Nutrition Health Science Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:


The Digestive System

Mechanical digestion begins the process of digestion. Otherwise known as chewing, it "involves mixing, grinding, or crushing large pieces of food into small pieces" (Lab: Mechanical and chemical digestion, n.d, Chapter 38). In contrast, the process of chemical digestion occurs inside of the body within the digestive organs, "when digestive enzymes break down complex molecules, such as carbohydrates, into simple molecules, such as glucose" (Lab: Mechanical and chemical digestion, n.d, Chapter 38). When digesting a ham and cheese sandwich, first the teeth grind the sandwich mechanically. Then this is followed by the process of breaking down the food chemically within the body. While mechanical digestion is a willed activity in the sense we select the foods we eat and how much we chew, chemical digestion is not.

During the process of chemical digestion, "the parietal cells of the stomach produce HCl and secrete it primarily in response to ingested protein or fat" (in the cheese and the ham) and protect the stomach against harmful bacteria that might have entered the body during food preparation or consumption (Haas 2012). After the food leaves the stomach, "the small intestine carries out most of the digestive process, absorbing almost all of the nutrients you get from foods into your bloodstream. The walls of the small intestine make digestive juices, or enzymes, that work together with enzymes from the liver and pancreas to do this" (Organs: Large and small intestines, 2013, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh). By the time the food reaches the large intestine, it consists mainly of dead cells and fiber. 'Helpful' bacteria in the large intestine "feed on this mixture. These helpful bacteria produce valuable vitamins that are absorbed into your blood, and they also help digest fiber" (Organs: Large and small intestines, 2013, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh).

Q2. Food Safety & Technology

Technology such as refrigeration and preserving has vastly improved the ability of human beings to eat a wider variety of foods safely, year 'round. "Yeasts, moulds and bacteria" are the primary causes of food spoilage (Causes of the spoilage of food, n.d., Food Preservation). As well as being unpleasant to look at and taste in most forms, spoilage and contamination can cause illness in humans. The core principles of food safety include proper hygiene (hand-washing, wearing protective gloves, not working while ill); keeping food at the proper temperature through heating or refrigeration; by cooking food until done (keeping food out of the danger zone of bacterial growth of 140-41F); and avoiding cross-contamination (such as not using the same knife to cut raw poultry and vegetables for example) (The basic principles of food safety, 2006, NH Department of Health & Human Services).

Eating organic food does not mean that one automatically is eating food that is safe. However, according to the USDA, "organic produce and other ingredients are grown without the use of pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, genetically modified organisms, or ionizing radiation. Animals that produce meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products do not take antibiotics or growth hormones… Organic-certified operations must have an organic system plan and records that verify compliance with that plan" (Organic FAQ, 2013, Organic food can still be contaminated with pathogens, but there are other health risks many consumers want to avoid association with the consumption of pesticides and antibiotics.

Q3 Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the body's most easily available energy source, and are critically necessary to engage in short bursts of activity. "The carbohydrate in foods is broken down to glucose (blood sugar). Glucose can be used immediately for energy or converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscle tissue. Muscle glycogen provides immediate fuel for exercising muscles" (Barke 2005). Carbohydrates are also necessary for endurance, given that the body cannot break down fat for fuel in the absence of adequate carbohydrate intake. And "a high carbohydrate eating plan helps preserve lean body mass (since more protein is broken down when inadequate carbohydrate is available for energy)" (Barke 2005).

Not eating enough carbohydrates can actually be dangerous, given that the brain, heart, and kidney rely upon carbohydrates to function. "If your diet does not include enough carbohydrates your body will take extreme measures to get the energy it needs; it will feed on carbohydrates stored in muscles and attempt to chemically break down the proteins you eat until those proteins…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Nutrition Health Science" (2013, January 22) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from

"Nutrition Health Science" 22 January 2013. Web.21 October. 2016. <>

"Nutrition Health Science", 22 January 2013, Accessed.21 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and

    Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm Patterns of health and illness Physical Health Mental Health Spiritual Health Social Health Impact of Broader Environments Natural Built Social Economic Political Critical Reflection Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any

  • Health and Socio Cultual Factors Health and Socio Cultural

    Health and Socio-Cultual Factors Health and Socio-Cultural Factors Health and Socio cultural Factors Health and Socio-Cultural Factors Health and Socio-Cultural Factors The value of health being wealth is as old as the history of mankind. People of all times have their philosophies related to healthcare and they developed the precautions and treatment according to their specified theories. As the changes take place in every aspect of life, the theories of healthcare and causes of diseases

  • Nutrition Public Health Nutritionists Public

    People achieving registration are known as Registered Public Health Nutritionists (RPHNutr). Associate registration is also available for graduates who are in the process of gaining sufficient work experience in order to apply for full registration. The Nutrition Society is also starting to accredit degree courses in public health nutrition so that this career path can be selected from the outset (All about Careers in Nutrition UK, 2004). With the growing

  • Nutrition Obesity and Physical Activity

    More specifically, when certain species (including homo Sapiens) consume more calories than necessary for immediate energy requirements, their digestive systems efficiently converts those excess calories into storable forms of reserve energy that are capable of being called upon in times of need (Larson-Duyff, 2005; Rinzler, 2004). In humans, excess caloric consumption increases the amount of sugars dissolved in the blood (Larson-Duyff, 2005; Rinzler, 2004). This triggers a natural insulin response

  • Health System in Kuwait

    Health System of Kuwait The Managerial Functioning of Kuwait's Health Care System General Description of the Kuwait Health System Kuwait claims to have one of "the most comprehensive health care systems, and one of the most all-encompassing social service systems in the world" (KIO, 2003). This health care system has offered free - or nearly free - services to the entire population of Kuwait for about fifty years. If a Kuwaiti citizen is sick,

  • Nutrition and CVD Cardiovascular Disease

    This Stanford study was commissioned by the federal government. It reviewed 1,800 studies on the health benefits of garlic or three months, specifically in lowering cholesterol levels. It said that studies lasting three months or less came out with that conclusion. But longer-term studies did not (Feder). Despite this new finding, the sale of garlic supplements remained brisk and popular (Feder 2007). It sold at $150 million a year. The

  • Nutrition as a Means of

    The white paper cites several other studies as the basis for the argument, but does not provide a Reference List Quendler, S. "Link Between Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Academic Achievement." Vienna University, Austria. (August, 2002): 1-2/. Available at Accessed 23 October 2008. This study confirmed the connection between poor nutrition and academic performance. It also identified low-income children as being at particular risk of poor nutrition. This study supports the

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved