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Asthma is an obstructive airway disease that is reversible. It is characterized by hyper-responsiveness of the airways, resulting in chronic inflammation and bronchospasm. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are other examples of obstructive airway diseases that are reversible. (CH, 2011)
Asthma can either be extrinsic, also known as atopic asthma, or intrinsic, which is also called non-atopic asthma. Extrinsic asthma is the more common variety, comprising of about seventy percent of all cases. This type of asthma is actually an allergic response to a stimulus. The stimulus can vary from person to person. The allergic response can have two phases, namely, an acute response and a late response. The acute response occurs immediately and is mediated through sub-epithelial vagal receptors that cause bronchospasm. This results in a narrow airway through which air must pass to reach the terminal alveoli. The resulting obstruction can worsen with the late response. The late response…
Asthma attack. (2011, January 6). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/asthma-attack/DS01068/METHOD=print
Asthma: Steps in testing and diagnosis. (2011, June 23). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/asthma/AS00003/METHOD=print
CH, F. (2011, January 5). Asthma. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000141.htm
Kumar, V., Cotran, R.S., & Robbins, S.L. (2005). Robbins basic pathology. (8 ed., pp. 393-439). Sussex: Elsevier.
This study indicates that some races are at higher risk of catching asthma when obesity is prevalent as compared to other races. This observation may help medical insurance companies to target these vulnerable groups of ethnic races. The study was helpful in further categorizing the chronic health issues of obesity and asthma with respect to its impact on each ethnic group. Though the result might not be able to generate much concern in white Hispanics or Pacific Islanders, researchers could further investigate the factors that make these ethnic groups vulnerable to increased likelihood of catching asthma when obese. This study adds new knowledge to the existing research on relationship of asthma and obesity.
Hasan, et al. (2006) have investigated the role of obesity in enabling the development of asthma symptoms in urban minority children. 109 children between the ages of 1.6-14.7 years were taken as sample and were enrolled for…
Black, M.H., Smith, N., Porter, a.H., Jacobsen, S.J., & Koebnick, C. (2012). Higher prevalence of obesity among children with asthma. Obesity, 20(5), 1041-1047.
Fiese, B.H., Everhart, R.S., & Wildenger, L. (2009). Wheezing, sleeping, and worrying: The hidden risks of asthma and obesity in school-age children. Psychology in the Schools, 46(8), 728-738.
Hasan, R.A., Zureikat, G.Y., Nolan, B.M., LaChance, J.L., Campe, J.L., & Amin, R. (2006). The relationship between asthma and overweight in urban minority children. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98(2), 138.
Suglia, S.F., Chambers, E.C., Rosario, a., & Duarte, C.S. (2011). Asthma and obesity in three-year-old urban children: Role of sex and home environment. The Journal of pediatrics, 159(1), 14-20.
Public health consists of all the organized measures instituted to accomplish the following for the overall specific population: 1) to prevent disease; 2) to promote health; and 3) to contribute to prolonged lives. The unit of analysis for public health is an entire population, not any one individual in the population. The aim of public health is to establish and maintain conditions that promote health. ather than focusing the eradication of certain diseases, public health takes a holistic, systematic approach. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the three primary functions of a public health system are as follows:
To identify public health priorities and problems through monitoring and assessment of community health and of at-risk populations;
To solve recognized health problems at the local, state, and national level through the formulation and implementation of public policies;
To ensure that all people have access to cost-effective, appropriate health care,…
Trade, foreign policy, diplomacy and health. The World Health Organization [Webpage]. Retrieved http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story076/en/
National Asthma Control Initiative (NACI). NIH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/naci/
States, communities, and coalitions: Solving the asthma problem in our communities means bringing people and resources together. NIH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved
This would be considered primary sources of information. An advantage to this approach would be the autonomy. This autonomy comes with responsibilities and a solid data collection method requires strict adherence to scientific principles that demonstrate cautious and precise research beyond reproach.
A combination of both methods is preferable in this case. Using both empirical evidence coupled with my personal research would help explain this disease from my personal perspective and adds another voice to the discussion. In collecting my own data it is important to create a system that can defend against error and personal bias. Collecting data must be done in a systematic and predefined way to help maintain the integrity of the research. For this task, I am solely responsible.
Once this data is collected there are many things that can be done with the data. Bookkeeping and organizational skills become of the utmost importance during this…
American Lung Association (2012). "Asthma and Children Fact Sheet." October 2012. Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/asthma/resources/facts-and-figures/asthma - children-fact-sheet.html
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. "Childhood Asthma." Viewed 12 June 2013. Retrieved from http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=8&sub=16&cont=44
Litonjua, a. (2009). Childhood asthma may be a consequence of vitamin D deficiency. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. June 2009, 9(3): 202-207. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897155/
Suglia, F. et al.(2010). Social and environmental stressors in the home and childhood asthma. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, July 2010, 64(7): 636-642. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3094102/
Asthma: Pathology and Contemporary Treatment Alternatives
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, asthma is a complex disease on the rise in the United States. Most at risk include poor or inner city minorities that present with inordinately high rates of mortality resulting from the condition (CDC, 2005). Asthma may also be on the rise due to environmental factors including increased pollution and exposure to environmental toxins that may affect lung capacity (CDC, 2005; Hwang et. al, 2005; Yang, et. al, 1997; Wickman, et. al, 2003). Asthma is a serious, potentially life threatening condition for the millions of sufferers worldwide. Doctors are still working to determine the cause of this disease and finding new ways to treat it. While there is no cure for asthma yet, researchers have uncovered multiple treatment alternatives that help patients with asthma effectively control their condition.
Education, public response and intervention are all…
Barnard, A. (2005 -- Jul). "Management of an acute asthma attack." Aust Fam Physician.
Butz, A.M., Syron, L., Johnson, B., Spaulding, J., Walker, M., Bollinger, M.E. (2005-
May). "Home-based asthma self-management education for inner city children." Public Health Nurs. 22(3): 189-99.
Indeed, interaction with the patient on this point would demonstrate a very poor inhalant technique, a factor which the physician failed to consider before increasing the patient's dosage. Additionally, the physician failed to check concordance with respect to the patient's history of medicine use. This might have revealed some shortcoming in the subject's own methods of self-administering medication, including inconsistent usage and occasionally skipped doses. A useful instrument for checking concordance is that provided by the Devon City Council (2010), which offers a line of questioning concerning the habits and patterns of the subject's medicine usage. By prescribing and increasing dosage with both inhalants and an antibiotic without conducting this check of concordance, the physician failed to take all proper steps in validating the particular medication approach selected.
Yet more problematic would be the prescription of this treatment course without a more thorough examination of the subject's health environment. Specifically,…
ADTC. (2005). Panic Attacks. Anxieties. Online at
Asthma UK. (2006). Two Treatments to Be Discontinued. Asthma.org.uk.
BBC News. (2009). Eczema's Link to Asthma Uncovered. British Broadcasting Company. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8055038.stm
Benabio, J. (2010). Eczema and Asthma Link. The Dermatology Blog.
Chronic disease especially one that a child suffers from has to have an impact on his/her physical, spiritual, psychological and social life. A study was conducted which observed that children influence the facilities and services provided to them in a great way. It was said in a Convention carried out on the ights of the Child that children should not only have a right but they should also be encouraged to participate and freely give their opinions and reviews about all the matters concerning them (Elward, Graham Douglas, Kurtis, 2010).
One study observed that when it comes to providing information to others it should be ensured that the information is compatible with the age and mental maturity levels of the person that it is targeted for. Therefore, when it comes to arranging the learning programs for the children we have to keep in mind their age,…
Ahluwalia, SK; Matsui, EC (2011). The indoor environment and its effects on childhood asthma. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology 11 (2): 137 -- 43.
Arshad, SH (2010). Does exposure to indoor allergens contribute to the development of asthma and allergy? Current allergy and asthma reports 10 (1): 49 -- 55.
Bornehag, CG; Nanberg, E (2010 Apr). Phthalate exposure and asthma in children. International journal of andrology 33 (2): 333 -- 45.
Brooks, C; Pearce, N; Douwes, J (2013). The hygiene hypothesis in allergy and asthma: an update. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology 13 (1): 70 -- 7.
To determine eligibility for a diagnosis of obesity, the children's height and weight were analyzed to categorize them based on weight categories. Then, more abstract data of environmental conditions was collected. This focused most on the social environment of the children's home and family. Particular categories were particularly explored, such as the depression of the child's mother, and the presence of domestic violence, as well as external environmental factors in the physical urban space in which the child was living in. Psychosocial factors were especially important, as they were key to helping unlock some of the components of the hypotheses. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variable of the presence of asthma in the various independent variables that were thought to affect it.
Overall, Suglia et al. (2011) uncovered some major findings. The study found that out of all of the participants, 10% had asthma;…
Suglia, Shakira Franco, Chambers, Earle C., Rosario, Andres, & Duarte, Cristiane S. (2011). Asthma and obesity in three-year-old urban children: Role of sex and environment. Journal of Pediatrics, 159(2011), 14-20.
52.8% did not know how to use their inhalers properly, and almost all patients did not take their prescribed asthma medication. This study shows a strong correlation between ignorance and a lack of control of asthma symptoms.
The second study by Ulrik et al. (2009), "Disease variability in asthma: how do the patients respond? -- and why?" from the Journal of Asthma was to explore patterns of self-management in adult asthmatics, and found, interestingly enough, that education was not necessarily a panacea: despite instruction, two-thirds of the study subjects would increase their use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) when their symptoms worsened, but only 23% took their controller medication in the case of deterioration, although 59% were instructed to do by their physicians. Despite doctors' efforts to educate patients on the importance of minimizing inhaler use and using medication to prevent attacks, the study concluded that the patients' preferred strategy for…
Adeyeye, O.O & B.O. Onadeko. (2008, July). "Understanding medication and use of drug delivery device by asthmatic in Lagos" West African Journal of Medicine. 27.3:155-9.
Ulrik C.S., U. Soes-Petersen, V. Backer, P. Lange, H. Harving, & P. Plaschke. (2008, August).
Disease variability in asthma: how do the patients respond? -- and why? Journal of Asthma. 45(6):507-11.
Instead, the rate of occurrence and its severity has largely continued and, strangely, medicine is apparently no closer to understanding what asthma truly is than it was two hundred years ago when it first began being diagnosed. Asthma researchers continue to be frustrated by the fact that the harder they tend to look for information regarding the causes of asthma, the more it seems that new and more complex questions arise. Every step forward seemed to bring with it more and more possible factors that contributed to the cause of asthma and contributed to its aggravation. Those suffering from the effects of asthma found themselves not knowing where or who to turn to regarding diagnosis and, more importantly, treatment.
The frustrations incurred by the medical and scientific community in regard to asthma have caused many experts to begin to question whether a new direction might be necessary. As no one…
Aggarwal, B.B.(Editor)(2011). Inflammation, Lifestyle and Chronic Diseases: The Slient LInk. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Hall, I.P. (1997). The Future of Asthma. British Medical Journal, 45-49.
Jackson, M. (2009). Asthma: The Biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nadeau, K. (2010). Ambient air pollution impairs regulatory T-cell function in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology .
My asthma has been treated as has been suggested above -- through the avoidance of irritating stimuli and by medication where necessary.
As I can attest from my own experience, asthma is a very irritating condition to live with. It often prevents one from taking part in sports and other strenuous activities and can have a negative effect on the general quality of one's life. However, if a treatment plan that is medically approved is followed then this disease can be managed and controlled to have a minimal impact on one's life. On the other hand, if one does not take the symptoms of asthma seriously and if a good management plan is not implemented, then asthma can become more than just an irritation and can lead to serious health impairment and even death.
Definition of Atopy. October 16, 2009.
Definition of IgE. October 16, 2009.
Food allergy, preservatives…
Definition of Atopy. October 16, 2009.
Definition of IgE. October 16, 2009.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by blockages in the airways that cause difficulties breathing. It is relatively common, particularly in childhood. There are two main types of asthma, intrinsic and extrinsic. They each have different causes and physiological mechanisms. Intrinsic asthma is also referred to as non-atopic or non-allergic asthma because the condition is not caused by allergic reactions to environmental stimuli. Environmental stimuli ranging from smoke to air quality might trigger an asthma attack in persons with intrinsic asthma independently of the immune system (Ulrick, et al., 1995). Triggers of intrinsic asthma include anxiety or overexertion. Extrinsic asthma is by definition caused by allergic reactions to things like dust. As Ulrick, et al. (1995) note, "the pathogenic mechanisms underlying intrinsic and extrinsic asthma in children may differ," (p. 547). Sibbald & Turner-Warwick (1979) found that relatives of children suffering from extrinsic asthma are more likely to have…
Humbert, et al. (2000). The immunopathology of extrinsic (atopic) and intrinsic (non-atopic) asthma. Immunology Today 20(11).
Sibbald, B. & Turner-Warwick, M. (1979). Factors influencing the prevalence of asthma among first degree relatives of extrinsic and intrinsic asthmatics. Thorax 34.
Ulrik, et al. (1995). Extrinsic and intrinsic asthma from childhood to adult age: a 10-yr follow-up. Respiratory Medicine 89(8).
Asthma Bib Entry
Chulada, Patricia C., Kennedy, Suzanne, Mvula, Mosanda M., Jaffee, Katy, Wildfire, Jeremy, Thornton, Eleanor, Cohn, ichard D., Grimsley, Faye, Mitchell, Herman, El-Dahr, Jane, Sterling, Yvonne, Martin, William J., White, LuAnn, Stephens, Kevin U., & Lichtveld, Maureen. (2012). The head-off environmental asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) study methods and study population. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(11), 1592-1600.
The article examined here explores a recent study conducted in Louisiana in the city of New Orleans regarding Hurricane Katrina's possible exacerbation of children's asthma in the area. The researchers first explore how Hurricane Katrina impacted the region and the city's relationship to increasing asthma levels seen in children. There is a thorough examination of how environmental destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina could be a link. The researchers believe that the floodwaters caused serious mold problems that could have impacted asthma levels, as well as allergen levels in the region. Other factors that…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
The word asthma comes from the Greek word aazein which means to exhale with one's mouth open or to breathe with a pant; in literature its first emergence appears in the Illiad (Benson & Haith, 34). The exact definition of asthma be it with children or adults is that it is "a chronic disease of the lung manifest clinically as episodic obstruction of pulmonary airflow (Benson & Haith, 34). Asthma is an extremely common childhood illness and one which appears to be increasing each year with the number of children who have died from asthma tripling in the last few years (Martin & Fabes, 262). This is a major public health concern as asthma not only contributes to many missed days of school for children, as well as hospitalizations, but it puts an enormous strain on the health care industry. "Hospital admission for asthma alone increased from 21…
Ahsaic, Amy.M. And Christiani, David. "Respiratory Disorders." Levy, B.S., DH Wegman and S.L. Soka, R.K. Baron. Occupational and Environmental Health:Recognizing and Preventing Disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 398-410.
CHP. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Guide to Asthma: How to Help . Philadelphia: John Wiley and Sons, 2004.
EPA. America's children and the environment measures of contaminants, body. Washington DC: EPA, 2003.
Gelfand, J.L. Asthma in Children: Symptoms and Risk Factors. 2012. .
As a 63-year-old, John has had asthma since childhood, a medical condition that has been controlled with the various types of medications for the disease. While the medication frequency and doses have increased in the past five years, John's wife died within the same period and he hasn't been taking care of himself. The patient presented to the hospital with exacerbation of asthma from an upper respiratory tract infection or influenza virus. However, he had not had the influenza vaccine though it was recommended by his general practitioner. Through physical examination, it was revealed that he had decreased breath sounds among other conditions. As a result of the condition, he could only speak in short sentences while coughing and producing sputum.
Different Forms of Asthma Medication:
Based on this case, there are various types of asthma medication that are used to control or treat the condition. According to Bass…
"Asthma Medications and Other Drugs." (2011, July). Better Health Channel. Retrieved from State Government of Victoria website: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Asthma_medications_and_other_drugs-open
"Asthma Medications: Know Your Options." (2011). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 30, 2012,
Bass, P. (2010, July 31). What Types of Asthma Medication Are Used To Treat Asthma?
Asthma in Adolescents and Adults: Guideline-Based Diagnosis and Management" by author Susan Corbridge (2010) discusses the fact that many people in the world suffer from the medical condition known as asthma. There are more than 16 million adults in the United States who suffer from asthma. People think of this condition as a regular difficulty, but do not realized that it is in actuality a major medical condition which is potentially life-threatening. According to Corbridge (2010), "Annually [asthma is] responsible for roughly 11 million outpatient visits, 2 million ED visits, nearly 500,000 hospital admissions, and close to 4,000 deaths" (page 29). Susan Corbridge's position is that it is early diagnosis and stable management of the medical condition that are the keys to successful treatment for asthma and increases the likelihood of individuals who have asthma being able to live happy, mostly healthy lives.
In the article, Corbridge (2010) uses the…
Corbridge, S. (2010). Asthma in adolescents and adults: guideline-based diagnosis and management. American Journal of Nursing.
1993). Using a rigid-tube bronchoscope, the bronchial biopsies were taken under local anaesthesia from two different airway levels: (a) inside the right upper lobe bronchus, and (b) at the opening of the right middle lobe (Laitinen et al. 1993).
Preparations of the specimens thereby obtained were completed for light as well as electron microscopy; the researchers also used slot grids 1 x 2 mm which facilitated photography of a large area of the thin sections and analysis through an application of a graphic Autocad software program (Laitinen et al. 1993). In the 14 subjects with newly diagnosed asthma, Laitinen and his associates identified an increase in the numbers of mast cells (p < 0.001), eosinophils (p < 0.05), lymphocytes (p < 0.05), and macrophages (p < 0.05) in the epithelium compared to those found in the control subjects. According to Laitinen and his associates, "In the lamina propria, these asthmatic…
Adler, BK 2004, Spring, Unfractionated Heparin and Other Antithrombin Mediated
Anticoagulants. Clinical Laboratory Science, p. 73.
Burke MM & Laramie JA 2000, Primary Care of the Older Adult: A Multidisciplinary
Approach, St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Amazingly, some caregivers and parents tend to ignore the need for asthma management, and do not see their child's condition as serious or chronic. A group of writers note, "The resistance to the concept of asthma as a chronic illness may be linked to the fact that a majority of the children had symptoms consistent with mild, intermittent asthma, which caregivers interpreted as contradictory to the concept of chronic" (Nelson, et al., 2006, p. 274). f asthma is to be managed effectively, parents and educators must be involved in the management, and they must understand the severity of the disease, even when the symptoms do not seem chronic or severe. Clearly, education is the key to this aspect of managing the disease, but some caregivers and parents report education, even from their own doctors, is often lacking, especially when the symptoms are less severe.
Another group of authors conducted a…
If managing asthma effectively is the goal in healthcare, more healthcare providers need to take an active role in helping caregivers manage asthma in their asthma sufferers, and they need to understand how important it is for them to collaborate with caregivers to create better awareness and understanding about asthma. More understanding and awareness could lead to a reduction in healthcare costs, because asthma sufferers could manage their attacks more effectively and avoid seeking emergency medical attention, too.
Another way to manage asthma effectively is reported by McMullen and co-researchers. As a result of their study, at least one city has developed requirements for every child who suffers from asthma to have a written Asthma Action Plan before they enter school, and the plan must be on file at the school. The plan would be actively discussed between healthcare provider, parent, and child, and included in the plan would be the triggers that can cause asthma attacks, including second-hand smoke (McMullen, et al., 2007, p. 43). This would help ensure the parents understand the severity of the disease and how to manage it, and educators have those tools readily at hand, as well. This is an important step in managing a disease that can affect a person for their entire lives.
In conclusion, managing asthma effectively is important for any number of reasons, from educational progress to preventing what can be a deadly disease if it is not managed
Long-term and Quick Relief Treatment Options
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammation of someone’s bronchial tubes (Szefler, Holguin, & Wechsler, 2017). Inflammation of respiratory airways leads to narrowing and swelling of the bronchi resulting in difficult breathing. Some of the symptoms of asthma are coughing and wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain/tightness (Szefler, Holguin, & Wechsler, 2017). There are various treatments for bronchial inflammation. Some are long-term, and some are quick-acting.
Long-term options are inhaled corticosteroids. Such a prescription is often the most common option in the form of Budesonide, beclomethasone, fluticasone, and flunisolide that act on chronic inflammation. Another option is a long-acting beta agonist like salmeterol and formoterol. Quick relief medications can be oral/intravenous corticosteroids like Prednisone that immediately reduce inflammation and relax the airways. Another option are short-acting beta antagonists like albuterol and levalbuterol.
Impact of Asthma Drugs
Corticosteroids have a list of side effects that…
Chanez, P. (2012). Asthma: An issue of clinics in chest medicine. Place of publication not identified: Elsevier Saunders.
Lewis, S. M., Dirksen, S. R., Heitkemper, M. M., Bucher, L., & In Harding, M. (2015). Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2007). Section 4, Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in Youths ?12 Years of Age and Adults. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7222/
Parthasarathy, A., Bhave, S. Y., Borker, A. S., & Nair, M. K. (2013). Partha\\\\'s Fundamentals of Pediatrics. JP Medical Ltd.
Szefler, S. J., Holguin, F., & Wechsler, M. E. (2017). Personalizing asthma management for the clinician. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Asthma is, in basic terms, a condition characterized by the narrowing and swelling of airways, as well as the production of extra mucus. This results in challenges in breathing – effectively triggering shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. It is important to note there is no cure for asthma. It therefore follows that the control of asthmatic symptoms is of the essence. According to the American Lung Association (2020), a person who has a PEAK flow rate of 80% – 100% has reasonably good control of their asthma. On the other hand, as the American Lung Association further points out, “50 to 80 percent of your usual or ‘normal’ peak flow rate signals caution.” Maria’s PEAK flow performance is 60%. It should be noted that during pregnancy, uncontrolled asthma could present serious health challenges/risks for both the mother and the unborn baby. It therefore follows that that on this front,…
2005). To do this effectively, political influences must be involved. This includes working within politics to help provide the necessary tools to tackle the problem of rising numbers of asthmatic children; "A dialogue must start now with policymakers to determine how to pay for community based asthma services which are currently not reimbursable under Medicaid," (Nicholas et al. 2005:248).
As more and more children are beginning to show signs of asthma around the world, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the disease. It is such a sad reality to see so many children around the world suffering from a chronic illness such as asthma. The severity of symptoms depends greatly on individual, social, environmental, and political factors that affect each child in his or her asthma episodes. However, this is an unfortunate reality that healthcare professionals and home caregivers must work through in terms of providing necessary care and…
Iley, Karen. (2007). The impact of asthma on children's lives: a social perspective. Primary Healthcare. 17(8):25-31.
Maltby, Hendrika J.; Kristjanson, Lindra; & Coleman, Mardhe. (2003). The parenting competency framework: learning to be a parent of a child with asthma. International Journal o Nursing Practice. (9):368-373.
Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Adams, Sue K.; Murdock Karla Klein. (2005). Associations among risk factors, individual resources, and indices of school-related asthma morbidity in urban, school-aged children: a pilot study." Journal of School Health. 75(10):375-382.
Milton, B.; Whitehead, M; Holland, P.; & Hamilton, V. (2004). The social and economic consequences of childhood asthma across the lifecourse: a systematic review. Child: Care, Health & Development. 30(6):711-728.
Asthma Complications: Chronic and acute Asthma
Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.
Inflammation plays a key function in the asthma’s pathophysiology. As specified in the asthma’s definition, airway inflammation comprises an interaction of countless cell as well as numerous mediators with the airways which ultimately leads to the distinctive pathophysiological characteristics of the disease: airflow limitation and bronchial inflammation which result in recurrent incidents of breath shortness, wheeze and cough. The procedures by which these active events take place as well as cause clinical asthma continue to be under investigation and research. Additionally, while unique asthma phenotypes exist (for example, intermittent, persistent, exercise-triggered, aspirin-receptive, or perhaps severe cases of asthma), airway inflammation is still a regular pattern. The asthma’s airway inflammation pattern, nonetheless, doesn't always change based upon illness persistence, severity or illness duration. The cellular shape as well as the result of the essential…
GenePlanet. (n.d.). Asthma. Retrieved January 02, 2018, from https://www.geneplanet.com/genetic-analysis/list-of-analyses/asthma.html
McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E. (2006). Pathophysiology: A Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and children. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby. MerchMedicus Models: Asthma. Retrieved May 21, 2008, from http://www.merckmedicus.com/pp/us/hcp/diseasemodules/asthma/pathophysiology.jsp
Meyers, D. A., Bleecker, E. R., Holloway, J. W., & Holgate, S. T. (2014). The Genetics of Asthma: Towards a Personalised Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine, 2(5), 405–415. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70012-8
Medecins sans Frontieres. (n.d.). Chronic Asthma. Retrieved January 02, 2018, from https://medicalguidelines.msf.org/viewport/CG/english/chronic-asthma-16689583.html
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. (2007). Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma, and Natural History of Asthma.
Zaoutis, L. B., & Chiang, V. W. (2007). Comprehensive Pediatric Hospital Medicine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Kaliner, A. M., Lockey, R., & Fergeson, J. (2015). Acute Asthma. Retrieved January 02, 2018, from http://www.worldallergy.org/professional/allergic_diseases_center/asthma/
Condition Assessment and Diagnosis
It should be noted from the onset that patients who are asthmatic ought to manage their asthma in a proper manner during pregnancy. This is more so the case given the need to minimize complications during the term of the pregnancy. It is important to note that some of the problems that could result as a consequence of poorly controlled asthma during pregnancy include, but they are not limited to; hypertension, premature birth, as well as restricted fetal growth (Vincent, Abraham, Kochanek, and Fink, 2011). It therefore follows that in the scenario recounted, the key concern would be the pregnant female patient’s control of her asthma at this point in time.
There would be need to find out if the patient has been taking her asthma medications as recommended since she became pregnant. A thorough physical examination as well as patient history would also be of…
While biological causes for the difference between whites and blacks’ biological mechanisms regarding blood pressure have been speculated as being the cause of higher rates of hypertension among blacks in America, the fact that African Americans as opposed to Africans have higher rates of hypertension suggests that environment has more to do with it than biology (Fuchs, 2011). Environmental factors and daily living habits of African Americans are more than likely the main contributing variables to higher hypertension rates in this population. Environmental factors can include stress and anxiety stemming from racial tension in the U.S. that leads to high blood pressure for blacks in the country. Lifestyle habits can also impact the health of this population: diet and lack of exercise can contribute to hypertension as well (Lindhorst, Alexander, Blignaut & Raynor, 2007). Many diets in America are high in sodium, which can increase blood…
Erdinç, M. (2011). Beta-2 agonist discussions in asthma and a review of current data. Tuberk. Toraks, 59, 205-212.
Fuchs, F. D. (2011). Why do black Americans have higher prevalence of hypertension?: an enigma still unsolved. Hypertension, 57, 379-380.
Lindhorst, J., Alexander, N., Blignaut, J., & Rayner, B. (2007). Differences in hypertension between blacks and whites: an overview. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, 18(4), 241-247.
John, M., Lim, S. A. M., Seybold, J., Jose, P., Robichaud, A., O\\\\'CONNOR, B. R. I. A. N., ... & Fan Chung, K. (1998). Inhaled corticosteroids increase interleukin-10 but reduce macrophage inflammatory protein-1 ?, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interferon-? release from alveolar macrophages in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 157(1), 256-262.
Jones, K. P., Ravnikar, V. A., Tulchinsky, D., & Schiff, I. S. A. A. C. (1985). Comparison of bone density in amenorrheic women due to athletics, weight loss, and premature menopause. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 66(1), 5-8.
Väänänen, H. K., & Härkönen, P. L. (1996). Estrogen and bone metabolism. Maturitas, 23, S65-S69.
Vengust, M. (2012). Hypercapnic respiratory acidosis: A protective or harmful strategy for critically ill newborn foals?. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 76(4), 275-280.
Etiology of Asthma
Asthma is an inflammatory disease that influences the airways featured by recurring and variable symptoms, bronchospasm, and reversible airflow obstruction. Some of the symptoms of the diseases include coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness. Asthma is perceived to be because of environmental and genetic factors. The diagnosis of the disease is based on patterns of symptoms and response to therapy with time. The clinical classification is based on frequency of symptoms and forced expiratory volume in each second (FEV1) as well as the peak flow for the expiratory rates (Clark, 2010). Asthma is also classified as one of the non-atopic (intrinsic) or atopic (extrinsic) elements. Atopy refers to a predisposition to the development of hypersensitivity reactions in the type 1 category.
Treatment of most acute symptoms involves usage of inhaled beta-2 agonist that is short acting such as oral corticosteroids and salbutamol. In severe…
Clark, M.V. (2010). Asthma: A Clinician's Guide. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Douglas, J.G., & Elward, K.S. (2010). Asthma: Clinician's Desk Reference. New York: CRC Press.
Murphy, W. (2011). Asthma. New York: Twenty-First Century Books.
Asthma is a scare and terrible affliction that affects a lot of people to varying degrees. However, long-term control options do exist and they are executed in an orderly fashion by doctors and other medical professionals in coordination with their patients. Indeed, there is what is known as a "stepwise" approach to asthma management. This report shall discuss that and it will also discuss how the stepwise management assists healthcare providers and patients in maintaining control of the disease. While asthma is not an enjoyable thing to live with and deal with, it is entirely controllable but this control should be exerted in the proper fashion.
As explained and described by the National Institute of Health website, asthma is an incurable disease that must be properly managed and treated over time. Controlling asthma in the right manner includes preventing chronic and troublesome symptoms, reducing the need for quick-relief…
GHC. (2015). Asthma Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline. Group Health. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from https://www.ghc.org/all-sites/guidelines/asthma.pdf
NIH. (2015). How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled? - NHLBI, NIH. Nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma/treatment
WebMD. (2015). Asthma Health Center. WebMD. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/asthma/
Improving Health for Children With Asthma
Improving Health Outcomes for Inner-City Children with Asthma
Improving Health Outcomes for Inner-City Children with Asthma
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) engages in active surveillance of childhood asthma because it is prevalent, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity, and imposes an economic burden on families (CDC, 2012). The main recommendations for diagnosing and managing asthma by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) at the National Institutes of Health are: (1) objective measures of lung function, (2) reduce or eliminate environmental triggers, (3) patient and family education, and (4) long-term disease management using comprehensive pharmacotherapy (2007, p. 1). Not only are these recommendations important for limiting the disease burden during childhood, but recent studies have begun to uncover links between chronic childhood respiratory problems and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary…
AAAAI (American Association of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology). (2014). Asthma statistics. United States. Retrieved 1 Mar. 2014 from http://www.aaaai.org/about-the-aaaai/newsroom/asthma-statistics.aspx .
CDC. (2012). Asthma's impact on the nation: Data from the CDC National Asthma Control Program. Retrieved 1 Mar. 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf .
Coury, T.J., Martsolf, D.S., Drauker, C.B., & Strickland, K.B. (2008). Hildegard Peplau's theory and the healthcare encounters of survivors of sexual violence. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14(2), 136-43.
Fitbit Inc. (2014). Compare devices. Accessed 2 Mar. 2014 at http://www.fitbit.com/comparison/trackers.
According to Vasileiadis, Alevrakis, Amepelioti, Vigionas, Rovina, and Koutsoukou (2019), asthma happens to be rather common. Although it could be deemed a minor health concern amongst some people, the condition could be life-threatening for others – especially in relation to asthma attacks. It should be noted, from the onset, that “an acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma” (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2019). Asthma does not have a cure. This effectively means that for those with the condition, the relevance of working closely with a qualified medical professional in tracking (and responding to) symptoms cannot be overstated.
According to Lynn (2015), there are various physiologic factors involved in as far as asthma is concerned. From a general perspective, at the time of the asthma exacerbation (i.e. an asthma attack), the inflammation as well as swelling of the airways becomes apparent. While…
Chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiology
The pathophysiological systems of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation
Asthma attack is really a chronic problem with times of acute exacerbation. This is a generally experienced issue throughout numerous treatment settings. Respiratory tract irritation and super-responsiveness are related to many different pre-discarding aspects, and episodes tend to be brought on by distinct agents. Irritation has a key part within the asthma pathophysiology. As observed within the classification of asthma, air passage irritation entails a connection of numerous cellular types as well as several mediators with the air passages that ultimately leads to the typical pathophysiological attributes of the condition: bronchial irritation and air flow restriction that lead to persistent instances of coughing, wheeze, as well as breathlessness (NCBI, 2007). Asthma entails numerous pathophysiologic aspects, such as bronchiolar irritation with air passage constraint and resistance which exhibits as episodes involving coughing, breathlessness, along…
Bijanzadeh, M., Mahesh, P. A., & Ramachandra, N. B. (2011). An understanding of the genetic basis of asthma. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 134(2), 149–161.
NCBI (2007). Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma, and Natural History of Asthma. Retrieved 30 March 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7223/
Ober, C., & Yao, T.-C. (2011). The Genetics of Asthma and Allergic Disease: A 21st Century Perspective. Immunological Reviews, 242(1), 10–30. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01029.x
Lynn, S. J., & Kushto-Reese, K. (2017, July 20). Understanding asthma pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Retrieved March 30, 2018, from https://www.americannursetoday.com/understanding-asthma-pathophysiology/
Dhankani A., Girase B., Chavan G., Pawar S. (2013). Asthma- a brief outlook. Pharma Science Monitor 4(3), p 412-431.
Donahue, J & Jain, N. (2013). Exhaled nitric oxide to predict corticosteroid responsiveness and reduce asthma exacerbation rates. Respiratory Medicine 107, p 943-952. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2013.02.018
McFadden Jr, E. R. (2003). Acute severe asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 168(7), 740-759.
Henley S. (n.d.) New Mindmap for Chronic asthma. Retrieved 30 March 2018 from https://creately.com/diagram/example/hxicvd3i/New%20Mindmap%20for%20Chronic%20asthma
Asthma and Stepwise Management
Asthma is a common disorder that affects around 1 in 13 Americans today (Asthma facts and figures, 2018). Although there is no cure for asthma, the condition can be managed effectively using various methods, including most especially a stepwise approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of long-term control and quick relief treatment options for asthma sufferers and side effects such interventions can cause. In addition, an explanation concerning the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management and how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease is followed by a summary of the research and key findings concerning asthma treatment and management in the conclusion.
Long-term control and quick relief treatment options for asthma patients, as well as the impact these drugs might have on patients
The long-term treatment options for asthma are…
Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach. Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Asthma facts and figures. (2018). Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Retrieved from http://www.aafa.org/page/asthma-facts.aspx.
Asthma treatment. (2018). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Retrieved from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/node/3894.
Stepwise approach to managing asthma. (2018). Asthma Initiative for Healthy Lungs. Retrieved from http://getasthmahelp.org/documents/gist-stepwise-approach.pdf
The pathophysiology of Mrs. Teel’s 7-month-old infant’s alteration is a persistent, lingering cough that has lasted for several months. The infant coughs mostly at nights and has had an allergic reaction to amoxicillin in the past. Aside from this, the infant appears healthy, the child’s breathing is clear to auscultation. The cough worsens when the baby cries but other than that the cough does not seem particularly bad. The mother is worried that it may be respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) but the pathophysiology of the infant’s symptoms does not align with RSV as the child demonstrates no lethargy or signs of fever. The most likely cause of the cough is an allergen and the child is simply having an allergic reaction, just as the infant had to amoxicillin. In the nighttime, the air cools off and pollen that is in the air settle back down to the ground…
Campbell, D. E., Boyle, R. J., Thornton, C. A., & Prescott, S. L. (2015). Mechanisms of allergic disease–environmental and genetic determinants for the development of allergy. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 45(5), 844-858.
McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2015). Pathophysiology-E-Book: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Subbarao, P., Anand, S. S., Becker, A. B., Befus, A. D., Brauer, M., Brook, J. R., ... &
Kozyrskyj, A. L. (2015). The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma. Thorax, 70(10), 998-1000.
NP HEALTH PROBLEM
Common Health Problem in Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Practice and Recommendations for Its Medical Management
Nurses are the initial point of contact for the patients in many medical settings, and the nurse practitioners (NP) are the primary source for providing basic medical care such as physical examinations, diagnostic tests, providing counseling, and writing prescriptions. A large growth is being witnessed in nurse practitioners around the world due to the arising pandemics; however, they have been of great help in usual health cases since they function in institutes like clinics, hospitals, schools, and workplaces. As they are the first initial source of medical care for the patients, they are the first-hand problem solvers since they have to guide them according to their medical requirements. This paper analyzes a common health problem faced by NPs and would recommend medical management for it. In further sections, the problem would be…
Amerigroup Real Solutions. (2016, July 16). Clinical practice guideline: Asthma. https://providers.amerigroup.com/ProviderDocuments/GAGA_CPG_AsthmaCMO.pdf
Bhushan, B., Singh, K., Abraham, J., Goyal, D. & Chungath, J.T. (2018). Evaluation of inhaler technique amongst asthmatic and COPD patients attending a tertiary care hospital. Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research, 6. DOI: 10.18535/jmscr/v6i12.101
Cilluffo, A. & Cohn, D. (2019, April 11). 6 demographic trends shaping the US and the world in 2019. Pew Research Centre. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/04/11/6-demographic-trends-shaping-the-u-s-and-the-world-in-2019/
Dharmage, S.C., Perret, J.L. & Custovic, A. (2019). Epidemiology of asthma in children and adults. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 7, 246. DOI: 10.3389/fped.2019.00246
Dima, A.L., De Bruin, M. & Ganse, E.V. (2016). Mapping the asthma care process: Implications for research and practice. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 4(5), 868-876. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2016.04.020
Milanese, M., Terraneo, S., Baiardini, I., Di Marco, F., Corsico, A., Molino, A., & Scichilone, N. (2019). Effects of a structured educational intervention in moderate to severe elderly asthmatic subjects. The World Allergy Organization Journal, 12(6), 100040. DOI: 10.1016/j.waojou.2019.100040
Morton, R.W., Elphick, H.E., Craven, V., Shields, M.D. & Kennedy, L. (2020). Aerosol therapy in asthma- why we are failing our patients and how we can do better. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 8(305). DOI: 10.3389/fped.2020.00305
Press, V.G., Arora, V.M., Kelly, C.A., Carey, K.A., White, S.R. & Wan, W. (2020). Effectiveness of virtual versus in-person inhaler education for hospitalized patients with obstructive lung disease: A randomized clinical trial. Jama Network Open, 3(1). DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.18205
Examination of specimens from these subjects showed that NKT cells were virtually absent in the lungs of the healthy subjects and those with sarcoidosis, while at least two-thirds of the asthma patients' pulmonary T-cells were actually NKT cells, not conventional Th2 cells. Evidently, NKT cells create cytokines, just as T-cells do, but additionally induce asthma, whereas normal T-cells do not. Just how the NKT cells create asthma is still not clear, but this finding leads the way to developing new therapies that may cure asthma. This answered the question of "how do you try to fight the disease?" (Conger 1)
Future investigations will examine whether therapies that target NKT cells will eliminate asthma. This study is believed by other reviewers to have been "elegant" and essential to on-going research. (ood 1)
Conger, Krista. "Cells Critical For Asthma Development Identified by Stanford Researchers; Study Suggests New Asthma Therapies." Stanford…
Conger, Krista. "Cells Critical For Asthma Development Identified by Stanford Researchers; Study Suggests New Asthma Therapies." Stanford School of Medicine. Office of Communication and Public Affairs. Mar 2003. http://mednews.stanford.edu/releases/2003/march/asthma-cells.html .
Newton, Jamie. "A New View of Asthma's Cause: Previously Unrecognized Immune Cell May Provide a Better Target for Therapy. Children's Hospital Boston." Mar 2006 http://www.childrenshospital.org/newsroom/Site1339/mainpageS1339P1sublevel194.html.
Wood, Robert A. "Essential Role Of Natural Killer T Cells Producing Interleukin-4 And Interleukin-13 In The Development Of Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperreactivity." Pediatrics, Vol. 114 No. 2, Aug 2004. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/114/2/S1/528 .
Asthma and Stepwise Management
Long-term control and quick relief treatment, and the effect on patients
Health care comprises of giving treatment for acute asthmatic incidents and management of persistent symptoms, which includes exercise-provoked and nocturnal asthmatic symptoms. Pharmacological controls entail the application of management mechanisms: inhaled corticosteroids, theophylline, long-acting bronchodilators (anticholinergics and beta-agonists), leukotriene transformers and the more current tactics for example the utilization of Ige, that is, anti-immunoglobulin E. antibodies (Omalizumab), and the use of anti-IL-5 antibodies in the case of selected patients. Considering all and especially the most severely affected patients, the crucial objective is to minimize symptoms, reduce morbidity experienced from acute instances and negate psychological and functional morbidity to give a healthy or near normal life expected of a child's age (Morris, 2016).
