Describe the earlier historical art period, characteristics of the style, and social conditions that may have contributed to the advent of this style.
Within the history of the Ancients, the story of Classical Greek art and architecture is prefaced by the earliest epoch of the seafaring Cretan civilization, Minos. The Palace of King Minosis is a magical structure reflective of this early world of classical lyricism. It is in fact, Homer's reference to the island, and its legendary king, in Book XIX of the Odyssey, that has informed us of Aegean cultures, and our fascination with all things Minoan. The central locus of exchange for communique with other civilizations of antiquity such as the nearby lands of Pharonic Ancient Egypt, the Palace of King Minos is our greatest resource for inquiry into the roots of ancient classical civilization.
Robust in economy and in cultural dissemination, this especially successful society found pleasure in a high standard of living well beyond what might have even been expected in Europe one hundred years ago. Chronology to the Minoan Bronze Age which is now determined to be three periods: Early, Middle and Late Minoan (em, mm, lm). A vast repository of clay pottery, and shards of exotic materials like ivory from as far away as East Africa evidence the abundance of trade and friendship that the Minoans engaged.
Virtually unaffected by the salted sea air, the Palace of Minos and its beautiful terra cotta-based fresco murals are perhaps the most evocative rendering of the culture. Illustrated with fanciful reflections of Crete's surroundings, Minoan mural imagery depict a world of enchantment with nature. Such composition references integrated compatibility Knossos order of authority and a 'natural' leadership in a world made perfect. The repetition of gorgeous sea life throughout the palace culminates in the Queen's Megaron; an undersea pleasure palace. Scenes from everyday life in Minoan society fulfill the promise of a Kingdom satisfied. Continuity of civilization as an active force with nature is depicted in the 'Bull-leapers' fresco from the 'Toreador' group. Resplendent in composition of light the one dimensional subjects in the paintings appear to be acrobats. Flanking the walls of the Court of the Stone Spout, these particular works were clearly meant to be viewed by court subjects in reverence to their honor of King Minos. Functionary aspects to the Palace grounds involve chambers for King and his family, as well as the sacrificial observation platform containing the "Horn Alter;" a site of sacrament to spiritual fortitude and divine sanction of the authority of the King.
2. Describe the later historical art period, characteristics of the style, and social conditions that may have contributed to the advent of this style.
Two years after the Romantic painting of Bacchante in 1872, exhibition of Mary Cassatt's work in a Paris Salon was seen side by side with early modern painters like Edgar Degas. An American artist, Cassatt's personal lineage stretches across several painterly movements; impacted by the forces of everyday life and mixed influences such as the textile arts (de la Croix and Tansey, 1980). For women artists of the Late Romantic Period, textile fashions, and their multi-use elements enabled them to extrapolate separate interests through fragmentary, hybrid and shifting ideological productions for a body made art object. A vehicle of mass proportions, the deep interest in textile works within painting furthered the discretion of women's expertise in the exotic.
Late 18th century and early 19th century Romanticism "commenced as a literary movement," but came to involve visual artists, particularly "painters Blake, Delacroix, Friedrich, Gericault, Goya, Philipp Otto Runge and Turner" (Vaughan, 2010). Romanticism, uncannily, was often rejected by artists whom later became associated with it. The movement is typically associated with 1) supplication of emotion and intuition at the expense of Reason; 2) a belief that human experience has been neglected by rationalism; and 3) and a depth in focus on the individual, the personal and the subjective (i.e. portraiture) (Vaughan, 2010). While Cassatt is later and most often identified with Impressionism, her early renderings reflect training as a Romanticist. The suppleness of Romanticism offered much in terms of its aesthetic translation as Impressionism came to the fore; yet with unobvious epistemological relation. Impressionism moved away from 'the Subject'…