Nurse Management Research Resources essay

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Nursing Leadership

Batcheller, J.A. (2011). On-boarding and enculturation of new chief nursing officers.

Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(5), 235-239.

This article examines the on-boarding process for new chief nursing officers by examining the onboarding process for 6 new chief nursing officers. The examination is aimed at determining what type of support leaders new to an executive role requires and how to on-board leaders who are experienced, but who are new to a particular organization. The possible implications of this research is that if the on-boarding process is insufficient, then it may contribute to high turnover rates and the short length of chief nursing officer positions.

Carlson, C.L. & Plonczynski, D. (2008). Has the BARRIERS Scale changed nursing practice? An integrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(4), 322-333.

This article examines whether the BARRIERS Scale, which identifies nurses' barriers to using evidence-based practice, contributed to an increase in the use of evidence-based practice. The BARRIERS Scale has traditionally been used as a way to determine whether people perceive certain things as barriers to implementing evidence-based practice. The researchers concluded that it did not, suggesting a rejection of further research efforts using the BARRIERS Scale.

Cathcart, E.B. (2008). The role of the chief nursing officer in leading the practice: lessons from the Benner tradition. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 32(2), 87-91.

Basing its approach on the work of Patricia Benner, who focused on the development of nursing leadership skills over time in practice and based on the educational background, this article focuses on the practice of nursing, suggesting that nursing is too complex to reduce to quantifiable measures. The author suggests that the role of the chief nursing officer is to create an environment where nurses may lives out all aspects of the nursing practice.

Clavell, J.T., Drenkard, K., Tullai-McGuinness, S., & Fitzpatrick, J. (2012).

Transformational leadership practices of chief nursing officers in Magnet organizations. Journal of Nursing Administration, 42(4), 195-201.

This study was an e-mail survey of Magnet chief nursing officers that used a leadership practices inventory, which uncovered that enabling others to act and modeling the way are two top practices of Magnet chief nursing officers. The older the respondents, the more likely they were to score high in inspiring a shared vision and challenging the process. There was a positive relationship between years as the chief nursing officer and total score on the inventory; the conclusion was that more experienced chief nursing officers are more likely to exhibit transformational leadership. The practical application of this research is that it reaffirms what other researchers have suggested, which is that experience in nursing helps create leadership skills in nurses.

Englebright, J., & Perlin, J. (2008). The chief nurse executive role in large healthcare systems. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 32(3), 188-194.

This article specifically discusses the role of nurses as executives in community healthcare systems. Unlike other healthcare organizations, these are often not led by clinicians, but by nursing executives. These chief nursing officers are supposed to interface between clinical and operational domains, which means that their jobs do not focus on patient care or even on nursing supervision, but on more technical aspects of the healthcare provision process.

Fennimore, L., & Wolf, G. (2011). Nurse manager leadership development: leveraging the evidence and system-level support. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(5), 204-210.

This article discussing what type of leadership training is necessary for nurses in management positions, and notes that many problems are due to the fact that traditionally much of this training has been on-the-job training. The authors discuss strategies for developing successful nursing leaders. What is interesting about this article is that it seems to find the on-the-job leadership training that many nurses receive to be insufficient as a way to establish leadership skills and suggests that a more formal program of leadership training may be a better way to prepare nurse leaders.

Havens, D.S., Thompson, P.A., & Jones, C.B. (2008). Chief nursing officer turnover: Chief nursing officers and healthcare recruiters tell their stories. Journal of Nursing Administration, 38(12), 516-525.

This article features an examination of a study by the American Organization of Nurse Executives examining chief nursing officer turnover with the goal of improving chief nursing officer recruitment and retention. The goal of the article is to help improve chief nursing officer recruitment and retention because it notes that there are extremely high turnover rates in the profession. One of the things that the article discusses is that there are ways to ease transition for those who are changing jobs.

Jones, C.B. (2008). Revisiting nurse turnover costs: adjusting for inflation. Journal of Nursing Administration, 38(1), 11-18.

In this technical article, Jones introduces a method based on the Consumer Price Index to inflation adjust the costs associated with nurse turnover, with the goal of empowering nurse executives with costs associated with turnover. This can be important because, without an understanding of the true costs that come with nursing turnover, healthcare managers may not understand how important it is to reduce these turnover rates.

Jones, C.B., Havens, D., & Thompson, P. (2009). Chief nursing officer turnover and the crisis brewing: views from the front line. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(6), 285-292.

This study looks at the nurses left behind after a chief nursing officer turnover and examines their perception of how the departure impacts the hospital in several different areas including morale and standard of care. It takes a different perspective by examining, not the chief nursing officers who leave, but the work environments that they leave. This can provide insight into the types of environments that encourage nurse turnover.

Keys, Y. (2009). Perspectives on autonomy. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(9),


The article focuses on the experiences of nine Magnet-hospital, chief nursing officers and how they feel that being able to act autonomously enhances their ability to perform their job duties. The article could help explain what factors lead chief nursing officers to stay in job based on the amount of decision-making authority that they have.

Kramer, M., Schmalenberg, C., Maguire, P., Brewer, B., Burke, R., Chmielewski, L., Cox,

K., Kishner, J., Krugman, M., Meeks-Sjostrom, D., & Waldo, M. (2008). Structures and practices enabling staff nurses to control their practice. West J. Nurs Res, 30(5), 539-559.

This article describes a mixed-methods research project that examined what type of structures promote control over nursing practice. Together with articles that focus on how autonomy and control promote longevity in chief nursing officer positions, this article could help extend employment periods for chief nursing officers.

Kramer, M., Schmalenberg, C., Maguire, P., Brewer, B.B., Burke, R., Chmielewski, L.,

Cox, K., Kishner, J., Krugman, M., Meeks-Sjostrum, D., & Waldo, M. (2009).

Walk the talk: promoting control of nursing practice and a patient-centered culture. Crit Care Nurse, 29(3), 77-93.

This article examines how patient-centered practice cannot be implemented unless upper-level management endorses these activities, so that chief nursing officers may need to implement these policies if they are going to be part of a healthcare organization's approach. This helps examine the very real disconnect between theory and practice that many nurses, including nurse managers and chief nursing officers, report. Being unable to implement the type of practices that their educational backgrounds suggest are the best for patient-care may contribute to employment dissatisfaction.

Lavelle, J.J., McMahan, G.C., & Harris, C. (2009). Fairness in human resource

management, social exchange relationships, and citizenship behavior: testing linkages of the target similarity model among nurses in the United States. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(12), 2419-2434.

This article looks at how perceptions of workplace fairness, including supervisor fairness, impact workplace attitudes, specifically attitudes towards supervisors. This could be applicable to chief nursing officers having feelings that they are not appreciated, contributing to turnover rates, because employees may not understand the decision-making process, and, as a result, perceive them as unfair. Therefore, it may be important for chief nursing officers to ensure that their behavior is seen as fair, and try to proactively avoid any activity that could be perceived as unfair.

Leary, A. (2011). 'Nurses lead at every level here': Frances Pickersgill talks to Alison

Leary, outgoing chief nursing officer for St. John Ambulance, about leadership and change. Nursing Standard, 25(47), 62-63.

This article offers the personal insights of Alison Leary, former chief nursing officer at St. John's Ambulance. She discusses her role as a chief nursing officer and how she developed her leadership skills in that position.

Mackoff, B.L., & Triolo, P.K. (2008). Why do nurse managers stay? Building a model of engagement: part 1, dimensions of engagement. Journal of Nursing Administration, 38(3),


This is part one of a multi-part study that examines why there are such high turnover rates in nurse management. The results suggest that a lack of engagement contributes to high turnover rates among nurse managers. These results are based on self-report data from long-time nurse managers. These nurses discuss the various elements that have inspired them to stay in their positions and that they consider crucial to a healthy workplace environment.

O'Neil, E., Morjikian, R., Cherner, D.,…[continue]

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