McCArthy, A., Shaban, R., Boys, J., & Winch, S. (2010). Compliance, normality, and the patient on peritoneal dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 37(3), 243-251.
Key Words, data bases, limitations: compliance, gerontology, medication compliance
Alexandra McCarthy, Ramon Shaban, Jennifer Boys & Sarah Winch
"Compliance, normality, and the patient on peritoneal dialysis."
Journal: Nephrology Nursing Journal
Volume: Issues: Pages: 2010: 37: 3: 243-251.
Location/Setting: Case study completed within the ambulatory dialysis of a large metropolitan hospital in Australia.
Independent Variable: PD compliance
Dependent variables: influence on compliance (professional advice regarding PD)
Controlled Variable: none noted
The case study utilizes empirical inquiry to investigate contemporary phenomenon within real life context. Phenomenology can be a component of case study theoretical analysis.
Sample Size: 5 patients identified by renal nursing staff within the clinic were asked to identify patients they considered to be compliant with their PD regimen based on knowledge of health related behaviors. Participants were required to understand English and have begun some form of PD (manual, automated, or continuous) at least 6 months prior to initiation of the study.
Sample Methods: Purposive sampling was used. Of the 105 patients treated at the clinic during the time of the study, 20 met the criteria for inclusion according to the opinion of the registered nurses as well as a letter of introduction regarding the study. The 5 who participated in the study responded favorably to the invitation.
Sample Characteristics: Those who chose to participate in the study were self selected intrinsic cases. There were two female and three male participants ages 48 to 85. The causes of renal failure varied and included phenacitin-induced nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, renal malignancy, and glomerulonephritis. All advised because of their condition and amount of time since renal failure (3 to 5 years) they were prepared for the eventual need for PD.
Data Collection Measures: Interview (2 hours in a place convenient to participants)
Description of measures: If participants raised clarification questions during the analytical process, participants were re-interviewed to very, augment, or refute the researcher's interpretations.
Procedures: Researchers utilized sequential analytic methods of categorical aggregation and direct interpretation, correspondence and patter, and naturalistic generalizations.
Data Analysis: Consistent with Stake's approach to case study (1995), the data was transcribed immediately and thematically, and analyzed according to participants interpretations of compliance, aspects of compliance, challenges, and factors that enhanced PD compliance.
Statistical Tests: No statistical tests were utilized in the case study analysis.
Results / Findings: Analysis indicated that the actions of health professionals acting in accordance with individual patient needs and desires, and demonstrating an awareness of the constraints under which patients operate and individual strengths were more significant in influencing compliance. The identified factors were also contributory to normalcy.
Recommendations: No recommendation for future studies was offered.
The strength of this particular study lies in the in depth interview and the methodology chosen to inform regarding peritoneal dialysis; consistent with qualitative empirical research. The first person accounts provided a level of information that may not have been achievable via quantitative analysis. The weakness of the study is with regard to generalizability due to the limited number of self selected participants and the failure of the researchers to provide recommendations or suggestions for further study.
Citation: Sandhu, s., Mion, L., Khan, R., Ludwick, R., et al. (2010). Likelihood of ordering
Physical restraints: influence of physician characteristics. Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society, 58(7), 1272-1278.
Keywords, limitations: chemical restraints, medical decisions-making, risk perception, limiters of 2006 to present
Authors: Satinderpal, Sandhu, Lorraine Mion, Rabia Khan, Ruth Ludwick, Jeffrey Claridge, James Pile, Michael Harrington, Janice Winchell & Mary Dietrich
"Likelihood of Ordering Physical Restraints: Influence of Physician Characteristics"
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Independent Variable: physician age and sex, years experience and physician level, specialization, restraint knowledge, judgment
Dependent variables: ordering restraints
Controlled Variable: none noted
Framework Theory: cross sectional
Study Design: Cross Sectional, factorial research survey
Sample Size: 246
Sample Methods: surveys
Sample Characteristics: Interns in all specialties; residents in internal medicine, family practice, emergency medicine, psychiatry, and surgery; and attending faculty at an academic medical center
Data Collection Measures: Survey of demographic, professional, and restraint knowledge items and for each of five distinct vignettes
Description of measures: Physician ratings of probability of patient harm and likelihood of ordering restraints. For each, physicians rated probability of patient harm and likelihood of order restraints
Procedures: The institution review board reviewed and approved the study. Investigators with no supervisory or administrative authority approached the participants. The survey was distributed in June to August 2007 to 246 physicians at meetings or in their mailboxes. Surveys were anonymous and could be returned in person or through the interhospial mail system.
Results / Findings: 189 of 246 (77%) surveys were returned. More than half (58%) were men; the median was 30 (range 25-63), median years experience was 2 (range 0-33), and 60% were U.S. medical school graduates. Mean knowledge score was 68.4%. Mean likelihood or ordering restraints ranged from 0.6 (not likely) to 9 (absolutely). Physician characteristics and lack of restraint knowledge are associated with likelihood of ordering restraints.
Future Studies - Results will guide medical education initiatives to reduce restraint rates.
The strength of this study lies in the cross sectional analysis that is consistent with quantitative empirical study and methodology. Researchers provided statistical support that strengthens internal validity and reliability. Because of the manner in which the research was structured, this results can potentially be duplicated in other studies and inform the scholarly literature as well. The weakness in the study is the same as the strength. The fact that cross sectional analysis with interns only informs to a certain degree. Having the same kind of procedural and methodological structure with practicing physicians may have provided more poignant statistics as to what actually happens with regard to patients and the ordering of physical restraints; and that analysis being used comparatively with that of the interns.
Citation: Warne, S., Endacott, R., Ryan, H., Chamberlain, et al. (2010). Non-therapeutic
Omission of medications in acutely ill patients. Nursing in Critical Care, 15(3),
Keywords, limitations medication management, therapeutic, limiters: 2006 to present
Authors: Siobhan Warne, Ruth Endacott, Helen Ryan, Wendy Chamberlain, Julie Hendry, Carole Boulanger, and Nicola Donlin
"Non-therapeutic omission of medications in acutely ill patients"
Journal: Nursing in Critical Care
Year: Volume: Issues: Pages: 2010: 15: 3: 112-117
Type of Study: Quantitative
Location/Setting: four sites in south west England
Independent Variable: point prevalence on non-therapeutic medication omissions
Dependent variables: reasons for medication omissions, outlier status
Controlled Variable: none noted
Framework Theory: Behavioral
Study Design: point prevalence survey
Sample Size: 162 medical and surgical patients across four sites in the South West of England
Sample Methods: survey
Sample Characteristics: Examined records for 132 patients across four medical, four surgical and one orthopaedic ward in March 2007. Of 132 patients, 131 had at least one drug prescribed; one patient had a drug chart but no prescribed medications at the time of the audit.
Data Collection Measures: Examined records for 132 patients across four medical, four surgical and one orthopaedic ward in March 2007. Of 132 patients, 131 had at least one drug prescribed; one patient had a drug chart but no prescribed medications at the time of the audit.
Description of measures: A total of 1115 drugs were prescribed, mean per patient 8.5, median, 9, and range 0-22.
Procedures: Data was collected from medication charts using a proforma developed by the research team including all instances of non-therapeutic medication omission; all instances of non-therapeutic medication omission; all instances of delayed medication administration;…