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Heart rates in children may reach 220 or even 225 before puberty, but tend to fall to around 200 in their late teens, so the coach should not worry on finding such high rates in exercising youngsters." (Sharp, 1)
This is a demonstration of the distinct physical response of the youth's body, justifying a framing of youth physical activity as separate, different and demanding its own specific scientific attention. This is so because there also exist specific risks to the child which must be considered before shaping or directing an exercise routine. The anaerobic capability of a child -- which denotes the subject's ability to generate and use energy -- will be simultaneously demonstrative of the unique abilities and vulnerabilities of the child. Sharp indicates that "on the anaerobic side, the younger the children, from about 8 to 16, the lower the proportion of anaerobic energy they can generate, and…
Khan, K.; McKay, H.; Haapasalo, H.; Bennell, K.; Forwood, M.; Kannus, P. & Wark, J. (2000). Does childhood and adolescence provide a unique opportunity for exercise to strengthen the skeleton?. Journal of Science and medicine in Sport, 3(2), 150-164.
Rosenbaum, M. (2001). Increasing Basal Metabolic Rate Through Exercise. Medscape.
Rowland, T.W. (2005). Children's Exercise Physiology. Human Kinetics.
Sallis, J.F.; Prochaska, J.J. & Taylor, W.C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medical Science in Sports Exercise, 32(5), p. 963-975.
Exercise Science & Anatomy
The science of anatomy began long before the invention of the CAT scan, but it couldn't have been done without the inventions of one of the greatest artistic and scientific minds in history, Leonardo da Vinci. Nor could exercise science have become an area of serious investigation and discovery without the work of Leonardo and his successor, Vesalius.
Da Vinci was born April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy, just outside Florence died on May 2, 1519 in Cloux, France. hen he was a teenager, he thought it would be cool, legend says, to paint a really creepy head. So he brought home all sorts of vermin, including lizards, bats and maggots, and painted a disgusting monster. His father, startled by the realism of the thing, decided his son could only be an artist. (Museum of Science eb site)
Leonardo, the artist, often became fascinated with a…
Randall, John Herman. The School of Padua and the Emergence of Modern Science. Padua, Italy: 1961.
Renaissance Man: Leonardo. 2003. Museum of Science. 2 October 2003. http://www.mos.org/leonardo/bio.html
Vesalius, the Humanist. 2003. University of Virginia, Health Sciences Library. 2 October 2003. http://hsc.virginia.edu/hs-library/historical/antiqua/texth.htm .
Life of a Personal Trainer
There are myriad exercise science and wellness promotion sub-disciplines. These include various facets of nutrition, kinesiology, injuries, areas of athletics which may be stratified by sports or competition, yoga, pilates, and other type of exercise. These disciplines relate to an assortment of career options in which individuals can either work as a general fitness trainer or actually specialize in each of these sub-disciplines.
One of the most important requisites to becoming a personal trainer is to have the proper education. Such an education usually necessitates the completion of a high school diploma or of its equivalent. Frequently, there is a plethora of post-secondary education opportunities that employees in this field wish for their candidates to have fulfilled. These include formal collegiate education in a subject related to this field such as physical education, exercise science, kinesiology, and others (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015). Such an…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Fitness Trainers and Instructors." www.bls.gov 2015. Web. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/personal-care-and-service/fitness-trainers-and-instructors.htm
Exercise science is a scientific discipline quite apart from simple physical activity. The exercise scientist gains understanding from reaching out to other disciplines, such as psychology, chemistry, physiology, and even engineering. Basically, exercise science alludes to how science is applied to the act of exercise; exercise refers to human movement, but exercise science zeros in on the various components that relate to the links between fitness, exercise, diet and health.
The Sub-Disciplines of Exercise Science
Exercise physiology: This is the study of acute responses and the adaptations that the body makes to various exercise situations. Sports nutrition: this is the practice of taking the nutrients that are most helpful to athletic performance (the correct amount of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins and liquids). Epidemiology: this is the way in which the distribution and determinants of certain healthy states or events are studied by doctors and scientists, and how the results…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Well-Being Concepts." Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov . 2009.
Kamen, Gary. Foundations of Exercise Science. Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott Williams & Wilkins. 2001.
The news media and bloggers rely on “clickbait” headlines to grab readers’ attention and lure them into an article. Scholars write catchy headlines but for different reasons. Whereas clickbait headlines are a form of “deception,” catchy phrases in headlines are not. The commercial media also uses statistical data differently from scholars, often misleading the public by drawing spurious conclusions or using hyperbole to interpret the results. For example, recent headlines show that the use of the word “epidemic” is itself becoming an epidemic: with an “epidemic of gun violence,” an “opioid epidemic,” an “epidemic surveillance of Hajj pilgrims,” and a “prison epidemic” all being reported in one Google search. With no established parameters for what constitutes an “epidemic,” irresponsible reporters can use this term. Even though the widespread abuse of prescription opioids is a problem, there is no need for Lopez (2017) to use the inflammatory term “epidemic”…
Hamblin, J. (2014). It’s everywhere, the clickbait. The Atlantic. Retrieved online: https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/11/clickbait-what-is/382545/
Lopez, G. (2017). The opioid epidemic, explained. Vox. Retrieved online: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/8/3/16079772/opioid-epidemic-drug-overdoses
Trefil, J., & Hazen, R.M. (2016). The sciences: An integrated approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Science of Behavior Change
NIH Common Fund Programs: The science of behavior change
The science of behavior change is a critical area of NIH research because of the degree to which lifestyle changes can improve human health. Chronic diseases such as heart disease, type II diabetes, and stroke have all been linked to negative health behaviors like smoking and drinking. Only if scientists can understand how to motivate people to change their behaviors can a more effective prescription for remedying these ailments be constructed for our nation. Two NIH studies currently being undertaken are one which investigates how "environmental and biological factors associated with poverty and stress that underlie abnormal impulsivity that accompanies addiction to substances and unhealthy behaviors" and one which assesses environmental factors that influence the propensity for adolescents to exercise " to identify individual differences in voluntary exercise behavior and inform new ways to change exercise behavior…
Common Fund Makes New FY2010 Awards to Advance the Science of Behavior Change.
