new respiratory drugs that have been approved for medical use over the past decade. The paper will highlight the diagnoses of the drugs i.e. when and why it is prescribed, how it is meant to be used and how often, its side effects, the impact for a missed dose or an overdose along with any other relevant information that will add depth to it appropriate use.
The main purpose for the respiratory drugs is to help cure the ailments directly or indirectly related to the functioning of lungs or general breathing of an individual. There are numerous sectors where studies on new respiratory drugs can be carried out and some of the most recent studies to include this particular aspect include allergies, asthma attacks, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia and sinus infections.
In this paper we will focus on the following new respiratory drugs: Arcapta, Daliresp, Dulera, Tyvaso, Alvesco, Brovana and Symbicort. All of these respiratory drugs were approved within the past decade to cure different aspects of lung or breathing issues in certain circumstances.
Arcapta, also known as Onbrez, was developed by Novartis and received its approval for use in 2011. It is a long-acting, beta drug that is primarily diagnosed to treat the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is used as the remedy for airflow obstruction that is caused thereof in patients. It is a dry powdered inhaler that is taken once daily that is available for the COPD patient in the form of an aerosol formulation (Beeh et al., 2007).
Arcapta functions by relaxing the muscles around the lungs which in turn reduces stress that might be experienced when dealing with a breathing problem that could lead to extreme coughing, chest tightness or shortness of breath. Arcapta is usually prescribed to those individuals who have a cardiovascular problem, blood pressure issues, seizures, diabetes, etc. In case, a dose is forgotten, it must be taken immediately after and only one dose should be taken in a 24-hour cycle. Arcapta must not be swallowed and taken only with the Neohaler inhaler. Some of the side effects for Arcapta might include a worsening of the conditions that it was meant to cure i.e. shortness of breath, irregular heat beta, high B.P., chest pains, coughing, high blood sugar, headaches, etc. (Beeh et al., 2007).
A clinical trial was conducted in 2010 across the United States, Belgium and New Zealand where the safe use if Arcapta in COPD patients was compared to placebo. The sample for this trial included a total of 416 COPD patients who had either medium or severe case of pulmonary disease. The trial showed that Arcapta was more successful than placebo in the following ways: it improved the FEVI levels from where they started (i.e. 1.5L) and reduced the need for rescue medication (Feldman et al., 2010).
Daliresp is a long acting beta drug that is used primarily to decrease the inflammation that is caused in the lungs as a result of the COPD expanding or worsening in a patient. It is not used a prevention, but merely as a controlling agent to stop a situation from worsening but cannot be used before the condition exists. Daliresp shouldn't be prescribed to those COPD patients who have liver problems simultaneously or if the patient has an allergic reaction to roflumilast. The recommended dosage for Daliresp is that a single 500 mcg tablet is taken daily. There is no restriction on whether it needs to be taken with food or not. Some of the side effects as recorded in clinical trials for this drug include: psychiatric events, diarrhoea, headaches, influenza, weight loss, appetite loss, and dizziness, amongst others. In case the dose is missed, extra dose should not be taken to make up for it; the missed dose should only be taken if the time for next dose is far i.e. If you've missed the does by a couple of hours. Overdose can lead to heart palpitations and/or cold skin (Forest, 2011).
There are certain drugs that Daliresp does not work effectively with, if paired, as seen in the clinical trials. These drugs include: bosentan, dexamethasone, rifabutin, butabarbital, medications given for HIV treatment including efavirenz or etravirine or nevirapine, as well as medication given for seizures like carbamazepine or felbamate or oxcarbazepine (Forest, 2011).
Dulera is a long acting beta that is used for treatment of asthma patients. However, this particular drug can have fatal effects if it is not used under strict medical prescription. This drug is always paired with another drug that controls the asthma extension in the patient in the long run; it is usually paired with an inhaled corticosteroid. Dulera is taken as prescribed by the medical professional. The usual dosage is to intake 2 puffs of Dulera in the morning and 2 puffs in the evening. Dulera must not be paired with a drug that is also a long acting beta 2 agonist. In case a dose is missed, the patient should skip it and just take the next dose when the time for it comes. Some of the side effects of the intake of Dulera could include: development of a yeast infection, adrenal insufficiency, increased shortness of breath, fatigue, nausea, rash/swelling/hives, irregular and speedy heartbeat, dizziness, seizures, weakness, increased chest pains, eye problems and decrease bone mineral density amongst others. Dulera must not be prescribed to patients who have issues of tuberculosis, liver disease, bone density issues, diabetes, thyroid disorders, etc. (Cerner, 2010).
Tyvaso is a drug that is used primarily for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is used to primarily improve the ability. It basically works to increase the overall dilation of the blood vessels in and around the lungs in order to prevent unnecessary clotting. This in turn helps reduce the blood pressure that the patient might feel. Tyvaso might lose efficiency over a period of time and the dose must be adjusted or changed under advisement from the doctor in this case. Tyvaso must only be inhaled using the Tyvaso inhalation system and must be inhaled 4 times daily at evenly spaced intervals, taking up to 9 breaths each time. In case of missing a dose or overdosing, the doctor must be contacted for appropriate situational advice. Some of the side effects of the drug include: worsened PAH symptoms, fever, increased and severe chest pains, weakness, paleness of skin, unexpected vaginal bleeding, swelling of feet or ankles, coughing, wheezing, nausea, dizziness and diarrhoea amongst others (Cerner, 2010a).
Alvesco is a form of man-made corticosteroid that primarily functions as a resistor to the creation of those substances that cause or increase inflammation in the body. It is used as a prevention remedy for asthma attack for children that are 12 years or older. It is merely a prevention drug and must not be used for the treatment of asthma attacks that have already begun. It is important that Alvesco is not treated in patients who have tuberculosis, infections in the mouth or throat, herpes or inheritance of osteoporosis. Alvesco is inhaled once in a day, whether in the morning or evening and a dose missed must be taken immediately unless the time for the next dose is near. Overdose can lead to fatal side effects which include: coughing, headaches, vision or eye problems, increased heartbeat, severe allergies like hives or shortness of breath or swelling in the face, chest pain or tightness and white patches in mouth amongst others (Cerner, 2010b).
Brovana is only used with a nebulizer and is a medication primarily used for improving the overall breathing in a patient. It is used as a prevention remedy of bronchoconstriction in patients that are suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as cases of chronic bronchitis…