 1-27, http://search.proquest.com/docview/216593472?accountid=28844 (accessed April 2, 2013).
Antone, Eileen M. 2003. The changing face of aboriginal education in rural and northern canada. Education Canada 43, (3): 0-n/a, http://search.proquest.com/docview/216895366?accountid=28844 (accessed April 2, 2013).
Asch, Michael. 2007. Aboriginal and treaty rights in Canada: essays on law, equity, and respect for difference. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Davis, Lynne, Louise Lahache, and Marlene Brant Castellano. 2000. Aboriginal education: fulfilling the promise. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Perceptions are basically how a person looks at the world and the how the knowledge about things around him is constructed. An individual's background such as social, cultural, and linguistic influences affect the personal perceptions. Negative perception and attitude regarding the indigenous peoples are embedded into the Australian society. Due to this reason, the way teachers work with Indigenous students is not satisfactory. This ultimately changes and alters the status of indigenous student success and that is what needs to change. The first major task should be to figure out why these perceptions are present in the first place. Changes in the education system can be brought about if effort is made at not only an institutional level but also at an individual level. (Dreise, 2004)
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands that is part of Queensland, Australia. Genetically and culturally these people…
Agbo, S. (2001). Enhancing Success in American Indian Studies: Participatory Research at Akwasasne as Part of the Development of a Culturally Relevant Curriculum. Journal of American Indian Education, 40 (1), pp.1-86.
Battiste, M. (2002). "Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy in First Nations education: a literature review with recommendations," paper presented at untitled conference, Ottawa, Canada, Ottawa: National Working Group on Education and the Minister of Indian Affairs, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Dreise, M. (2004) Embedding Indigenous perspectives: Managing institutional change. Unpublishedworking paper.
Elliot, J., and Erlandson, C. (2003). The Authentic Integration of Aboriginal Content and Perspectives. The Medium, 43 (2).
Aboriginal & Torres Strait islander people
The Torres bears the name of Spanish explorer Lis Vaez de Torres, who toured via the sea in the year 1606. The Torres Strait Island culture has an exceptional identity connected to the territorial claim. Some of the history and journals from the late 18th century have offered substantial knowledge concerning the Torres Strait Islander culture and community (Shnukal, 2001). Most of the information points to the diversity of the Islander community, which arose from the varying conditions in each island. The economic activities of the Torres Strait were agriculture and fishing. The people established a communal village that revolved around hunting, fishing, gardening and barter trading (Shnukal, 2001). The inter-trading activities involved food, weapons and artifacts, and this revealed the intergroup relationship between people.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders compose the indigenous population of Australia. In addition, they represent a distinct indigenous Australian…
Dunne, P. et al. (1994). Health Services Provision in Rural and Remote Areas: a needs analysis.
Medical Journal of Australia, pp. 161-162.
Morgan, D., Slade. M. & Morgan, C. (1997). Aboriginal philosophy and its impact on health careoutcomes. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 21(6), pp. 597-601
Sargison, H., Marsh, B. & Craigie, L. (2005). Good hearing, good talking, strong futures:
"The colonial impact on indigenous people's food practices was cataclysmic and its effects still reverberate today."[footnoteef:1] Food has therefore become one of the most important issues for aboriginal people, on a practical and immediate level and also on a global, political, and policy level. Causes of aboriginal food insecurity include prejudicial or ethnocentric food policies and programs; disruption of indigenous communities and lifestyles; poverty; and rapid dietary changes due to social migration and other factors. Effects of aboriginal food insecurity include major public health problems; exacerbation of poverty; and the ongoing dismantling of valuable societies, cultures, and social institutions. Geography and food are practically inseparable, as food resources are an element of space and place. Politics and food are also inextricably entwined. The interaction between people and the land creates a multidimensional landscape revealing the ways space, place, and people interact. Politics and human rights issues continue to…
Damman, Siri. Barth Edie, Wenche. Kuhnlein V Harriet. "Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition Transition in a Right To Food Perspective." Science Direct. Food Policy (2008): 33, 135-55. Online.
FAO (2013). The right to food and indigenous peoples. Retrieved online: http://www.fao.org/righttofood/publications/publications-detail/en/c/49285/
Foley, Wendy. "Tradition and Change in Urban Indigenous Food Practices." Postcolonial Studies. (2005) 8:1. Pp 25-44. Online.
Kuhnlein, Harriet V. Receveur, Oliver. "Dietary Change and Traditional Food Systems of Indigenous Peoples." Annual Reviews, Nutrition. 1996:16. Pp. 417-42. Re-circulated by the University of Manitoba 08/29/08. Online.
omen also engage in Lap slapping (Aboriginal Musical Instruments). Additionally rasp of friction is used as an instrument in Aboriginal Music in addition to rattles made from seeds (Aboriginal Musical Instruments).
The research demonstrates that the instruments used by Aboriginal Australians are mainly percussive in their nature. In addition the Didgeridoo is used as a type of horn or trumpet. These instruments aid in the telling of the history of the Aboriginal people. In addition, instruments such as the uber, are used for special purposes.
This research paper has provided a broad view of Aboriginal music and its purpose amongst the Aboriginal people of Australia. The purpose of this discussion was to research the music of the Aboriginal people of Australia. The research found that aboriginal music has significant meaning and tells a story of a people throughout history. The investigation demonstrated that aboriginal music is extremely important to…
Aborignal Musical Instruments. Aboriginal Australia Art and Culture Centre.
30 April, 2008 http://aboriginalart.com.au/didgeridoo/instruments.html
Australia Aboriginal Music. 30 April, 2008 http://www.janesoceania.com/australian_aboriginal_music/index1.htm
Ceremonies/Corroborees." Aboriginal Australia Art and Culture Centre. 30 April, 2008 http://aboriginalart.com.au/didgeridoo/ceremony.html
The lack of inclusion of aboriginal representation at the policy making level is also regarded as an insurmountable barrier to formulating adequate health policies as regards the indigenous population of Australia. (Matthew, Pulver, & ing 2008)
In Australia alone, a proliferation of data illustrates the extent to which our half million Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people live in disadvantaged social conditions relative to other Australians. The level of disadvantage has left Indigenous Australians with a 17-year disparity in life expectancy, and a mortality rate 4.6 times higher than the overall population. (McMurray 2008: 166)
Public health policy, its creation and implementation, has various stages through which it must progress. These stages are often defined more by expediency than efficacy and can be either costly failures or valuable successes. Take for instance the policy initiative Building a Healthy, Active Australia. It begun in 2004 when an obesity taskforce run by…
Anderson, Ian, and John Douglass Whyte. 2006. 'Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health.' Australian Aboriginal Studies 2006:5-15
Bazzano, LA, He J., Ogden, LG. 2002. 'Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of cardiovascular disease in Adults: the First national Health and Nutrition Follow-up Survey epidemiologic Follow-up Study.' American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 76.1: 93-99
Carson, Bronwyn, Terry Dunbar, Richard D. Chenhall, and Ross Bailie, eds. 2007. Social Determinants of Indigenous Health. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Eckermann, Anne-Katrin. 1999. "Aboriginal Education in Rural Australia: A Case Study in Frustration and Hope." Australian Journal of Education 43:5.
From around 1910 to 1971, members of the Stolen Generation became the casualties of one of the most egregious protection policies. After policies of segregation had failed to exterminate the Indigenous peoples in their manufactured ghettos, government officials attempted to assimilate Indigenous children into white society through instituting them in white facilities such as orphanages. Around 100,000, native Australians were taken from their families by government welfare officers in order to be "civiliz[ed] by assimilation into white society" (McCarthy 2000, n.p.). Time tells the story of one child whose captors attempted to straighten his hair in an attempt to make him look white, and udd speaks about Nanna Fejo, the 80-year-old Aboriginal woman whose cultural life of dancing and participating in Aboriginal ceremonies was taken from her when she was stolen from her parents in the 1920s (McCarthy 2000, n.p. udd 2008, n.p.).
In addition to taking them from their…
Aboriginal Affairs in NSW: A Short History. (2001). New South Wales Government.
Retrieved July 15, 2008, at http://www.daa.nsw.gov.au/about/history.html.
Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 (Vic). (2005). National Archives of Australia. Retrieved July 15, 2008, at http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?sdID=22
Aboriginal Records. (2007, October 9). State Records Office of Western Australia.
Aboriginal Rights -- Treat Rights
hat is the difference between Aboriginal Rights and Treaty Rights?
According to Module 7 ("Aboriginal and First Nations Peoples and Social Policy") Aboriginal Peoples stood in the way of Canada's nation building strategy. The Indian Act of 1876 basically was intended to try to assimilate Aboriginal Peoples into the social and political culture of Canada. There was no doubt about the skills of the Aboriginal Peoples, and there was little doubt that they were "sovereign peoples" that had their own laws, but they were not seeing "Aboriginal rights" from the Indian Act of 1876.
In fact since the act "marginalized large segments of Aboriginal societies from each other," and from the greater non-Aboriginal society, this act took rights away from them. The Act was in effect a kind of cultural racism, taking away self-determination and other rights.
Aboriginal rights are "inherent rights," that is the…
Dickason, Olive Patricia. (1992). Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Dickerson, M.O., Flanagan, Thomas, and O'Neill, Brenda. (2009). An Introduction to Government and Politics: A Conceptual Approach. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Module 7. Aboriginal and First Nations Peoples and Social Policy.
Voyageur, Cora J., and Calliou, Brian. Aboriginal Economic Development and the Struggle for Self-Government.
The nature of the Indians' interest is therefore best characterized by its general inalienability, coupled with the fact that the Crown is under an obligation to deal with the land on the Indians' behalf when the interest is surrendered. Any description of Indian title which goes beyond these two features is both unnecessary and potentially misleading." This is significant, because it is showing how Indians have a certain amount of protected rights based upon these two decisions. As a result, the government has to negotiate with them in good faith. (Dupuis 114 -- 128)
At the same time, the Canadian Constitution was amended in 1982 to specifically protect the rights of aborigines. Under these new provisions, their rights to land would be dealt with based upon two different practices these include: ancestral and treaty precedent. This meant that when the government was dealing with these various groups, they had to…
Dupuis, Renee. Justice for Canada's Aboriginal People. Toronto: Lorimar, 2002. Print.
The historical problems associated with upholding the treaties centers on the Canadian legal systems confused view of them -- it is not clear whether the treaties amounted to legally binding contracts with the established Canadian government or not. In addition, the definition of the various Aboriginal peoples with whom the treaties were made as nations or not is hugely determinative in the legality of these treaties and the ability of either party to enforce the provisions of them.
Especially important in the interpretation of the historical treaties is their treatment of rights and ownership to land. Aboriginal peoples have put forth many valid claims that the treaties that seem to take away all rights they have to their ancestral lands are indeed not valid treaties. More recent interpretations of the spirit of the treaties have determined that their only legal purpose could have been to ensure fair and equal access…
Aboriginal Social Work
Baskin says Aboriginal social workers are warriors "even though many of them work in social control agencies that tokenize their cultures." How can non-Aboriginal social workers become "warriors" (allies) in the processes of decolonizing social work practices?
One does not have to be an Aboriginal social worker to understand the damaging impact of colonization and colonialism on Aborigines. In fact, any person who looks beyond the European-written history and examines the true history of Canada can easily understand the academic impact of colonization on Aboriginal populations, even if one does not have personal experience with that impact. It is important to keep in mind that one does not have to experience a personal impact of a negative event in order to be able to help others cope with the impact of that negative impact. Every day, social workers are called upon to help people deal with various…
Aboriginal and Social Work Practice
The primary points shared on how to practice with Aboriginal people is developing awareness and understanding of indigenous traditions and their wealth of knowledge. Social work is not restricted to the office and as a result, the practicing social worker must immerse themselves in the things that are important to the people. Genuineness is important, and the worker or helper must be willing to actively engage the indigenous people by allowing them to know who they are; and conversely, who they are not.
Traditional knowledge is important to acknowledge when working with the Aboriginals because there cannot be a real sense of 'helping' if the worker operates from conventional knowledge and disregards or minimizes the indigenous people's wealth of knowledge. Understanding the importance of spirituality and the relationship to the land is very important to the Aboriginals. ecause imbalance has been created due to colonization…
Absolon, K. (2011). Kaandossiwin: How we come to know. Fernwood Publishing.
Weaver, H. (1999). Indigenous people and the social work profession: Defining culturally competent services, Social Workers, 44(3), 217
Aboriginal Education in Canada: A Plea for Integration
This paper explores interactions among formal learning, informal learning, and life conditions and opportunities experienced by Aboriginal people in Canada. Aboriginal is the most popular term used to refer to Canada's original people (Kirkness, 1999). Aboriginal, Indian, and First Nations are all terms used to describe Canadian natives.
A great deal of attention has been given in recent years to what is commonly described as an education gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians (Wotherspoon and Butler, 1999). According to 1996 census data, approximately one-third (35%) of Canadians aged fifteen and over, compared to more than half (54%) of the comparable Aboriginal population, never graduated high school, while 16% of the national adult population, and only 4.5% of the Aboriginal population, have college degrees (Statistics Canada, 1998). Aboriginal dropout rates are reported to be double those for the general population, and Aboriginal school…
Cardinal, H. (1977). The rebirth of Canada's Indians. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig
Fisher, John. Campbell, Leith. (June, 2002). Improving the Aboriginal Educational Experience in Public Schools. Peace Wapiti School Board.
Garrick, John. (1996). Informal Learning: Some Underlying Philosophies. Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education 10, 1 (May), 21-46.
George, Chief Dan. (circa 1972). A talk with teachers. Unpublished Soliloquy.
Interestingly, "A Song After Battle" contained passages that symbolically considered battling as a rite of passage of the male from being a young man or boy to being a true man and warrior. The song's first four lines stated, "As the young men went by I was looking for him. It surprises me anew That he has gone." This passage from the song poem reflected the change within the male, wherein victory or defeat after each battle was considered a phase wherein his youth gives way to learning and wisdom, which aided the male as he developed into a more mature and courageous man and warrior.
Pawnee song poetry, meanwhile, was identified as more religious and ceremonial in nature, incorporating dances while narrating to its family and community the tribe's song poems. For every occasion in the Pawnee Indian's life, a dance and belief in the mystical were associated in…
The older children at Kuper Island School were allowed to have Valentine parties under the watchful eyes of their chaperones and Father Renaud, at Lower Post, observed in 1956 that "boys and girls eat together, not only in the same dining room but at the same tables, just like at home. On Sunday night they dance together to music" (Miller 220).
Separate but unequal treatment was the standard in recreation, leisure time and instruction, though gender differences in the classroom was less noticeable. Both sexes were taught the same subjects and the official curriculum statements did not reflect any differences between instructions for male or female students. There was the opportunity for some boys, however, to work full time at operation and upkeep of the institution, rather than attend classroom instruction. It appeared common for boys to be removed from the classrooms permanently when they took on these jobs. Some…
Aboriginal People, Resilience and the Residential School Legacy. Published by Aboriginal Healing Foundation. 2003. Ottawa, Ontario.
Buti, Antonio. "Responding to the legacy of Canadian Residential Schools." Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law. Dec 2001. Website: http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v8n4/buti84.html .
Gone, Joseph P. "We Never was Happy Living Like a Whiteman': Mental Health Disparities and the Postcolonial Predicament in American Indian Communities." American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 40(3-4), Dec 2007. 290-300. Website: http://www.springerlink.com/content/jj9038166631745j/.
Iwasaki, Y., Bartlett, J. And O'Neil, J. "An examination of stress among Aboriginal women and men with diabetes in Manitoba, Canada." Ethnicity and Health. Vol. 9(2), May 2003,
' For example, "the most devout Muslim is one who prays all five prayers immediately when they become due -- which, for the first prayer of the day, involves getting up before sunrise. Such a person only misses a prayer in the most unusual and extreme circumstances, and is fairly scrupulous in following the Sharia (including many of the parts of it that are merely sunna)" (Segwick 2009: 42). In contrast to sunna, Sharia is written down, either in the Quran itself or in the writings and interpreters of various scholars known as Ulema. Virtually every aspect of daily life, from praying five times a day to matters of hygiene, is outlined in Sharia. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God" (Segwick 2009: 42).
As might be expected in any faith, there is considerable variation in terms of the religiosity of various…
Fairchild, M. 2013. Lutheran Church: Beliefs and practices. About.com. Available:
http://christianity.about.com/od/denominations/a/lutheran.htm [12 Jun 2013]
The Protestant Reformation. 2010. God in America. PBS. Available:
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/protestant-reformation.html [12 Jun 2013]
In addition, homeless individuals cannot access better healthcare facilities. The government of Canada needs to develop policies in combating homelessness, reduce income gaps, and improve its healthcare facilities.
Do the "Indian Act" and another factor discriminate against Inuit people?
In the application of the Indian Act, persons of the Inuit races are not party (Canada, 2014: 4). The act had been a center point of wealth distribution and management of resources for decades. This means that the people of Inuit have been missing in terms of opportunities for development. Although new regulations and policies are in place to cater for those inadequacies, most previous legislation still exists. The Act concentrated at provision of loans to Indians, education and other healthcare needs. With such arrangements, Indians for decades have been able to acquire arable land. Their children have been able to attend schools, unlike Inuit children. Progressive governments have neglected the…
Canada, 2014 Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Indian Act, QS-3621-020-BB-A2, Ottawa.
Hanselmann, C. (2001). Urban aboriginal people in western Canada. Calgary: CanadaWest
Inuit, Metis and the First Nations which are three distinct groups constitutionally recognized comprises the Aboriginal population of Canada. Every one of them has their peculiar needs and characteristics, for instance the First Nations has over 50 individual groupings, the Inuit have a variety of different dialects while the Metis speak several languages although they have their specific language known as Michif. Instead of having their specific circumstances looked at in the context of Pan- Aboriginal perspective that lays emphasis on their present health needs and historical differences, the Aborigines of Canada expect their linguistic and cultural diversity to be affirmed and recognized by all. The reference "Aborigines" has derogatory connotations from the colonial legacy and is therefore frowned upon. They prefer the terms Inuit and Metis, the First Nations or Indigenous to refer to each of the distinctive groups. In this report the terms are interchangeably applied.
Death Review of the Youth Suicides at the Pikangikum First Nation, 2006-2008 (n.d).
First nation Inuit and Metis report (2012) Aboriginal Research for the Community Action Research -- Community Integration Leader Project.
Aboriginal peacekeeping unit (n.d). Retrieved from: www.torontopolice.on.ca/.../aboriginalunit.pdf
History Of Human Rights: Aboriginal Residential Schools in Canada
Aboriginal Residential Schools in Canada: The History of Human Rights
Native residential schools began in the 17th century in New France before spreading to Upper Canada later on in the 18th century. Their main aim was to educate Aboriginal children and assimilate them into the Canadian culture. The schools were, however, faced with massive reports of human rights violations. This text describes those atrocities with the aim of showing why there is need for the Canadian Museum for Human Rights to recognize the same as genocide.
The History of Human Rights: Aboriginal Residential Schools in Canada
The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission's recently-released report accuses the country's government of committing 'cultural genocide' against some 154,000 Aboriginal children attending residential schools in the country between 1874 and 1996.[footnoteRef:2] The report details that the Canadian government indicted these children into the residential school…
Armitage, Andrew. Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press, 2011.
Crooks, Claire, Chiodo Debbie, Darren Thomas, Burns Shanna, and Camillo Charlene. Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth: A Toolkit for Service Providers. Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing, 2010.
Flisfeder, Marc. "A Bridge to Reconciliation: A Critique of the Indian Residential School Truth Commission." The International Indigenous Policy Journal 1 no. 1 (2010): 1-76.
Fontaine, Theodore. Broken Circle: The Dark Legacy of Indian Residential Schools: A Memoir. Vancouver, Canada: Heritage House Publishing, 2010.
Play Critique -- ainbow's End
The story told in ainbow's End is shared by three generations of Aboriginal women living in a ramshackle shanty located on the Goulburn iver flats in regional Victoria in the 1950s. Nan Dear is the reserved elder, Gladys is the easy-going mother, and Dolly is the daughter of this self-contained tribe of women. The family portrait is chock-a-bloc with issues that are currently relevant: individual independence and familial duty; the important and foundational sense of belonging and home; and the enduring power of love and patience.
The women in the family undergo personal transformation and are elevated in the process. Gladys' struggle with illiteracy is matched by her struggle against the invisibility of being an indigenous Aboriginal woman. Gladys grows increasingly weary of being the last person to be waited on at the butcher shop, of seeing white people cross to the other…
Chandler, Daniel. (1994). Semiotics for Beginners. Paradigmatic Analysis. 3 July 2014.
McAlister, Jodi. Review of Rainbow's End, by Jane Harrison. 25 August 2011. Australian Stage. http://www.australianstage.com.au/201108254682/reviews/sydney/rainbow-s-end.html
Rainbow's End. Script. Australian Plays. https://australianplays.org/script/CP-1491/extract
As already described, this lack of knowledge both grows out of and causes severe misconceptions about aboriginals, all of which can be traced to a belief in the general inferiority of aboriginal cultures. From the very beginnings of European intervention in the Americas, the aboriginal peoples of the continents have been increasingly marginalized. Threatened with the very possible extinction of their culture, many First Nations communities have begun to take control of their own education (Carr-Stewart, 2006). It is their hope that with their own schools, they will be able to preserve the elements of their culture that still persist with a strong tradition, while at the same time preparing their children to join Canadian society and the modern world so that they can have the full advantages to which they are due (Carr-Stewart, 2006).
The preservation of First Nations culture cannot take place only in First Nations schools, however.…
Aboriginal tourism." (2009). Official aboriginal tourism website of British Columbia. Accessed 7 March 2009. http://www.aboriginalbc.com/trellis/cultureheritage .
Canadian education association. (2009). "Policy landscape: Aboriginal peoples." Accessed 7 March 2009. http://www.cea-ace.ca/foo.cfm?subsection=lit&page=pol&subpage=lan&subsubpage=abo
Carr-Stewart, S. (2006). "The changing educational governance of First Nations schools in Canada: Towards local control and educational equity." Management in education, 20 (5), pp. 6-12.
Cooper, R. & White, D. (2005). "Teaching transculturation: Pedagogical processes." Journal of design history, 18 (3), pp. 285-92.
Today's President has many important duties, and while some have delegated some tasks to their vice presidents, they are ultimately still in charge of these tasks. As the country has evolved, so has the importance of the vice president, therefore making it comprehensible that the vice president may eventually officially assume some of the President's current duties.
Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
Outline of U.S. Government. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/outusgov/ch3.htm).
The Presidency. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=1003810-h&templatename=/article/article.html).
The President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/government/national/president.html).
Vice President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0403250-00&templatename=/article/article.html).
Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
Outline of U.S. Government. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/outusgov/ch3.htm).
The Presidency. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=1003810-h&templatename=/article/article.html).
The President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/government/national/president.html ).
The two part series The Secret River, is based on Kate Grenvilles book of the same name. The series is about the colonisation of Australia through the story of Will and Sal Thornhill, who 'takes up land' on the Hawkesbury River. Will is a convict, his character may be seen as akin to many poor Dickensian characters. Once freed in Australia he has an opportunity to start a new life, which he wants to do on a point of land along the Hawksbury River. It is here the main issue of the book manifests; the cultural differences between the white settlers and the Aboriginal people, who have very different perspectives on the issue of land ownership. The story is of the bloody and brutal settlement of the area, with characters such as Smasher Sullivan, Saggity Birtles, and Ned's perceiving the Aboriginal people as nothing but uncivilised savages, who…
Aboriginals and Social Work
This course provided a very broad perspective of the impact Western and European cultures have an aboriginal culture. It showed how devastating these influences have been to native aboriginal cultures, generally serving to suppress them and change the shape of aboriginal culture, in some cases smothering aboriginal cultures completely. The overall impact this course had on me was allowing me to comprehend this impact on aboriginal societies and see that the Western or European way is not always the best way. This course helped provide a general framework for understanding the difficulties and challenges faced by aboriginal youths and adults. It also showed that social work must be adapted significantly to take into consideration one's cultural background because this can dramatically shape the framework of social work. If one uses a Western or European model on aboriginals, they may find themselves misaligning the model for support…
Absolon, K. (2011). Kaandossiwin: How we come to know. Fernwood Publishing.
Chisholm, R. (1985), 'Destined children: Aboriginal child welfare in Australia: directions of change in law and policy', Aboriginal Law Bulletin, Vol.14
Ross, MG. (1986). Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. Oral Tradition, 1(2): 231-71.
Sinclair, R. (2007). Identity lost and found: Lessons from the sixties scoop. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(1): pp.65-82.
CANADA'S ABOIGINAL PEOPLE
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.
The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole,…
Baskin, C. (2011). Strong Helpers' Teachings: The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in the Helping Professions. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press.
Blackstock, C. (2009). The Occasional Evil of Angels: Learning from the Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples and Social Work. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 4(1), 28-37.
Hart, M., Sinclair, R., & Bruyere, G. (2009). Wi-cihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada.
Halifax: Fernwood Pub.
disparities original "medicine chest" clause Aboriginal Treaties Canada, failure Canadian government meet health care Aboriginal people today
Policy Change for Improvement
The aboriginals of Canada comprise of the indigenous people who are within North America, but dwell in the boundaries of Canada. Nevertheless, people have continuously view them discriminatively. This is what has led to the formulation of numerous policies, which will favor the aboriginals and make them feel part of the Canadian society. Although this is the case, the policies, some of which are applicable, have not yielded much success. Owing to this, there is a need for policy improvement in an effort to attain some of the essential needs such as healthcare (Walkerman and Humphreys, 2002).
In so doing, the aboriginals will access healthcare, and subsequently feel as part of the society. Notably, aboriginals are present in many other parts of the Western world, and the treatment is…
Government of Ontario (1994). Aboriginal health policy -- Executive summary. Toronto, ON:
Aboriginal Healing & Wellness Strategy. Retrieved 17 December, 2013 from http://www.ahwsontario.ca/about/healthpolicy.html
Kinsley, C. (2002). Rural health in rural hands: Strategic decisions, remote, northern and aboriginal communities. Retrieved from http://www.srpc.ca/PDF/rural_hands.pdf
Lavoie, J.G., Forget, E., Prakash, T., Dahl, M., Martens, P., & O'Neil, J.D. (2010). Have
Sociology- Social Work
Aboriginal Social Work
Why does Judge Murray Sinclair note that the legal concept of innocence/guilt is not granted by Aboriginal societies as it is in the Canadian Justice System?
In Aboriginal communities, guilt is typically secondary to the main issue: the main concern is that something is erroneous and it has to be corrected. Since the main purpose is the reinstatement of accord rather than the imposition of reprimand, the accused is more likely to confess bad behavior. Judge Sinclair proposes that possibly this explicates why so many Aboriginal people plead guilty when in court. The Canadian criminal justice system is founded on Euro-Canadian principles and, as a consequence, frequently clashes with Aboriginal values. High levels of imprisonment, augmented focus from law enforcement, language hurdles, conflicting values and theoretical frameworks concerning crime and punishment, as well as certain issues faced by youth, all add to the breakdown…
Family Violence. (1996). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, vol. 3,
Gathering Strength. Minister of Supply and Services, Canada.ISBN: 0-660-16415 -- 9.
Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indegenous
Women. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.ca/stolensisters/amr2000304.pdf
Art, ritual, and religion are inseparable in the aboriginal societies of Oceania. Aboriginal myths of creation and the Dreamtime are rendered in art and permeate the various types of art found throughout indigenous Australia from bark and rock paintings to the modern renditions on canvas. Similarly, the art of Pacific Islands before 1980 is inseparable from their cultural contexts. The concept of art is different in the Pacific Islands than it is for the Europeans who colonized the region. Therefore, it is important to understand both aboriginal and Pacific Island art within their own historical, cultural, and social worldview. Art was functional, symbolic, and sacred, and was tacitly decorative.
The aboriginal Australians have populated their lands for 50,000 years, and during that time developed highly sophisticated cosmologies comprising "what anthropologists say is the world's longest enduring religion," (Kiger, n.d.). Although there is a considerable amount of diversity in the exact…
Chippewas of ama First Nation
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
This paper will study the Chippewa people of ama First Nation. The paper will provide a larger context within North American history and Chippewa history to reflect upon this tribe's cultural traditions and heritage. The paper will focus upon several key aspects to the culture such as the interaction with Europeans, reputation within the aboriginal tribes of Canada, and the rich oral history/tradition of the Chippewas of ama First Nation. The paper serves to be informative and comprehensives.
A Brief Examination of the Chippewas of ama First Nation
The Chippewas of ama First Nation are one of numerous tribes that compose the First Nations. The First Nations is a collective term that refers to the aboriginal tribes of Canada, not including those who are Inuit and/or Metis. North American aboriginal tribes have…
"Chippewas of Rama First Nation." 2012 January 2012
"Mnjikaning History." 2012 January 16
"M'njikaning First Nation." 2012 January 16
"Ojibway People." 2012 January 16 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations >
Aboriginal Social Work
Why are outcomes for Aboriginal children who are transracially adopted described as poor?
The outcomes for Aboriginal children who are transracially adopted are often not good due to a number of different factors. One factor is that transracial children frequently find it hard to adjust to the new culture in which they find themselves and thus have a hard time figuring out their identity. Another factor is that they are often victims of racism which makes it very difficult for them to have successful experiences in their new homes. These kids never feel like they really fit into the new place that they are and they do not have a good support system to help them adjust thus their outcomes do not turnout to be good.
After reading Sinclair's research on transracial adoptions, how does this information challenge, change or confirm your views on Aboriginal children…
Sinclair, Raven. (2007). Identity lost and found: Lessons from the sixties scoop. First Peoples
Child & Family Review, 3(1), pp. 65-82.
Sterling-Collins, Rona. (2007). A Holistic Approach to Supporting Children with Special Needs.
In Bruyere, Gord, Hart, Michael Anthony & Sinclair, Raven (Eds.), Wicihitowin.
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
obesity is a growing problem that negatively strikes the health of many children in Canada. From a statistical analysis of childhood obesity in Canada in 1996, reports show that 23% to 36% of Canadian children with age ranging from 7 to 13 are considered overweight and obese (Willms, 2004). This rate of obesity continuously increases every year, thus, resulting to the widespread concern of Canada's national healthcare system to solve the problem of obesity.
This study finds the prevalence of obesity, particularly in the childhood years of Canada's children, a major health dilemma. Obesity is a major disease because it is not only a problem of being unhealthfully overweight, but also a health crisis that leads to other serious health ailments such as heart disease and diabetes. With the alarming increase in rate of obese Canadians, this study finds it important to provide the public with sufficient information about obesity.…
Johnston, J.M. (2004). Eating Disorders and Childhood Obesity: Who are the real gluttons?
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (12).
Willms, J.D. (2004). Early Childhood Obesity: A Call for Early Surveillance and Preventive Measures. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (3).
Tremblay, M.S., Willms, J.D. Is the Canadian Childhood Obesity Epidemic Related to Physical Inactivity? International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1100-1105.
Furthermore, the defiant and different poses of each model allows for uniqueness of each model, showing their individual personalities and dispositions. In "Cyborg Hybrids" the montage structure is different than that in "Useless Beauty." hile "Useless Beauty" combined a series of photos of both material images and models in an upside down "L" shape, Cyborg Hybrids" is a single horizontal line of models wearing the same necklace and white T-shirt. In this photo, models look directly at viewers, daring them to make assumptions. The uniformity of uniform makes a sarcastic statement about the belief that persons of one ethnicity and race are all the same. Despite their similarity in pose and dress, the models are each very noticeably different.
Though his photographs are certainly unique and socially important, K.C. Adams's photographs can be characterized by both positive and negative traits. Positive traits of K.C. Adams's work include the socially responsible…
Adams, K.C. "Cyborg Hybrids." nd. KC Adams.net. 12 October 2008. JC Adams.net. http://www.kcadams.net/art/arttotal.html
Fields, Tom. "Gallery I." 2008. Native Fields. 12 October 2008. Native Fields. http://www.nativefields.com/tom/gallery1/fields2.htm
Matus, Bernard T. "Digital Photography." 2008. Matus Arts. 12 October 2008. Matus
Aborigines are Australia's original inhabitants and until the late 1700's -1800's the aborigine had little contact with Western civilization. Local dialects and the territorial nature of bands provided the different social groups their distinctive identity. The Mardudjara (Mardu) aborigines are part of the Western Desert cultural block in Australia (Tonkinson, 1978). The Mardu culture, societal system, etc. has never been recorded in its pristine state as anthropologic researchers did not study the group until well after alien influences had occurred. Nonetheless, the nomadic lifestyle of the Mardu was dictated by the harsh climate in which they live and they are an extremely interesting group. Nomadic groups like the Mardu often have a perception of gender or a cultural gender schema that fits in functionally with their lifestyle and is based on a division of labor and status that allows the group to maintain an identify, clearly defined roles, and survive…
Bird, R. (1999). Cooperation and conflict: The behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8 (2), 65-75.
Holmes, L.D., & Holmes, E.R. (1992) Samoan Village (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Tonkinson, R. (1978). The Mardudjara aborigines: Living the dream in Australia's desert. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be…
Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.
Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.
Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.
Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
Furthermore, under most circumstances, these variations in Muslim belief do not have a negative impact on how Muslims interact; instead, they manage to live peacefully side-by-side in most settings. This may have to do with the idea that all Muslims believe that the Quran (Qur'an, Koran) is the holy text for Muslims. They believe that the Quran reflects the word of God. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God. It is possible for a Muslim to hold that the Koran uses symbolic language and is describing the essence of things, not their technical form, but it is difficult to hold that the Koran reflects the views of our more distant ancestors" (Sedgewick 2006, p. 40).
Mohammed plays a central role in Islam. He is the most important prophet and many facets of modern day Islam are based, not simply on the Quran,…
Hassan, R 2008, Exploring Islamic consciousness, Inside Muslim minds, Melbourne University
Press, Carlton, Vic, pp. 24-61.
Jupp, J 2009, Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders in the Encyclopedia of religion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, pp.69-118.
McBrien, R 1982, the nature and use of power in the church, Proceedings of the annual convention, 37, CTSA Editorial Offices, Yonkers, NY, pp.38-49.
We have seen in the past how such agreements are put aside by governments, especially in the United States, in those instances where the natural resources become the focus of business.
However, the agreement does return to the aboriginals the hope that they might create for themselves an economy that sustain them and it provides an opportunity for them to recreate themselves in a modern world, but to practice life in a way that is compatible with their own traditions. The challenges they face socially and economically are large and only time will tell if they are as overwhelming for a people who have lost much of what their ancestors had as they are large.
The article does not say whether or not the financial package is one that is lump sum or disbursed over a period of years, and that would make a difference as to what might be…
However, it is not culturally sensitive and says nothing about the desire to work with in cultural norms and traditions.
This article does not attempt to portray the aboriginal people in any particular way. It attempts to remain neutral in its portrayal of the Torres Strait Islanders. This article recognizes that Islanders in rural areas have different needs than those living in urban areas. The government will provide funding for implementing this plan. It is an excellent plan, but could be made better by the inclusion of cultural sensitivity within the programs that it outlines. The plan promises to give aboriginals better access to public programs. This suggests that access is inadequate at the current time.
acisimnoway (2008). Australian Communities: Torres Strait Islander People. etrieved February 28, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/classroom/factsheets/53.html.
This article explains the language and cultural traits of the Islander, both on and off the island. It…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). The 2004-05 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS). Retrieved February 27, 2008 at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS//PrimaryMainFeatures/4715.0?OpenDocument .
Ban, P., Mam, S., Elu, M., Trevallion, I. & Reid, a. (1993). Torres Strait Islander family life. Family Matters. No.35 August 1993, pp.16-21. Retrieved February 28, 2008 at http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/fm1/fm35pb.html .
Batrouney, T. & Soriano, G. (2001). Parenting Torres. Family Matters. No. 21. Winter 2001.
Commonwealth of Australia (2007). National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health 2003-2013. Department of Health and Aging. Publication Number: P3-2106., Retrieved February 27, 2008 at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/6CA5DC4BF04D8F6ACA25735300807403/$File/nsfatsihimp2.pdf .
It is in this way that fiction from female aboriginal Canadian writers both empowers the authors and their people and brings to light better understandings of what native Canadians have faced and must continue to face. One native scholar on the subject has been quoted as saying, "our task…is two fold. To examine the past and culturally affirm toward a new future" (Armstrong, in Acoose 227). It is not simply a rumination on past injuries that this literature provides, but a way of analyzing the past that allows for forward movement.
It is also impossible to consider the literature produced by members of this community as pure fictions, but rather some historical knowledge is necessary to fully appreciate the intricacies and events of stories like in Search of April Raintree. The largely negative nature of the events of the novel and the rapidity with which they take place is easily…
Acoose, J. "The Problem of 'Searching' for April Raintree." In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg: Penguis Publishers, 1999.
Groening, Laura Smyth. Listening to Old Women Speak: Natives and alterNatives in Canadian Literature. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2004.
Mosionier, Beatrice Culleton. In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg: Penguis Publishers, 1999.
Perreault, Jeanne. "In Search of Cheryl Raintree, and Her Mother." In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg: Penguis Publishers, 1999.
Aboriginal Education in Canada
GOVERNMENT ROLE IN ABORIGINAL EDUCATION IN CANADA
What do you believe was the goal of the Canadian government and church in planning and running residential schools? Why?
Schooling is considered one of the key aspects that bring about change in any society. Even before the establishment of the residential schools, schooling was something that was taking place in the country of Canada. As the only process that can change the structure and capacity of the human intellect and exposure, schooling is vital in Canada. Initially, the indigenous Canada was facing myriad challenges in accessing education. Schooling became a weapon that was also used by the Christian movement in a bid to reinforce the prospects of reaching out to many people with the gospel of Christianity. As with the Canadian indigenous people, much was needed to reinforce the spread of this Christianity that came with schooling (Regan,…
Pearl Mary (Gambanyi) Gibbs (1901-1983) was one of the major political activists supporting Aboriginal rights in Australia from the 1920s all the way to the 1970s. The highlights of her work include organizing the key -- pickers strike in 1933, being involved in organizing the Day of Mourning in 1938, speaking for the Committee for Aboriginal Citizen ights, calling for Aboriginal representation on the New South Wales board, being the organizing secretary for the new Melbourne-based Council for Aboriginal ights, establishing the Australian Aboriginal Fellowship in 1956, being the first and only female member of the NSW Aboriginal Welfare Board in 1954, and establishing the Australian Aboriginal Fellowship in 1956 (Gilbert, 1983; Goodall, 1983; Goodall, 1988; Horner, 1983). This list of accomplishments is just a scratch on the surface of the life of this amazing political activist and leader. Her activism for the rights of Indigenous peoples was…
Attwood, B. (2003). Rights for Aborigines. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Attwood, B. & Magowan, F. (2001).Telling stories: Indigenous history and memory in Australia and New Zealand. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Celermajer, D. (April 22, 2005). The stolen generation: Aboriginal children In Australia human rights dialogue: "Cultural rights." In Carnegie Council for Ethics and International Affairs. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/archive/dialogue/2_12/section_1/514
Commonwealth of Australia (2012). Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution: Report of the Expert Panel. Retrieved November 3, 2012 from http://www.youmeunity.org.au/uploads/assets/html-report/index.html.
Social Work Practice Within Aboriginal
Building attached case study Lisa, describe discuss social work practice approach aboriginal innovative practice modalities a cultural context. This assignment refining approach practice integrating theories practices learned required readings.
ABOIGINAL AND INNOVATIVE SOCIAL WOK PACTICE APPOACH
Concepts in Social Work Practice within Aboriginal and Cultural Framework
In trying to attend to a client's challenges in psychology, it is imperative to provide an environment that is sufficiently safe where a client can talk and explore their problems (Brave Heart, 2004). This measure is adequate for many clients but not sufficient for all especially so when it comes to cases involving aboriginal persons. For the aboriginal clients, an understanding of adaptation difficulties and the inter-generation aspects is necessary to provide a wholesome resolution to the challenges at hand. This paper presents a discussion on the ideal approach in social work for the case of Lisa, who had…
Brave Heart, M.Y.H. (2004). The historical trauma response among Natives and its relationship to substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. In E. Nebelkopf, & M. Phillips (Eds.), Healing and mental health for Native Americans: Speaking in red. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Briere, J. (2002). Treating adult survivors of severe childhood abuse and neglect: Further development of an integrative model. In J.E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendrix, T. Reid, & C. Jenny (Eds.). The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment, 2nd Edition. . Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Burns, D. (1999). The feeling good handbook. United Kingdom: Penguin Group.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R.M. (2012). Psychology. Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
In fact, environmentalists were often dismissed during that time period. Moreover, environmental regulation was seen as an area of concern for each individual country, so that other countries would rarely, if ever, provide international pressure for environmental issues. However, the growing body of scientific literature about the environment changed the game between the 1970s and the 1980s/1990s. For example, when the James Bay Project was first conceived, it was considered a very green source of electricity because it lacked emissions and other hallmarks of pollution. The reality, however, is that the project resulted in incredible environmental damage:
It has been shown that environmental impacts of the first phase include: methyl mercury contamination of water in reservoirs and downstream rivers and mercury accumulation in fish; reversal of the natural seasonal flow pattern of rivers; conversion of La Grande estuary from a saltwater environment to a freshwater one because of regulated peak…
Bethune, D.N. (1997). Environmental Damage and Aboriginal Health. Retrieved February 21,
2010 from NIICHRO
Coffee, H. (1992). James Bay Hydroelectric Project Hits a Dam. Retrieved February 21, 2010
In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.
Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.
Government policy and exclusion
According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…
Aboriginal health issues. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/aboriginal_health_issues-open
Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.
McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.
McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265
For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on industrialization. Colonial power structures legitimized the social hierarchies that form the backbone of capitalist infrastructure.
The ways capitalism transformed traditional aboriginal society from being barter-based to being wage labour-based closely resemble the ways capitalism transformed traditional European skilled labour culture. As Kealey points out, the European artisan model of labour persisted until the Industrial evolution. Skilled labourers like coopers and smiths once apprenticed their work, entering into careers that offered a high degree of control over the means of production and…
DeLottinville, P. "Joe Beef of Montreal: Working-Class Culture and the Tavern, 1869-1889." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 190-214.
Kealey, G.S. "The Honest Workingman and Workers' Control: The experience of Toronto Skilled Workers, 1860-1892." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 112-142.
Lutz, J. "After the Fur Trade: The Aboriginal Labouring Class of British Columbia 1849-1890" in Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 235-259.
"ould you like a white woman ongee?" Jimmie asked. "Don't seem ter make their cow-cockies happy, having white woman for 'is wife. hy else he come after black girls? Must be sum'pin to white women we ain't been told" (p. 11). The implication drawn from ongee is that aboriginal females are sexier than white women, but Jimmie is sexually attracted to the white woman.
On page 12 ongee describes an aboriginal woman who "Yawns for men and not with her mouth. She weeps for men and not with her eyes. She drinks men down, she is cave for men," he said, laughing. In Caledonian that Saturday night Jimmie "suddenly" was "pouring himself without joy into one of the women" while laying in the long grass so police wouldn't see them. The next time readers confront an image of an aboriginal females (p. 20) Jimmie "lay down with a scrawny gin…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, 1994.
Hickling-Hudson, Anne. "White construction of black identity in Australian films about
Aborigines. Literature Film Quarterly 18.4 (1990): 263-275.
Keneally, Thomas. The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith. New York: The Viking Press, 1972.
He expeimentation with new techniques and the fact that she was unafaid to ty new things with he at helped he populaity immensely. Peston's elationships to famous atists and the pomotion of he wok in aea magazines wee also unique and offeed a lage vieweship audience.
Not eveyone enjoys looking at Peston's wok, but she had definitely held a stong pesence in Austalian society thoughout he lifetime, as well as since he death. Peston definitely new exactly what she wanted to do thoughout he life and wasn't afaid to implement unusual and new techniques into he wok. He studies of both Aboiginal at and Japanese at seems to have influenced much of the at she poduced.
He use of publicity sets Peston apat fom othe atists duing that time peiod. As a woman atist who was making he way independently finally, Peston appealed to women thoughout Austalia by poducing he…
references to Aboriginal art . Australia: Art Library.
McPhee, J.A. (1982). Australian decorative arts in the Australian National Gallery . Australia: Australian National Gallery.
Nice, R. The Australian scarf / Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales. New South Wales: Greenway Gallery.
Butel, E.R. (1986). Margaret Preston: the art of constant rearrangement . New South Wales: in association with the Art Gallery of New South Wales.
The art of Margaret Preston, Margaret, 1875-1963 . (1980). Adelaide: Art Gallery Board of South Australia.
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
controversial than a person could ever imagine. Historical interpretations must be questioned so that faulty historical thinking can be identified. One of the most complicated aspects in historical interpretations is that they are precisely that -- interpretations. This means that people cannot help but look back at history through the lens of today's history; this affects interpretation and today's interpretation will be different than yesterday or tomorrow's interpretation because it will be a completely different time. Historians have a very difficult job because they must be able to take in information and interpret it in responsible ways. Historians need the humility to listen and trust others and the courage to interpret (Cathcart 1995, p. 16)
In studying the past, historians use primary and secondary sources as well as oral history. A primary source is considered to be something that is created by a person who witnessed an event. Examples of…
Attwood, B. 1996. 'Teaching Historiography.' Australian Historical Association Bulletin, No.
82, pp. 43-46.
Cathcart, M. 1985. 'Symposium: Why History?' Australian Book Review, pp. 16-18.
Reynolds, H. 1984. 'The Breaking of the Great Australian Silence: Aborigines in Australian
436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.
The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).
Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.
Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
A Lesson in History:
The Mabo Case and Its Legacy
The Mabo Case, or Mabo v. Queensland, as the case is formally known, refers to a judgment given by the High Court on June 3, 1992. This judgment ruled that the land title of Indigenous Peoples (i.e. The Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) would be recognized as common law by Australia. This meant that the doctrine of terra nullis, or land belonging to nobody, was annulled and the indigenous people in question could possess and occupy the land as they wished, and according to their own customs.
Despite this favorable and internationally applauded outcome, however, the reality has not been as uncomplicated. The fact of the matter is that though the Mabo case was a revolution in Australian law and brought the country in line with other remaining common law countries, such as he United States, Canada and…
1. Amankwah, H.A. (1994). Mabo and international law. Race and Class (35:57). Retrieved Janaury 12, 2012.
2. Howitt, R. (2006). Scales of Coexistence: Tackling the Tension between the Legal and Cultural Landscapes in Post-Mabo Australia. Macquarie Law Journal (6). Retrieved January 12, 2012.
3. No Author. (2012). Mabo v. Queensland. Convict Creations. Retrieved January 12, from .
4. Pelczynski, S. (2012). The High Court Recognition of Native Title - The Mabo Judgment and Its Implications. Action for Aboriginal Rights. Retrieved January 12, from .
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212
Penal is a word pertaining to punishment and the penal system or penal practices are those related to trial of a person to judge if he should be punished or not and if yes, how much and for how long should he be punished. The penal practices are governed by standard penal laws that are similar yet customized in every country. For example, theft is the same crime but punished with imprisonment in USA, cutting of hands in Saudi Arabia and some time ago, punished by being shot in China. Thus the penal practices can vary from country to country and region to region.
Objective of Penal System
The objectives of penal system are evident and clear. There is a party, a person a group or an organization that committed crime and another party that was wronged. The first objective of penal system is to compensate the affected…
1. Spivakovksy, C. 2013. 'Chapter 1: The Infalliable Science of Offending Behaviour', Racialised Governance: The Mutual Constructions of Race and Criminal Justice, Ashgate Press, pp. 15-37.
2. Davis, A.Y. 1998. 'Racialised punishment and prison abolition', in J. James (ed.), The Angela Y. Davis Reader, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, pp. 96-107.
3. Alexander, M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, New York.
4. Bird, G., Martin, G. & Nielsen, J. (eds.) 1996. Majah: Indigenous Peoples and the Law, Federation Press, Sydney.
Any substance or behavior that is not done in some sort of balance or harmonic alliance with nature is sure to cause problems within any group or groups of people. The introduction of alcohol into the Australian indigenous populations has caused many health problems and issues that warrant further discussion. The purpose of this essay is to discuss alcoholism as it relates to the aboriginal people of Australia. This essay will examine the disease process and its symptoms and outcomes. The essay will then look at how the contributing factors of this disease are affecting this group of people. The essay will conclude with ideas on the implications of alcoholism on that community and the healthcare providers that work with this group.
Alcohol is a staple in the culture and social practices of many humans around the world. The inebriation rituals that were prominent during the…
Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council (nd). Alcohol and health in Australis. Viewed 10 Oct 2014. Retrieved from https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/your-health/alcohol-guidelines/alcohol-and-health-australia
Australian Indigenous Alcohol and Other Drugs Knowledge Centre (2014). Review of the harmful use of alcohol amongst Indigenous Australians. Retrieved from http://www.aodknowledgecentre.net.au/aodkc/alcohol/plain-language/alcohol-plain-language-review
Brady M (1986) A social analysis of drinking and its aftermath in a remote Aboriginal community. In: Bush RA, ed. Exploring the Alcohol and Drug Crime link: society's response. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology:
Woods, I. (2011). Battle To Curb Aborigines' Drink Problem. Sky News 19 June 2011. Retrieved from http://news.sky.com/story/862854/battle-to-curb-aborigines-drink-problem
He finds an especially poignant example of this in the collection of American Aboriginal art. While the collection of art and artifacts from these cultures is important, it is not nearly as important for Hill as the discourse that can be brought about in society as a result of these collections. The most valuable attribute of a collection, and the most valuable service of a museum, is the ability to "cause productive trouble" in the form of human conversation and reflection (195). In the case of Aboriginal art, the collection should, if offered sensitively and intelligently, instigate public discourse on the inequities between the honor and respect heaped upon the artifacts of Aboriginal cultures and the neglect and disrespect offered to the cultures themselves.
While Clifford offered a highly analytical examination of the interconnectedness of art and culture, and the value of the art-culture system in understanding collections themselves as…
Clifford, James. "On Collecting Art and Culture." In The Cultural Studies Reader, Simon During, ed. New York: Routledge, 1993. 49-73.
Hill, Richard William. "Getting Unpinned: Collecting Aboriginal Art and the Potential for Hybrid Public Discourse in Art Museums." In Obsession, Compulsion, Collection, Anthony Kiendl, ed. Banff: Banff Centre Press, 2004. 193-206.
Review of Student PowerPoint
The paper evaluates a PowerPoint summarizing a workshop given at Murdoch University by Dave Palmer in 2009. The workshop addressed the community building movement, an initiative that has gained popularity in Australia.
Slide three stated introduces a group of four students, although while these are presumably the authors of the PowerPoint, this is never explicitly stated and should be explained clearer. Slide 5 ("Introduction by Dave), which discussed the impetus for Mr. Palmer's presentation (the Aboriginal emphasis on the land and the need to return to this state) also included a picture of the presenter, which usefully allows one to connect the information with the face of the person delivering the material. Still, there was an almost excessive amount of text in this slide, and it would have been helpful for it to have been condensed. This set the standard for a dynamic in which…
Adams, David, & Michael Hess. "Community in Public Policy: Fad or Foundation," Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60, No.2 (2001). 13-23.
Archer, David, & Wearing, Stephen. "Interpretation and marketing as management tools in national parks: Insights from Australia," Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, No.2 (2009). 29-39.
Birnbaum, David J., & Frey, Barbara A., "Learners' Perception on the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures," Publisher Unknown, (2002).
Craig, Russell J., & Amernic, Joel H. "PowerPoint Presentations and the Dynamics of Teaching," Innovative Higher Education, 31, No.3 (2006). 147-160.
Paul Keating's edfern Speech
Paul Keating's speech at edfern Park provides examples of rhetoric that are discussed below. The speech uses of and the three modes of persuasion: pathos, ethos, and logos. The use of epiphora, particularly in tricolon format, lends both cadence and emphasis. The word imagine is used in this manner and in epiphora convention, as the word is repeated in successive clauses. The connotation of the word confident is made more powerful by its proximity to the word imagine. Further, antithesis is threaded throughout by deliberate distinctions between non-Aboriginal and indigenous Australians, and presumably to use the favored terms of reference for every member of the audience -- as it is a political speech. There is a great divide between the experiences and treatment of the privileged primarily white non-indigenous citizens of Australia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people. Keating does not shy away from…
Cockcroft, R. And Cockcroft S.M. (2005). Persuading people: an introduction to rhetoric. (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
Keating, P. Australian Launch of the International Year for the World's Indigenous People. Redfern Park, Sydney, Australia. December 10, 1992
____. (2011). Communication: rhetoric and reasoning. [Course readings]. Magill, SA: School of Communication, International Studies and Languages, University of South Australia.
5. The United Nations International Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is essential for the protection of human rights. However, despite the fact that Australia is considered to be one of the most democratic countries in the world, it fails to take full account of the need to offer maximum protection of human rights especially concerning the aboriginal population. This is why the UN has hard criticized the government for its actions.
Critics have been focused on the administrative aspects of the human rights protection system in Australia in particular on the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission which the Australian government has committed itself to reform (United Nations, 2006). Also, the United Nations raised questions concerning the possibility of the Aboriginal people to benefit from the power of representativeness. However, the government is determined to take these matters under consideration and reconsider the situation through the establishment of…
Forsythe, David. Human rights in international relations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Nye, Joseph. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005.
United Nations. Comments by the Government of Australia on the Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. (reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 9 of the Convention. International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination). 2006.