(2011). NIH: Science of behavior change. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at http://commonfund.nih.gov/behaviorchange/overview.aspx
Cuddihy, T. (et al. 2006). Exploring the relationship between daily steps, body mass index and physical self-esteem in female Australian adolescents. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 4 (1): 25-35.
Heyworth, Kelly. (2006). Girl Power. Fitness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/family/fitness/girl-power-how-teens-are-changing-the-face-of-fitness/
This begins by asking a question. In that case, the question would be: Does Sensa cause weight loss without dieting? Background research would then need to be done. This would include any literature and other research information that could be found on Sensa from reputable sources. Information from InStyle and Good Housekeeping would not be considered for this type of research, because these are not reputable magazines from a scientific standpoint. A hypothesis would be constructed from the background research, which would be that Sensa causes weight loss without dieting. From that point, it would be necessary to conduct an experiment to prove or disprove that hypothesis.
An experiment to prove or disprove this hypothesis would need to include a control group, and that group would need to eat the same food and the same quantity of food as those using the Sensa. This is difficult, because everyone metabolizes food…
Braithwaite, J., & Jackson, J. (2006). What is pseudoscience?
Weight loss discovery making national headlines. (2012). How life works. Retrieved from http://www.howlifeworks.com/a/a/?cid=7425aa&AG_ID=520
Science appealed to me as early as I can remember in my academic career, specifically, solving problems through experimentation. Biology, in particular, captured my interest because it seemed to combine science with the goal of providing healthcare and comfort to patients suffering from medical disease. Since then, I have learned that the other scientific disciplines contribute equally toward improving modern health care, but the biological sciences have always captured my greatest interest.
My recent volunteer duties at the (Name of nursing home) nursing home confirmed to me the profound satisfaction inherent in providing patient care. The experience of being able to improve the lives and outlook of elderly patients (some of whom suffer more from depression and loneliness than any organic disease) remains one of the most rewarding endeavors that I have ever undertaken.
The satisfaction of helping others is one element that has been missing from my professional life,…
patterns of physical activity and exercise indicates that there has been an overall trend of decreasing physical activity levels and increasing levels of inactivity among adolescents and adults (Gordon-Larsen, McMurray, & Popkin, 1999; Van Der Horst, Paw, Twisk, & Van Mechelen, 2007). Inactivity and poor diet are responsible a large number of deaths annually and could soon become one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. esearch continues to reaffirm that there is a dose response relationship between physical activity and all causes of mortality. There is typically a risk reduction of around 30% for those attaining the recommended levels of at least moderately intense physical activity on most days of the week compared with those who are relatively inactive (Lee & Skerrett, 2001). egular physical exercise has long been associated with decreased risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (Powell, Thompson, Caspersen, & Kenderick, 1987), obesity and diabetes (Knowler,…
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Public Education. (2001). Media violence. Pediatrics, 108, 1222 -- 1226.
Dennison, B.A., Straus, J.H., Mellits, E.D., & Charney, M.D. (1988). Childhood physical fitness tests: Predictor of adult physical activity levels? Pediatrics, 82 (3), 324-330.
Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L.S., Nelson, M.C., & Popkin, B.M. (2004). Five-year obesity incidence in the transition period between adolescence and adulthood: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 569 -- 575.
Gordon-Larsen, P., McMurray, R.G., & Popkin, B.M. (1999). Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Pediatrics, 135, 301 -- 306.
Attribution Theory and Emotional Intelligence
Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.
The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation…
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Macleod, D.V. (2004). Tourism, globalisation, and cultural change an island community perspective. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R.D. (2002). Emotional intelligence science and myth. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
The pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes is found in the way the body's relationship with insulin. Either the body produces too little of it to meet the body's own needs or else there is a resistance to the insulin that the body has developed (which makes the insulin unable to do what it should -- thus there could be enough insulin in the body, it is just that cells in the body do not respond to it). The cause is due to "a combination of genetic factors related to impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance" and impacts from external factors "such as obesity," inadequate exercise, aging, etc. (Kaku, 2010, p. 41).
Wilmot and Idris (2014) show that there is an age continuum risk associated with separating Type 2 diabetes diagnosis onsets into two separate categories -- pediatric (under 20 years of age) and adult (over 20). They assert that…
Billings, L., Florez, J. (2010). The genetics of type 2 diabetes: what have we learned from GWAS? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1212: 59-77
Cunningham-Myrie, C., Theall, K., Yonger, N., et al. (2015). Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9): 970-978.
Davis, B. (2012). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons from the Marshall Islands. Today's
Dietitian, 10(8): 24.
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
Health [...] importance of health and exercise, and where people can find assistance in California. Exercise is an important deterrent to many diseases, including obesity, a plague on the nation. Getting Americans to exercise may be difficult, but the benefits of exercise are clear. People who exercise tend to live longer, have better overall health, and feel better about themselves. In California, many programs are available that will help people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles that include exercise. Education is the key to helping people understand the benefits of exercise, and that education must begin early in life for exercise to become a daily habit. For America to become a healthy country again, people must understand the importance of exercise and good health, and that begins with education and assistance to help people create better, more healthful lives for themselves.
Exercise and good health go hand-in-hand, and yet, in our…
Akande, A., Van Wyk, C.D., & Osagie, J. (2000). Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health. Education, 120(4), 758.
Author not Available. (1999). Physical activity and health. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/sgr/intro.htm18 June 2004.
Editors. (2004). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from the HealthyPeople.gov Web site: http://www.healthypeople.gov/Document/html/uih/uih_bw/uih_4.htm18 June 2004.
Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C.E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105.
The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?
Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.
Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.
Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Biblical Views of Science, Technology, And Business
One of the more difficult aspects of trying to live a biblically-inspired life is that the Bible is, in many ways, a historical document. It was written thousands of years ago and describes events that are, in many ways, very unlike the challenges faced by modern human beings. This is particularly true in the 21st century, when modern science, technology, and business advances seem to be, at times, in direct opposition to the Bible or biblical teachings. That view ignores the basic underlying premise of the Bible, which is that it is both a historical document and a living document. As a living document, it has the ability to grow with the advances of mankind. In fact, it does not actually grow with mankind; on the contrary, as man's understanding expands to encompass more of the universe, as reflected in advances in science,…
Crampton, W.G. 1997. The biblical view of science. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from The
Trinity Foundation website: http://www.trinityfoundation.org/journal.php?id=163
Fooshee, G. 2014. 10 financial principles that are biblical. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from Back to the Bible website: http://www.backtothebible.org/10-financial-principles-that-are-biblical.html
Hibberd, P. Unk. To what extent is utilitarianism compatible with Christian theology? Discuss
In addition, just over $41 billion was removed from 2001 and 2003 tax cuts. The cuts in military spending will affect a wide variety of citizenry. Specifically, military personnel will be affected with reduced budgets across the board. This will result in a reduced readiness of the military to protect the United States, in the short-term and the long-term. This reduction in spending will also negatively affect civilian contractors and other companies that provide products and services to the military. This will result in lost revenues and decreased profitability for these organizations. A secondary effect of this could result in lost jobs and reduced tax revenues for the city, state and national governments, as well as reduced revenues for other businesses in the community, if these organizations implement worker layoffs.
Social Security cuts will negatively affect the growing population of Baby Boomers and those already receiving Social Security benefits. However,…
Health and Social Sciences
Health, Well Being and Social Care in UK
Sociological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psychological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psycho-Social Needs of Service Users in UK
Health and Social Sciences
This report casts light upon the various aspects of physical and mental health of people living in United Kingdom. The selected sample chosen for this study belongs to the settings of people who do not belong to UK from their old generations and they are spending the lives of homelessness there. In other words, the paper is about physical and mental health of people who belong to other areas of the world but are settled in UK for education of job purpose. Since they are outsiders, they do not have permanent place to live in, they make temporal arrangements depending upon their requirements. Their priorities are different…
BBC News, 2011. Archbishop calls for NHS bill to cover spiritual health. [Online] Available at: < http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15570290 > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Department of Health, 2012. Public Health, adult social care and the NHS. [online] Available at: < http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/index.htm > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
International Health Insurance, 2012. 3 Easy Steps to Health Insurance. [Online] Available at: < http://www.international-health-insurance.com / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Men's Health News, 2012. The Hardest Workout You're not Doing. [online] Available at: < http://news.menshealth.com/the-hardest-workout-youre-not-doing/2012/02/10 / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
People are now looking ways to fight this problem of stress. Some people take help of drugs to control the stress issue but the side effects of drugs create more problems rather than solving one. Exercise has been proven as a natural solution to the problem of stress with no side effects. In certain cases of other psychological problems combining exercise and music can be helpful.
Effects on Mental Performance: esearches have also shown that both music and exercise combined together have positive effects on cognitive abilities. In a research including 33 men and women in the final weeks of a cardiac rehabilitation program after bypass surgery, angioplasty or cardiac catheterization, the effects of classical music and exercise were studied. All participants were asked to complete a verbal fluency test before and after two separate sessions of exercising on a treadmill. Vivaldi's 'The Four Seasons', a classical music piece, was…
Henderson, S. (August, 2005). The Rhythm of Capoeira: Aerobic Workout Combines Cultural Music and Dance for an Effective Exercise. Ebony. 60(10): 94+.
The Effect of Music on Exercise', Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://www.anselm.edu/internet/psych/theses/2004/hall/webpage/
Morris, a. Myers, S. Schaumburg, L. Schrage, K. And Veasey, M. (2006). The Perceived Effects of Music on Exercise Performance. Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/541.asp
Little Music with Exercise Boosts Brain Power, Study Suggests' Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/hartsong.htm
The authors were trying to develop a system of estimating and indexing muscle fatigue rates during static muscle contraction. The results of this study indicated that estimations were reasonably successful with some limitations that were noted. One limitation was that the study neglected muscle recovery since the experiment was performed in a lab under controlled conditions and the muscles were able to fully recover. However, in the real world muscles move in a dynamic environment thus making muscle recovery rates a challenge in producing an accurate estimate of fatigue.
Another study looked at the efficacy of treatments in patients who suffer from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The study conducted research using 111 patients who suffer from CTS. They compared the standard conservative treatment (SCT) with other forms of treatment available that also propose to alleviate symptoms associated CTS. They found that SCT, which includes local steroid injections, was effective as…
Yewguan Soo; Sugi, M.; Nishino, M.; Yokoi, H.; Arai, T.; Kato, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ota, J.;, "Quantitative estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography during static muscle contraction," Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009. EMBC 2009. Annual International Conference of the IEEE, vol., no., pp.2975-2978, 3-6 Sept. 2009
Ay-e N. Bardak, Mehmet Alp, Belgin Erhan, Nurdan Paker, Betul Kaya and Ay-e . Onal,;, "Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of conservative treatment in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome," Advances in Therapy, Publisher Springer Healthcare Communications, ISSN 0741-238X (Print) 1865-8652 (Online), Issue Volume 26, Number 1 / January, 2009
teaching space science. There are various complexities that affect the way that astronomy is taught, not the least of which is the enormity of scale that space science involves.
One of the basic requirements for understanding astronomy is coming to terms with the vastness of the universe. For example, a basic unit of astronomical measurement is the light year. Merriam-ebster defines the light year as "a unit of length in astronomy equal to the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum or about 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers" (2011). hile this definition conveys factual data, it does little to make the concept real, that is, accessible to the average student.
Moreover, trying to convey the reality of light traveling at the unimaginably fast speed of 299,792 kilometers per second (186,282 miles per second) is indeed mind-boggling. Even at such amazing speeds, light takes years to…
Bennett, J. (2011). Teaching resources -- strategies for teaching astronomy. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.jeffreybennett.com/astronomy.html
Discovery Education. (2011). Astronomical scales. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-lesson-plans/astronomical-scales.cfm
Koppes, S. (2011). Award-winning teachers find the unexpected. University of Chicago website. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.uchicago.edu/features/20110527_quantrell/olinto.shtml
Merriam-Webster. (2011). Light-year. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/light-year?show=0&t=1313215675
Social Science and Why Is it Important?
The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)
Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)
The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments…
Bowker, Geoffrey C; Star, Susan Leigh; Turner, William; Gasser, Les. (1997) "Social
Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Brooks, Stephen; Gagnon, Alain-G. (1994) "The Political Influence of Ideas: Policy
Communities and the Social Sciences." Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.
Smith notes that it may be impossible to unequivocally prove something with one hundred percent accuracy; rather, scientists seek probability.
The term theory is often misconstrued: Smith states that "theories always explain facts." Moreover, there is no clear demarcation between a theory and a hypothesis. Theories are basically broad hypotheses. Laws, on the other hand, are more restrictive and are often derived from theories. The practice of science entails experimentation as well as presentation to the scientific community. When the research is presented to other scientists, it is usually done so through peer-reviewed journals. Often other scientists will critique and critically evaluate the scientific experiment and attempt to replicate it. When the experiment has been replicated the hypothesis may become part of the canon of established science and from there, common knowledge.
Because science can only deal with what is observable and measurable, it can not apply to philosophy, aesthetics,…
Smith, David. "The Nature of Science."
Live Without Science?
The vast improvements in the quality of life modern humankind has been experiencing are due in large part to the developments and innovations in science. These are not only confined to one or two branches of science but all branches thereof have made significant contributions. Whether it is in the biological, physical, technological, medical or other science, each branch has provided breakthroughs that resulted in having a better life for each of us. For instance, "new technological advances lead to new scientific discoveries [such as] developing DNA copying and sequencing technologies [that] led to important breakthroughs (University of California Museum of Paleontology et al., 2011). Diseases that used to be dreaded in the past and caused several deaths are now curable because of our knowledge in DNA technology.
On the personal level, science has tremendously improved how I live my everyday life. Technology for that matter enabled…
Jessa, T. (2011, February 4). Importance of science. Universe Today. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://www.universetoday.com/83736/importance-of-science/
University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, and the Regents of the University of California. (2011). Benefits of science. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_18
Wagner, W. (2007). Vernacular science knowledge: its role in everyday life communication. Public Understanding of Science, 16 (1): 7-22. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://www.brown.uk.com/brownlibrary/wagner.pdf
video games in the life of the student. The problem with the Likert Scale is that
I like video games.
I play video games everyday.
I play video games online
I play video games with friends online.
I play video games after school.
I play video games before doing homework.
I play video games while doing homework.
(Based on 7 Criteria Above)
Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 5 Item 6
The key to the Gutman scaling is the analysis. The table shows the respondents who Agree or Disagree, and we then use those percentages to make points about the criteria, and age vs. responsibility.
When conducting research with humans there are a…
The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus,…
Allen, Laura. (2008, December 19). The Other Big Meltdown. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-12/other-big-meltdown
Cyr, Christine. (2008, December 11). Flying High on Biofuels. Retrieved December, 20
2008, at http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-amp-space/article/2008-12/flying-high-biofuels
McKIbben, Bill. (2008, November/December). The Most Important Number on Earth.
Art & Science of Nursing
Since its very inception, there has been a conflict within the nursing profession about its status as to whether it is a science or an art. This is due to the fact that the profession of nursing includes within its tradition both scientific and artistic aspects.
The opposition between science and art has existed from the beginning of modern nursing. Nightingale championed the view of nursing as a moral art, while Fenwick argued for registration and insisted that nursing was an independent profession allied with science and technology.
(Le Vasseur J. 1999)
On the one hand, nursing viewed as a science implies objectivity and distance while on the other hand it can be seen as an art form which implies subjectivity and detachment. There has been considerable debate about these two apparently opposing points-of-view, as well as attempts to find areas of consensus between the…
Glazer, S. (2000, Summer). Postmodern Nursing. Public Interest,, 3. Retrieved February 13, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Johnstone, M. (Ed.). (1999). Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Sydney, N.S.W.: Harcourt Saunders.
Le Vasseur J. (1999) Toward an Understanding of Art in Nursing. Advances in Nursing Science; 6/1/1999
Raingruber, B. (2003). Nurture: The Fundamental Significance of Relationship as a Paradigm for Mental Health Nursing. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 39(3), 104+. Retrieved February 13, 2005, from Questia database,
boundaries between religion and science have always been thin, in spite of the triumph of reason in modern societies. For example, science is frequently called upon to aid those in times of need, from offering miraculous organ transplants to the terminally ill to engineering new homes and communities for those whose lives have been devastated by natural disasters. On the other hand, religion and religious ideals help guide the moral hand of the sciences, providing an ethical framework within which scientists can operate. Through the integration of science and spirituality, individuals can contribute to a more just and joyous world. In my personal life I have witnessed the power of blending science and spirituality. Especially as an aspiring practitioner of dental medicine, I feel I must not neglect ideals like compassion in favor of competitive advantages or financial gain. My specific field of interest therefore reflects my commitment to improving…
have to go soon to the nutritionist. feel really sick and tired. know it sounds cliche but really don't feel good anymore. used to just get such a high feeling when binged and purged you know? But also know need help. Do you know embarrassing it is to have to go up to one of the receptionists, tell them my name, and the reason for my visit? especially hate when they have to take my blood pressure and weigh me.
My blood pressure is always high because take stimulants. 'll go crazy if see the scale go past 105 lbs. My goal is to be under 103 lbs. 'm so close. Maybe shouldn't tell them about the jars. Those jars are the only thing that keep me sane. They hide my secret. Should even let them know? They'll just look at me like 'm a burning ant under…
I'll put hospitalization, 12/23/2013, one week, at Sinai Hospital; reason, depression. Father and mother medical history…well my mom has high blood pressure and suffer from anxiety. My dad had diabetes type 1 and died from a heart attack. He always ate a ton of junk food. My aunt has arthritis in her left knee.
I guess that should be enough. I put the address of the pharmacy I collect my medication. I even the emergency contacts and read all the privacy and patient rights forms. I signed everything. Now I just have to go back to the front desk and hand it all in. Great…now I have to wait 30 minutes for the doctor to come. Is she even a doctor? I'm not sure if nutritionists are practicing doctors. Oh well, the nurse just called for my vitals.
Not bad suppose, 120/80. That's a surprise to me. I never have normal blood pressure. I did wait two days to take any caffeine pills. That's odd, they're asking me if I had any sex lately. No…I never had sex with anyone, I'm a virgin. That's private anyway. It doesn't matter, a bunch of yes and no's and I'm done.
In addition, please find a ballot, which you may complete and mail back separately which will allow you to be entered into a prize draw for $50.00.
You were selected to participate in this study by a random selection of University Community members. Your participation is entirely voluntary and you may choose to withdraw at any time. There are no harms or risks involved in participating in the study, and there are no direct benefits. All of the information collected through this survey is entirely confidential and the survey collects absolutely no identifying information. The final report will be presented to University Administrators with data analyzed as a whole, and no individual case will be identified.
This study has received approval from the Institutional Review Board at the University of X. If you have any questions or concerns you may contact the IRB chair at ____ or you may contact…
Safety Decisions in High School Football
This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…
Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.
FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved http://www.vata.us/aboutvata/FactsaboutATCS.pdf
International Federation of Sports Medicine, Excessive physical training in children and adolescents, (1991). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 262-4.
Gerberich, Susan Goodwin, et al., (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players, American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370-5.
The urpose of a olitical Court
In the view of Henry J. Abraham (Abraham 1998, 55), "theoretically," just about any qualified law school graduate with ambitions for an important judicial appointment would appear to have a fair chance at being nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court. That is providing, of course, the candidate is politically "available" and is, in Abraham's words, "acceptable to the executive, legislative, and private forces that, in the order enumerated, constitute the powers-that-be underlying the paths of selection, nomination, and appointment in the judicial process." key phrase in Abraham's criteria is "acceptable to the...legislative" body; as has been witnessed in the past few days and weeks, some of the conservative judicial nominees - not for the High Court but put forward by resident George W. Bush for federal appeals courts slots - have not been "acceptable" to a sufficient number of U.S.…
Peter W. Sperlich. "...And then there were six: the decline of the American Jury," in Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature, ed. Elliot E. Slotnick (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1992), 244.
Michael C. Munger, "Comment on Ferejohn's 'Judicializing Politics, Politicizing Law'," Law and Contemporary Problems 65 (Summer 2002): 87.
Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action (New York: Random House, 1995), 488.
ewards and Benefits From Exercise
Specific Purpose: The purpose of this essay is to find out the rewards and benefits individuals rewards and benefits from exercise.
Consistent exercise gets rid of tension, enhances appearance, keeps person healthy, and raises stamina plus keeps you younger.
In recent years, numerous individuals have turn out to be more and more aware of the need for physical fitness. Nearly everywhere individuals turn, whether it is to a kiosk, television or commercial, information for protecting and refining health overwhelms them. Even though much of this information is commercially inspired by those enthusiastic to sell natural foods, vitamins, and decreasing tricks, some of it, particularly that encouraging a consistent exercise program, merits thoughtful consideration. This kind of a program, if it entails of as a minimum an hour or just thirty minutes a week and if an individual's physician supports it, offers numerous benefits. Consistent exercise…
Bijnen FC, F. E. (2012). Baseline and previous physical activity in relation to mortality in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. American Journal of Epidemiol, 150(34), 1289-96.
Helmrich SP, R. D. (2014). Prevention of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with physical activity. Medical Science Sports Exercercise, 87(4), 824-30.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014, March 8). Exercise: 7 benefits of regular physical activity. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/exercise/art-20048389
Richardson, V. (2014, March 8). A Fit Body Means a Fit Mind. Retrieved from Edutopia: http://www.edutopia.org/exercise-fitness-brain-benefits-learning
These shareholders in the military-industrial complex influence the government in various ways. These companies that produce war weapons or equipment can attach themselves to the central government and the department of defense. These individuals provide enormous amounts of money to various candidates in the congress or have a large number of lobbyists advocating for more contracts in the defense industry. Another influence from the military-industrial complex idea emerges from various political individuals who decide to work for the defense contractors when they leave office. The effect of this is a conflict of interest in the government that negatively affects the common American taxpayer. Continuous war is beneficial to the shareholders in military-industrial complex. They use their position to offer support to individuals who can serve their best interest by favoring a foreign policy that is aggressive. This enables them to influence a conflict that the government pays by engaging in…
Archer, J., & Jarvis, M. (1996). The Fourth Estate. New York, NY: Harper Audio.
Hunt, E.F., & Colander, D.C. (2011). Social science: An introduction to the study of society, fourteenth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Lewis, T.T. (2002). The Bill of Rights. Pasadena, Calif: Salem Press.
Overholser, G., & Jamieson, K.H. (2005). The press. New York: Oxford University Press.
General grade point averages, SAT scores, and school involvement tend to be lower than their peers coming from two parent homes (Park, 2008).
Lower collegiate attendance is also another major issue that is seen within this growing population. On average individuals coming out of single parent homes go to college less than their counterparts with both parents present (Huan, 2003). This is often associated with the poorer grades that were discussed earlier. However, it is also often tied to spending habits on education (Huan, 2003). Once again, this population is subject to lower income averages, which makes spending so much money on college a difficult endeavor. Moreover, there is another impact which tends to have a negative impact on numbers of children from single parent families going to college (Worth, 1992). According to the research, lower involvement of parents in creating dreams of children going to college (Stage & Hossler,…
Baumgartner, Thomas Martin, Burns, Tom R., & DeVille, Philippe. (1986). The Shaping of Socio-Economic Systems: The Application of the Theory of Actor-System Dynamics to Conflict, Social Power, and Institutional Innovation in Economic Life. Taylor & Francis Publishing.
College Board. (2004). Average SAT scores. College Board.com. Retrieved from http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2004/table_2_average_sat_scores.pdf
Huan, W.J. (2003). Family income on family's educational expenditure and children's college attendance. Journal of Family Issues, 24(6), 753-786.
Jones, K. (2007). Single parent households and childhood academic achievement. Associated Content. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/365491/single_parent_households_and_childhood.html
Fundamental and inherently subjective (and thus at least partially false) systems of though cannot be avoided, and in Western thought this basic system consists of these ultimately false binary oppositions. This makes an understanding of a science that could incorporate objective and subjective elements a logical contradiction to Western minds.
Sivin concedes that Chinese science is not exactly the same as Western science (though this is arguably not really true in the present era), but he doesn't really put this in terms of a concession. Advances in Chinese astronomy and mathematics were made at approximately the same time they were being made in Europe, he contends, but due to a long and unbroken working understanding of how the observable world and universe worked -- even if it was more flawed than Ptolemy had achieved -- these advances did not cause or warrant the type of Scientific Revolution experienced in the…
Jacques Derrida (Alan Bass, trans.). Writing and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Sivin. (p. 102).
Fang Lizhi & Zhou Youyuan. Concepts of Space and Time in Ancient China and in Modern Cosmology. In Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology, F. Dainian & R. Cohen, eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Acaemic Publishers, 1996.
Third Grade Science Instruction Plan
The Florida state standards for science education and knowledge achievements in the third grade essentially consist of background knowledge in all of the major branches of scientist inquiry and knowledge -- earth science, physical sciences, and life sciences (FDE 2010). This includes fundamental knowledge regarding the nature of matter and an introduction of types of matter, an understanding of energy and a knowledge of different objects that emit energy in the forms of heat and light and the basics of the energy life cycle amongst organisms on earth (FDE 2010). There are also numerous specific learning objectives identified in each of these and other areas of scientific knowledge that are defined by the state as necessary; the following lesson description touches on several of these areas (FDE 2010).
Earth in Space and Time
One popular way of introducing earth as it exists in space is…
DOE. (2010). Third grade sciance standards. Department of Education. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://doe.sd.gov/contentstandards/documents/PhyScience_3-5.pdf
FDE. (2010). Grade level expectations. Florida Department of Education. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://www.fldoe.org/bii/curriculum/sss/pdf/sci3.pdf
SSS. (1996). Sunshine State standards. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspStandardCorrelation&id=139
TC. (2010). Solar system. Teacher's corner. Accessed 30 November 2010. v
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
Societies and social beliefs change from tribe to tribe, and from nation to nation. The constructed nature of social beliefs mandate that from one society to another, the social beliefs change because each tribe has experienced a different growth curve, has experienced a different history, has identified different seminal events. As a result, each tribe has a unique set of socially constructed beliefs.
For most of the last century, the primary understanding of social values has been based on a constructed and evolutionary model. Darwin's and his cousin Galton's theories of constructed identities have influenced the field of sociology. What was once believed to be passed down as 'truth' on the authority of a society's religious beliefs has now been redefined as 'myth construction.' We believe that man's feelings of weakness, or powerlessness over aspects of his environment has led individual societies to build myths which look…
Goodale, Jane. To Sing with the Pigs is Human. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1995
, 2011. Distinguish them as follows:
Lastname, Smith, Jones, et al., 2011
Lastname, Smith, Geen, et al., 2011
When a souce has six o moe authos, cite only the last name of the fist autho followed by et al. As above, distinguish authos that shoten to the same fom by including as many subsequent authos as necessay. Sepaate each name by a comma, using the connecto "and" unless the authos ae listed paenthetically, in which case use an ampesand.
When ceating the efeence list, alphabetize authos by last name. When thee is moe than one autho, alphabetize the enty accoding to the last name of the fist autho in the seies. Use the autho's last name, then initials athe than full names. Place a peiod afte each initial and use one space afte the peiod. Following the autho(s), put the yea in paenthesis, followed by a peiod outside the final…
references page, there is a double space between entries. Each entry is single-spaced. The second and subsequent lines within an entry are indented.
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.. (2010). Washington,
D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Silk and tassel look similar but the two structures are functionally different. The NP interviewer uses them synonymously without correction by the farmer.
However, the farmer is correct in emphasizing the importance of the silk and tassel, the stigma and the male inflorescence, in the reproduction of the corn. Moreover, the farmer stresses the relationship between wind and corn fertilization. Pollen grains are "borne in anthers, each of which contains a large number of pollen grains" that emerge only during certain morning hours (Thomison). The farmer in the NP segment fails to mention the crucial timing involved in corn pollination.
Corn ovules are potential kernels, which are the fruits of the corn. The seeds of the corn are its pollen: which is created in the anthers and which travel along the male inflorescence to fertilize the stigmas. Stigmas are essentially pollen receptors. In many plants, the stigma is part of…
Thomison, P. Corn Pollination - an Overview. Retrieved Oct 1, 2008 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0128.html
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
Scientific Objectivity and Scientific Irascibility:
Melvin Harris' rhetoric on the perpetration of the fraud of the Maybrick Ink test
According to author Melvin Harris, one of the most infamous hoaxes ever perpetrated against the community of scientists, historians, and laypersons was that of the Maybrick 'Jack the Ripper' diaries. Jack the Ripper, the serial killer who terrorized prostitutes during the late Victorian Era, remains a great unsolved crime. The supporters of the so-called Maybrick diaries claimed to solve the Jack the Ripper murders by implicating convicted 19th century murderer John Maybrick. The diaries were 'discovered' during the late 20th century and a subsequent book by Shirley Harrison was published to support this claim that Maybrick was 'Jack.' However, Melvin Harris in his essay "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," disputes the scientific evidence presented by the supporters of the Maybrick theory. Scientific tests of the diaries proved contradictory,…
Harris, Melvin. "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," 1997: 1-5.
Authoritarianism vs. Democratic Leadership: Why People Choose
Because politics is a social expression, it is natural for philosophers and political scientists to examine the sociology of a group of people regarding their choices of leaders whom they choose to support. In terms of choosing to support a democratic or non-democratic leader, the Frankfurt School of philosophers (Arendt, Adorno, Fromm, Nevitt et al.) show that society can be manipulated into choosing as the powerful elite, who control the media and the manner in which the public masses think, prefer them to choose. In other words, there is an art of deception and manipulation exercised by the purveyors of mass media. On the other hand, there is also a willingness on the part of the public to ascribe to the views of a demagogue, who projects himself vividly, with force, conviction and articulation. Such a leader can attract masses to supporting a…
- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.
Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.
He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…
Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.
Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=97002683' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. Western holistic treatments are based on TCM or 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. The key components of TCM are as follows:
Qi (pronounced like "chee") - this is the vital energy necessary for life (blood, body fluid)
Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: - this governs the meridian and collateral systems of the body. (rown, 2001)
Practitioners of TCM also used a system referred to as "The Eight Principles" which are used to categorize illness or disease. These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including:
deficiency/excess; and Yin/Yang." (rown, 2001)
These principles are stated to determine:
1) Disease location;
2) the nature of imbalance;
3) the presence of a pathological (disease) factors; and 4) the strength of the body's own energies. (rown, 2001)
Summary and Conclusion
Ayurvedic medicine is…
Brown, Liz (2001) East Meets West and Western Medicine Takes a Back Seat: Why Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicines are at the Core of All That's Right with Holistic Healing Today. Better Nutrition Journal. December 2001. Online available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FKA/is_12_63/ai_83076770/print .
Cooper, Edwin L. (2004) 12th International Congress of Oriental Medicine. Oriental Medicine and Biotechnology in the Post-Genomic Era - WHO's Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002 Date: November 6-9, 2003. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal. 2004 1(1):103-106 Oxford University Press.
Healing Choices (2007) Guide to Complementary and Alternative Healthcare. Online available at http://www.healingchoicesonline.com/ .
Herlihy, John a. (2003) the Mystery and the Miracle Ayurveda. 13 April 2003. AuthorsDen.com. Online available at http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewShortStory.asp?AuthorID=1363&id=7866 .
Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
The international political perspectives of free trade
A Global Analysis
International Trade Impact on Tunisia
The Export of agricultural products
International trade and development of Tunisia
Balance in the Trade egime
Imports and exports of Tunisia
Coping With External and Internal Pressures
The Common External Tariff (CET)
Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)
ules of origin
The New Commercial Policy Instrument
Sector Based Aspects
GATT/WTO's Main Principles
Multilateral negotiation and free trade
The Trading Policies of European Union
Critical Political Economy
The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia
The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia
The Smith Co Company
The Softkim and Lovers Limited
The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43
Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific
Alternative Mediterranean Conference
Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776
Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database:
How many people do you think actually want to go to the gym, but feel too lazy due to their hectic schedules? Studies have shown that the assistance of an effective personal trainer can contribute a great deal to overcoming a sense of apathy toward exercise and this strategy has worked for millions of people (McClaran, 2003). However, the personal trainer still does not provide enough motivation for many people to make time in their busy lives to actually make it to the gym. However, how many people do you think would be able to focus more on their personal health if the gym and the trainer could come to them instead? Imagine, a trainer comes to your door and parked close by they have brought all the needed equipment needed for that day's work out -- you barely have to leave the house, let alone make it…
Isaac, M. (2014, August 28). The Mobile Gym Brings the Workout to You. Retrieved from Trend Hunter: http://www.trendhunter.com/trends/mobile-gym
McClaran, S. (2003). The Effectiveness of Personal Training on Changing Attitudes Towards Physical Activity. Journal of Sports Medicine, 10-14.
political motive should be allowed to exercise within the context of morality otherwise the strongest will flourish at the expense of the weakest. The accommodation of morality within political decision-making is the essence of the central argument presented by Immanuel Kant in his work, "Perpetual Peace." This paper begins by summarizing Kant's "Perpetual Peace" and goes on to identify the realist and liberal aspects of his work. The paper ends by discussing the compatibility of Kant's ideas with classical realism.
KANT: PEPETUAL PEACE
The current international political environment is tilting towards a New World Order. This is due to the visible tension that is a product of interaction between the major world powers along with their national interests and the lesser world powers. This tension stems primarily from the desire to maintain power and protect one's own national interests at the expense of others. Several philosophers have suggested…
Kant, Immanuel. Kant: Perpetual Peace. Beck, Lewis, ed. Prentice Hall; 1998.
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…
Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,
Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.
The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Creswell/Lit eview Order
Literary eview Analysis
In 2008, Creswell and seven other authors assessed different types of manuals and handbooks in education on The Chair and External Audiences to understand the faculty in chairperson roles within their educational department that facilitate good interpersonal communications to their staff and enable faculty to develop and prosper (Creswell et al., 1990). In assessing this particular literature, the authors felt there was matching direction in disclosing a conversation of the chair's part in helping new power to assimilate into the department by first signifying that these administrators first appear to sustaining new power by aiding them in discovering the wherewithal they need to practice their efforts. Second, Creswell and the others assessed that they should help beginners extend their association, as well as, help put together the learner in to accessible departmental assignments which are slanted in the direction of societal amalgamation in which…
Hecht, I.W.D., Higgerson, M.L., Gmelch, W.H., & Tucker, A. (1999). Department chair online resource center the chair and external audiences. American council on education, Retrieved from http://www.provost.buffalo.edu/facultyaffairs/pdf_external_audiences.pdf
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
When discussing and pondering the broader subject of steroids and other substances that aid the body in getting stronger and healthier, one word or term that is likely to come to mind is “anabolic”. However, the use and employment of steroids and supplements has multiple layers and types that must be considered. One of the other terms to consider is ergogenic. Regardless of the type of steroid or body aid, there is an intended and desired effect on performance. There is also the related, yet different, use of what is known as human growth hormone, or HGH. As with all medicines and treatments, there are medical risks when it comes to the use or abuse of steroids of any type, which would include ergogenic. While some people are prone to disavow and condemn the use of steroids and/or supplements across the board, here are a number of findings…
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…
Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html
Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm
Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm
Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
marketing plan a sports enterprise (e.g. professional, school, community program). You select a "real" enterprise a fictitious . You position manager develop a plan implement employees / contractors.
The modern day society is nowadays characterized by numerous challenges, one of the more notable of these being increasing health problems among the population. And these health problems are more severe not only as they attack more people, but especially since they come to impact younger and younger generations.
A large majority of the health problems of today are related to an inadequate nutrition, combined with a sedentary life style. The youth of the day for instance consume more and more calories from the highly processed foods and they exercise less, as the leisure activities come to be centered on video games or other sedentary activities (Smith and Biddle, 2008).
In such a setting then, the current project proposed the…
Armstrong, N., Van Mechelen, W., 2009, Pediatric exercise science and medicine, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press
Longenecker, J.G., Loeza, M.A.T., Small business management, Cengage Learning
Kaser, K., Oelkers, D.B., 2007, Sports and entertainment marketing, 3rd edition, Cengage Learning
Smith, A.L., Bibble, S., 2008, Youth physical activity and sedentary behavior: challenges and solutions, Human Kinetics
Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.
The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.
Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…
AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.
Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.
Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school
Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
Describe understanding company's values
Organizational culture: XX Fitness
XX Fitness is committed to bringing fitness to serious fitness enthusiasts in a no-gimmick format. XX Fitness is a 'high end' training facility, because of its relatively high price point at $60 per/session, and its commitment to personalized service. It seeks out people willing to make a commitment to fitness, although it does train persons at all levels. Trainers who work for the company have extensive backgrounds in fitness and sport, and all are certified. Many, like myself, have degrees in exercise sciences.
Personal training, by definition, is a very individualistic profession, and one of the great strengths of the company is that the trainers, as well as being highly experienced, are very competitive and determined to succeed. This individualized nature is reflected in XX Fitness' attempt to pair every client with his or her 'perfect' match as a trainer.…