Majority of the population with asthma have to depend on long-term control medications on a daily basis to aid prevent the symptoms. Most…
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.). (2007). Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in Youths ≥12 Years of Age and Adults. In T. E. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethseda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.).
Morris, M. J. (2016). Asthma Treatment & Management. Retrieved from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/296301-treatment
National Institutes of Health. (2014, August 4). How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled? Retrieved from National Institutes of Health: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma/treatment
Asthma is a serious chronic illness that can wreak havoc in a person’s life. Whether young or old, treatment options can either help or hurt an asthma patient. Doctors and health professionals sometimes use the stepwise approach to help narrow down appropriate treatment options. While the stepwise approach has its place in treating asthma patients, there is also a need to research what recent options there are to help patients have a better quality of life with asthma. These recent options paired with a stepwise approach can better prepare the doctor or health professional in giving high quality care to his/her patient.
Asthma Treatment Options
Every case of asthma demands proper assessment of circumstances and a tailored response to treatment. The right medication for someone who is male and aged 10 with low BMI may not work for someone who is older, female, and with higher BMI. Also, severity…
Asthma represents a lasting inflammatory airway condition characterized by hyper-responsiveness of the airways accompanied by repeated episodes of breathlessness, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. Such episodes have commonly been linked to airflow blocks which can be spontaneously reversed or sometimes require medication. Roughly three hundred million individuals worldwide suffer from asthma. Among children, boys exhibit greater asthma risk whilst among adults, women exhibit greater prevalence. A grasp of the condition’s pathophysiology (both acute and chronic forms) will facilitate an understanding of how to diagnose and treat patients suffering from it. Experts’ asthma pathogenesis knowledge has greatly evolved during the past twenty-five years with scholars discovering several phenotypes of the condition (Lynn & Kushto-Reese, 2015).
Pathophysiology of Acute Asthma
Acute asthma intensification, or asthmatic attacks, take place through binding of inhaled antigens to mast cells performing immunoglobulin E (IgE). These cells start degranulating, thereby releasing bradykinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factors,…
asthma and the methods of prevention. The writer explores the interventions that nurses can use to help patients avoid being hospitalized. The writer also discusses preventative measures that nurses can use to educate their patients who have asthma. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
To the uninitiated, asthma is a common chronic disorder of the airways, resulting in recurrent attacks of breathlessness, generally accompanied by wheezing, chest tightness and cough. It predominantly affects five per cent of the adult population and 10-15 per cent of children (Anadarajah, 2000)."
In the medical profession, nurses are often charged with the intervention and education of their patients. People who have asthma are often looking for ways to avoid hospitalization for their asthma. Being hospitalized can interfere with school schedules, work schedules and other life events. Asthma is a chronic condition and without proper care and treatment patients can begin to…
Medicine for the mind; Meditation has never been more popular - and not just as a stress- buster. Research shows it can also lower blood pressure and help to fight disease. JULIA STUART meets some converts.(Features)
McKesson Corporation's Asthma Disease Management Program Cuts Hospitalizations by 35% for Children and Adolescents.
Failure to follow doctors' orders costs nation's economy big-time.(Flair)
Nursing - Asthma
The limitation of airflow in asthma is reported as "recurrent and caused by a variety of changes in the airway." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Those changes include: (1) bronchoconstriction; (2) airway edema; (3) airway hyperresponsiveness; and (4) airway remodeling. Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway edema occurs with the progression of the disease and the inflammation is more progressive and exacerbated by "edema, inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and the formation of inspissated mucus plugs as well as structural changes including hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway hyperresponsivenss is reported to be "an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor response to a wide variety of stimuli. Airway modeling speaks of the permanent structural changes in the airway reported to be associated with "loss…
Asthma (2013) The Merck Manual. Retrieved from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary_disorders/asthma_and_related_disorders/asthma.html
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.); 2007 Aug. Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma, and Natural History of Asthma. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7223/
Thomas J. Morrow, MD J (2007) Implications of Pharmacogenomics in the Current and Future Treatment of Asthma. Manag Care Pharm. 2007;13(6):497-505. Retrieved from: http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/pages%20497-505.pdf
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
The largest study of children's health is on course to make discoveries that could improve health for generations to come, according to its planners, including the possibility of new treatments and life-saving prevention strategies. However, proposed flat funding levels could slow the progress of the study. Created by the Children's Health Act of 2000, the National Children's Study will follow the health and development of 100,000 children from before birth until age 21, focusing on the links between environment and health. The study, led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, hopes to identify the root causes of various childhood diseases and disabilities and uncover how a broad array of environmental factors impact development. In addition, the study is predicted to shed light on costly conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity. Planning for the study began in 2000 and eventually gathered…
Krisberg, K. (2005, May). National Study on Children's Health to Provide Wealth of Information. Nation's Health, 35(4), 1-26.
Phelps, J. (2004, March). Childhood Obesity. Environmental Health Perspective, 112(3), A 164.
Shaheen, (1999, March). Obesity and Asthma: Cause for Concern?. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 29(3), 291-293.
Von Kries, R., Hermann, M., Grunert, V.P., & Von Mutius, E. (2001, April). Is obesity a risk factor for childhood asthma?. Allergy, 56(4), 318-323.
Step-Wise Approach for Asthma Treatment
· Long term asthma control medication
· Quick-relief treatment options
· Impacts of these drugs on asthma patient
The long-term control medications for asthma control include inhaled corticosteroids for keeping it under control (Mayo Clinic, 2019). Other long-term control medicines used are immunomodulators, leukotriene modifiers, and long-acting beta-agonists (Asthma Initiative of Michigan, n.a.). The quick-relief treatment includes fast-acting inhalers like albuterol, also recognized as rescue inhalers. They are not a long-term remedy for treating asthma since if they are taken every time for controlling asthma, then the disease is not effectively in control.
The impact of corticosteroids is that it helps block the allergens that cause a shortage of breath and support in reducing sensitivity produced from the air (Asthma Initiative of Michigan, n.a.). It can remain adhesive for activation of proteins so that inflammation could be decreased and activation of cellular levels could be…
Asthma Initiative of Michigan. (n.a.). Long-term control medications used to treat asthma. Retrieved from https://getasthmahelp.org/ltc-medications.aspx
Mayo Clinic. (2019, June 20). Asthma treatment: 3 steps to better asthma control. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/asthma/in-depth/asthma-treatment/art-20044284
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. (2007). Section 4: Step-wise approach for managing asthma in youth ? 12 years of age and adults. In Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7222/
Raju, J.D., Soni, A., Aziz, N. & Tiemstra, J.D. (2012). A patient-centered telephone intervention using the asthma action plan. PubMed, 44(5), 348-350.
Rance, K.S. (2011). Helping patients attain and maintain asthma control: Reviewing the role of nurse practitioner. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 4, 299-309. DOI: 10.2147/JMDH.S22966
When it comes to the risks and benefits in a study, a researcher has to use the proper methods to balance these issues. There are algorithms that can be used in order to determine whether something will provide enough of a benefit to be worth doing, or whether there is too much of a risk (Burns & Grove, 2012). Most of the risk issues that appear in studies are based upon the use of human subjects in research (Burns & Grove, 2012). It can put the personal and medical information of participants at risk when they agree to be part of a study, and it is very important the participants understand these risks. Additionally, the researcher has to be aware of the types of risks involved and mitigate them as much as possible for the safety of the participants and their information (Burns & Grove, 2012). When considering whether…
References (Burns & Grove, 2012)
Burns, N. And Grove, S. (2012). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. (7th ed). St. Louis: Saunders (Elsevier).
Toole, K.P. (2013). Helping children gain asthma control: Bundled school-based interventions. Pediatric Nursing, 39(3): 115-124.
Analyze the Pathophysiology of Asthma
The complex chronic inflammatory disease known as asthma, involves several inflammatory cells, more than a hundred distinct mediators of inflammation, and various inflammatory outcomes, such as plasma exudation, broncho-constriction, activation of the sensory nerves, and hyper-secretion of mucus. Mast cells contribute immensely to mediation of acute symptoms of asthma; on the other hand, T-helper 2 cells, eosinophils, and macrophages are factors that cause airway hyper responsiveness, by inducing chronic inflammation. It has been realized by an increasing number of researchers that structural airway cells, including smooth muscle and epithelial cells in airway, are a major inflammatory mediator source. Asthma involves several inflammatory mediators, such as growth factors, peptide and lipid mediators, chemokines, and cytokines. Chemokines have a crucial role to play in selective inflammatory cell recruitment from circulation, while cytokines coordinate chronic inflammation, which may cause structural airway modifications, including angiogenesis, sub-epithelial…
Bahadori, K., Doyle-Waters, M. M., Marra, C., Lynd, L., Alasaly, K., Swiston, J., & FitzGerald, J. M. (2009). Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review. BMC pulmonary medicine, 9(1), 24.
Brown, E. S. (2003). Asthma and psychosomatic syndromes. Basel: Karger.
Clark, T. (2002). Pocket Guide for Asthma Management and Prevention. In Based on the Workshop Report: Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, revised.
Gelfand E. W. (2008). The impact of asthma on patient, the family and society. Retrieved 24 October 2015 fromhttp://www.jhasim.com/files/articlefiles/pdf/GELFAND-%20Article1.pdf
Asthma is a debilitating condition caused by unspecified reasons. As such prevention, control and diagnosis becomes difficult. In addition, symptoms may vary largely. Cultural and ethnic beliefs and remedies add to the complexity, making the attending nurses' jobs that much more difficult. Deciding on the measures and framework needed to provide long-term care is deemed important in this context. This work attempts to consider the pathophysiology and epidemiology of asthma and other variables to provide an effective protocol to attend to Asthmatic patients.
Asthma, a condition that usually occurs in both adults and children is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the airways and is usually characterized by breathlessness or difficulty in breathing. Among adolescents, between the ages of 5-17, asthma is responsible for the loss of over 10 million school days per year and consumes about $726.1 million of caretaker's money every year due to…
Jackson, D.J., Lemanske, R.F. & Guilbert, T.W. (2014). "Management of asthma in infants and children." In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al., eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby: Chapter 53.
Lugogo, N., Que, L.G., Gilstrap, D.L. & Kraft, M. (2015). "Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management." In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders: Chapter 41.
Wildfire, J.J., Gergen, P.J., Sorkness, C.A., Mitchell, H.E., Calatroni, A., Kattan, M., et al. (2012). Development and validation of the Composite Asthma Severity Index -- an outcome measure for use in children and adolescents. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol;.129: 694-701.
Strategies for Reducing Asthma Attacks
Causes of Asthma
Asthma is a condition that causes the patient's airways to swell and narrow making breathing difficult triggering coughing (Shaheen, 2019). The patient might have a whistling sound when they breathe due to shortness of breath. Some people will only get a minor nuisance from asthma. However, for others, it will be a major issue, which interferes with their daily activities. It could also lead to a life-threatening asthma attack. The causes of asthma are not well known. Asthma is a condition that has puzzled many health professionals, but most of them have noted genetic and environmental factors do play a huge role (Shaheen, 2019). When a person has asthma, they will react to things in the world around them, and this reaction is referred to as asthma triggers. Exposure to certain substances and irritants that trigger allergies will result in signs and…
Gautier, C., & Charpin, D. (2017). Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma. Journal of asthma and allergy, 10, 47.
McCracken, J. L., Veeranki, S. P., Ameredes, B. T., & Calhoun, W. J. (2017). Diagnosis and management of asthma in adults: a review. JAMA, 318(3), 279-290.
Shaheen, S. (2019). Elucidating the causes of asthma: how can we do better? The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 7(8), e25.
Health Policy on Asthma
Asthma is a common and chronic disease that occurs across all age groups. It is one of the conditions that have remained the focus of intervention policies in public health. It is also reported that morbidity and mortality of the condition remains high. The negative implications of asthma are comparable to the effects of other ailments, including liver cirrhosis, diabetes and schizophrenia. The interventions that have been instituted in asthma management have, however, reduced mortality to a significant extent in countries where they have been implemented (Bousquet, Philippe J. Bousquet, Philippe Godard, & Jean-Pierre Daures, 2005).
Asthma has both direct and indirect economic implications arising from cost of medicines and health care service. There is also the economic cost of rendering victims less productive. Studies show that the direct cost associated with asthma are in the range of 1% to 3% of the total…
Amenyah, A. M. (2011). Asthma Prevalence: Focus on Prevention Management in Community Settings. Georgia: Georgia State University.
Asthma Interventions and Cost Consequences -- Synthesis of Research Findings . (2007, January).
Bousquet, J., Philippe J. Bousquet, Philippe Godard, & Jean-Pierre Daures. (2005). The public health implications of asthma. World Health Organization.
Chronic asthma is considered to be a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchial mucosa that results in constriction of airways, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and variable airflow obstruction that is reversible. Chronic asthma on the cellular level is characterized by an increase in the secretion of mucus and bronchoconstriction stimuli. Chronic asthma can be damaging to the epithelial cells found in the lungs, which can cause the reoccurrence a lot quicker leading to more severe cases of asthma. During the release of an inflammatory response, toxic neuropeptides and eosinophils are released, which can cause direct damage to tissue and this might result in an increased bronchial hyper-responsiveness (Huether & McCance, 2012). Oxygenation is normally compromised due to the restriction of the bronchial airway in chronic asthma. In particular, the arterial blood gas is affected in the patients by hyperventilation, which induces in hypoxemia and results in respiratory alkalosis (Gelb & Nadel, 2015).…
Some of the treatments include learning how to avoid the things that can prompt attacks as well as how to control asthma reactions if those items cannot be avoided.
There are also two types of medicine that can be taken to help avert the attacks.
The first medicine is short-term and is taken at the onset of an attack, while the second medicine is taken on a more long-term plan, and is usually daily in its usage. Both the long-term and short-term medicines seek to open the airways so that more air can reach the lungs of the individual.
Doctors and scientists have come to some conclusions regarding this disease and many of these medical experts believe that there should be a lot more studying done on why and how the disease affects certain people and does not affect others. The disease is one that affects many people and costs…
http://www.medicinenet.com/asthma/article.htm , Accessed February 25, 2007
Iowa, University of (2006) Asthma Study Seeks Patients With Moderately Severe Asthma, University of Iowa Health Care Today,
Skobeloff, E.M., Spivey, W.H., St. Clair, S.S., Shoftstall, J.M. (1992) the Influence of age and sex on Asthma Admissions, the Journal of American Medical Association, Vol 268 Issue
Procedural igor - the qualitative method and design of the study was appropriate and effective. The researchers described how rigor was maintained in the procedures of the study, and how integrity of the data was preserved through the maintenance of constant responsiveness during both data collection and analysis for the study. It is also described how the researchers maintained objective and critical by maintaining some distance from the data periodically. Therefore, the researchers were aware of potential biases and used these approaches in order to effectively deal with them. The amount of data collected by the researchers was sufficient. It allowed for accurate analysis that yielded meaningful results. Other research studies have utilized qualitative designs for investigations involving asthma (Lyte et al., 2007; Pontin & Lewis, 2009) as well medication adherence, but these did not explore behavioral factors involved in medication adherence in asthma patients.
esults - the results allowed…
Axelsson, M., Lotvall, J., Lundgren, J., Brink, E. (2011). Motivational foci and asthma medication tactics towards a functional day. BMC Public Health, 11:809.
Axelsson, M., Milsson, M., Brink, E., Lundgren, J., Toren, K., Lotvall, J. (2012). Personality, adherence, asthma control and health-related quality of life in young adult asthmatics. Respiratory Medicine, 103(70, 1033-40.
Laakso, L.J. (2012). Motivational interviewing: addressing ambivalence to improve medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(1), 8-14.
Lyte, G., Milnes, L., Keating, P., Finke, a. (2007). Review management for children with asthma in primary care: a qualitative case study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(7B), 123-32.
Exposing the Global Warming Hoax
It is not possible for the prudent reader to agree with Alford's article "Myth: Global warming, environmental racism." The author relies on far too many emotional appeals, unsubstantiated claims, and oversimplifications for any true credibility. It appears he is either ignorant about the issues he writes about, or willing to ignore them for the sake of big business and perhaps his own personal interest in it. His claim that there is no correlation between increasing ozone levels and the burgeoning incidence of asthma is not true, nor even argued very well.
There are myriad ways in which the author has oversimplified what is a complex issue. Most eminently is his conviction that because he has listed the triggers and risk factors for asthma, growing levels of ozone are unrelated to this condition. Granted, ozone is not one of the triggers of asthma; few people would…
Alford, H.C. (2015). Myth:global warming, environmental racism. Philadelphia Tribune.
Naik, G. (2007). Global warming may be spurring allergy, asthma. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu / Retrieved from
According to Waryasz & McDermott (2009), the global prevalence of diabetes among people aged between 20 and 79 rose to 6.4% affecting 285 million people in 2010 and the rate will rise to 7.7% affecting 439 million people by 2030. Amid 2010 and 2030, the rate of individuals with diabetes will increase by 69% in developing nations, and a twenty percent rate in developed nations. In 2011, the number rose to 366 and it is expected to rise to 552 by 2030. The pervasiveness of diabetes is advanced in males compared to females, yet the number of women with diabetes is more compared to that of men.
Diabetes affects any part of the human body and people with diabetes are likely to die of heart-related problems or stroke. Seventy-percent of individuals with diabetes show signs of high blood pressure which a risk factor for heart-related diseases. The majority of…
Boussageon R, Supper I, Bejan-Angoulvant T, Kellou N, Cucherat M, et al. (2012).Reappraisal of metformin efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Med, 9(4): e1001204. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001204.
Karin et al.(2002). Diet and exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) . Diabetes Care, 25 (10), 1722-1728
Wang, H., & Yeh, M.(2012). Systematic to insulin therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes. Mixed- method systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(4), 743 -- 757. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05853.x.
Waryasz, G., & McDermott, A. (2009). Exercise prescription and the patient with type 2 diabetes: A clinical approach to optimizing patient outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22, 217-227.
Cross-Cultural ssues for African-Americans
The chapter on African-Americans primarily discusses three main cross-cultural issues. The first and most obvious one is the physical difference between white and black Americans, which is more pronounced than between Caucasians and any other minority group. This leads to an immediate, visual acknowledgment of difference and the predominance of severe racism that keeps people from being promoted, thinks they are less worthy, and makes them work harder for the same recognition. The second main cross-cultural issue seems to be one of group guilt. The chapter seems to suggest that blacks see individual whites as individually responsible for their actions, but whites seem to see blacks as responsible for the actions of all other blacks, seeing them not as individuals but as a profiled group. n addition, if some blacks are incompetent or criminal, they are all seen that way. The third and most cultural of…
If the office doesn't accept people who speak their minds, maybe we should keep our mouths shut more? If it's company policy not to get all up in someone's face and talk them down, then maybe we should respect that. It seems fair to have rules about how people should behave, even if it goes against the grain for blacks who are from a far more open culture. If a lot of tact is necessary for the job, though, we need to have it. On the other hand, if only black people are supposed to be tactful and polite, that's a problem. Having to always be submissive is degrading. It always made me angry when a little white girl could talk back to the teacher and he'd listen to her, but when I talked back it was seen as giving lip or even being aggressive just because of my cultural voice. I was interested to see that one person they quoted said that he hated being asked why he didn't act black (and thus they insinuated that he could, if he wanted) because he just wasn't like that, and someone else said they hated having to not act black. I don't think there's an across the board answer for whether people want to be accepted as a stereotype, or not.
In the end, the chapter was a very positive thing, if only to get people thinking about racism. There's a lot of racism in the workplace, I'm sure, because I saw a lot of it at school. I guess my one critique to the author, but even more to blacks everywhere would be: we needed to decide how we want to be treated, and then address it openly. Do we want to be seen as our color and take pride in it, and "act black" or do we want to fit in? Do we want to be treated as a group, or as individuals? Do we want to act like everyone else, or like ourselves? If we're willing to behave differently than everyone else, are we willing to accept the consequences?
Blank, Renee & Slipp, Sandra. (1994). African-Americans. In Voices of Diversity: Real People Talk About Problems and Solutions in a Workplace Where Everyone Is Not Alike. New York: Amacon.
Asthma has emerged as one of the most common health problems and chronic diseases that affect children worldwide. Healthcare practitioners have become concerned with the increased prevalence of asthma among children. This study focuses on examining the role of vitamin D in prevention and/or control of asthma among children. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that vitamin D has been positively linked with enhanced control of asthma and decreased exacerbations of the condition. The study seeks to fill gaps in knowledge regarding the role of vitamin D in asthma, which remains relatively unclear. The discussion also demonstrates the clinical implications relating to the use of vitamin D in treatment of asthma.
Background and Significance
Asthma is regarded as one of the most common diseases and long-term health conditions that affect children. This condition is basically defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways involving several cells and cellular…
Somashekar, A.R., Privthi, A.B. & Gowda, M.N.V. (2014, October). Vitamin D Levels in Children with Bronchial Asthma. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(10), 4-7.
Tachimoto et al. (2016, January 30). Improved Control of Childhood Asthma with Low-dose, Short-term Vitamin D Supplementation: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 71, 1001-1009.
Trollvik et al. (2011). Children's Experiences of Living with Asthma. Fear of Exacerbations and Being Ostracized. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26, 295-303.
Yadav, M. & Mittal, K. (2014, July). Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Moderate to Severe Bronchial Asthma. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 81(7), 650-654.
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
Since 61% of the total had complete medical records, an estimate of that number would be important. The reader would also benefit by a split-out of the mothers less than 18 and the asthma rates of their babies, in order to establish if low birth weights were more common in such populations, and other confounding variables were different.
How was the sample selection done and what was the final sample size on which the data was analyzed? was there a control group?
The final sample size appeared to be 2,032 or 1,845, depending on the variables analyzed. That is because the patients in the 1,845 group had complete medical data available on all study variables, while the 2,032 included all those with some medical data. This means that there were 187 subjects for whom not all data was available. A subtraction of multiple-birth events brings us to 1,803 in the…
Gordon, L. (2004). Epidemiology. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders.
Nepomnyaschy, L. a. (2006). Low Birthweight and Asthma Among Young Urban Children. Am J. Pub Health, 1604-1610. (Nepomnyaschy, 2006)
Low Birth Weight Babies and Asthma
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
Community Outing isk eport: Touring Old Mesilla
The outing proposed needs to be a four hour tour for a group of 20 individuals with varied backgrounds, experience, and physical abilities. It needs to be an outdoor activity. The people in the group include four people in the 60-70-year range (three males and one female) two females over the age of 75, both of whom have health problems, four children between the ages of six and ten years old (one with chronic asthma and one with a severe peanut allergy), six people between the ages of 35 and 40 (three males and three females; one of the females is pregnant), and four people between the ages of 16 and 18 (2 males and 2 females). Furthermore, while everyone in the tour group is an English speaker, English is not the first language of the elderly members of the group (those age…
ABQ Webmaster, 2011, National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office: Albuquerque, NM.
Available from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/abq/?n=prephazards
ISO, 2009, ISO 31000: 2009. Available from:
Nursing elated Case Study
Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.
Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.
Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…
Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf
Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.
Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
There is also relevant information for specific sectors of society such as women and seniors. The MedlinePlus Magazine includes several links to asthma information. The bottom of the page includes links that contain information such as disclaimers, copyright, and privacy information. It also contains links that provide information on the contributors of information to the Website. The privacy statement clearly provides visitors and subscribers with the assurance that their information will not be shared. All the information on the site is therefore provided on the basis of full disclosure, both of the information itself and on information providers.
This Website is therefore very reliable, and also includes information on a myriad of other health topics, which will be helpful for Amy if she wants more information on her other conditions as well.
Suspicious Website: http://www.asthmaanswersonline.com/cures-asthma/
This Website indicates that asthma can in fact be cured. Prominently displayed at the top…
espiratory Care: Scenario
One of the most difficult ethical scenarios which may arise is when a patient is not fully compliant with treatment. In one of the cases I observed, a child had recently been diagnosed with asthma. Unfortunately, the parent was not able to offer the child the ideal environment for coping with his asthma. The parent and child lived in a very dusty environment and it was difficult for the parent to bring the child in for regular checkups. The child was frequently taken to the emergency room because of difficulties in controlling his asthma. There was heavy reliance upon inhaled corticosteroids and other medications primarily intended for short-term use. The parent was also reluctant to allow the child to participate in regular activities such as sports. The child was overweight and this caused a spiral of problems for the child: not being able to participate in normal…
Juniper E.F., Guyatt G.H., Feeny DH, Ferrie P.J., Griffith L.E., & Townsend M. (1996).
Measuring quality of life in the parents of children with asthma. Quality of Life Research,
5: 27 -34.
Providing parent and caregiver training. (2010). AARC. Retrieved from: