Ovarian Cancer What Exactly Is Term Paper
- Length: 8 pages
- Subject: Disease
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #60485120
Excerpt from Term Paper :
A mutation of the gene causing colorectal cancer or epithelial ovarian cancer are major risk factors for ovarian cancer, and genetic testing within the laboratory can identify most of these. However, the women who possess these inherited genes are at less risk than those women who do not have any family history of ovarian cancer, and while the former group can be treated with advanced planning and genetic counseling, the latter group cannot be prepared in this manner. (What are the risk factors of ovarian cancer?)
Some women who have already suffered from breast cancer at an earlier stage in their lives may be at increased risk for ovarian cancer because the reproductive organs are somehow connected with each other, and the inherited breast cancer gene, that is the BRCA1 or the BRCA2, drastically increases the risk factor for ovarian cancer. Some studies have indicated that those women, who use talcum powder on their genital area directly, or on their sanitary napkins, are at risk from ovarian cancer. However, these studies are inconclusive, and the presence of asbestos in talcum powder in the days gone by may have caused such investigations, and the talcum powders today that have absolutely no asbestos content do not add to the risk for ovarian cancer in the woman. Sometimes the estrogen replacement therapy that some women use after they have passed the period of menopause are linked to ovarian cancer, and with the more prolonged use, the more the risk is. (What are the risk factors of ovarian cancer?)
What are the Symptoms of ovarian cancer? The truth is that Ovarian Cancer has been named the 'Silent Killer' because of the fact that by the time the cancer is discovered, it has spread to other areas of the body, especially into the abdomen, and by then it is too late to hope for a complete recovery. This happens more than 70 to 75% of the times. However, research on the subject has revealed that there are in fact some small warning symptoms, and when people are more aware of the symptoms, and then the chances of early discovery and therefore early recovery are increased. The activists for ovarian cancer have this to say: "It whispers, so listen!." Why is ovarian cancer so very difficult to detect when it is still in the early stages? This is because it is not generally known at what stage ovarian cancer produces any types of symptoms, and by the time the woman recognizes the symptoms and she visits the Doctor, the cancer would have spread to the abdomen or to other parts of the body, and it would be difficult to control at this stage. (The whisperings of ovarian cancer)
However, the most tragic part is that most of the women who are diagnosed with ovarian cancer had in fact visited the doctor earlier for the treatment of certain symptoms related to ovarian cancer, but since the symptoms are not very obvious and it can take months before ovarian cancer is accurately diagnosed, these women have to suffer needlessly. Therefore, it is better to make a comprehensive list of the symptoms of the disease, and if there is any small indication, then the doctor must be informed immediately. The problem here is that most of these symptoms may be related to other ailments in the body that are totally unrelated to ovarian cancer, but as it is definitely better to be safe than to be sorry, the woman must be made aware of the symptoms of ovarian cancer so that she may seek treatment immediately. (The whisperings of ovarian cancer)
Abdominal swelling is one of the symptoms of ovarian cancer, but the fact is that even in ovarian cancer cases, this may not be one of the primary symptoms. Therefore, the woman must educate herself of the entire gamut of symptoms, and see the doctor if any of them persist for an extended period of time, maybe about two weeks or so. In addition to abdominal swelling, if there is abdominal or pelvic pain or a feeling of fullness, or if there is a feeling of bloated ness, then this may be one of the symptoms. If there are any gastrointestinal symptoms such as gas or indigestion or a feeling of nausea or a change in bowel movements, then these must be considered as symptoms. In addition, the following symptoms must also be taken note of as symptoms for ovarian cancer: any vaginal bleeding or discharge, any types of urinary problems such as a burning sensation, or spasming, or urgency, a feeling of fatigue with or without fever, pain during intercourse, back pain, and a difficulty n breathing.
These symptoms may not at all be related to ovarian cancer, but when taken as an entire group of symptoms, then these may indicate ovarian cancer, and the woman must take herself to the doctor before it is too late. The doctor would perform a pelvic examination, and also a recto-vaginal examination, and order some blood tests like CA125, and also order for a transvaginal ultrasound examination. A combination of all these tests will indicate to the doctor if the patient is in fact suffering from ovarian cancer or not. (The whisperings of ovarian cancer)
What are the treatment methods for ovarian cancer? The treatment for various types of ovarian cancer depends on the type that the cancer is, and the treatment generally varies for ovarian epithelial cancer, for ovarian germ cell tumor treatment, and for ovarian low malignant potential tumor treatment. In the treatment of ovarian epithelial cancer, and its prognosis or the chances for complete recovery generally depend on the stage that the cancer is in at the time of discovery. The shape as well as the size of the tumor is also very important, as are the patient's general age and health conditions. The fact of whether the cancer has juts been diagnosed or if it has recurred or come back in the patient is also a major factor in choosing the method of treatment, and in some cases the only option may be the removal of the entire reproductive system organs of the woman, including both the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and the uterus and cervix etc. This type of treatment is called 'hysterectomy'.
Another surgery is the 'oophorectomy' wherein the ovaries or one ovary, and/or the fallopian tubes are removed. 'Omentectomy' is a surgery that removes the 'omentum', which is the piece of tissue that lines the abdominal wall. A 'lymph node' biopsy can also be undertaken, and in this procedure, a part of the tumor is removed, and it is examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. If they are found to be present, then the treatment will continue accordingly. Radiation therapy is another method of treatment for ovarian cancer. This involves the use of high-energy radiation form x-rays and gamma rays and neutrons that would either shrink the tumor or kill it completely. There are two different types of radiation: one is that of 'external radiation therapy' where the treatment is done from an external source of x-rays like a machine and sent into the body, while the second method is through 'internal radiation therapy', which uses a radioactive coated substance like a needle or a catheter or a wire for treatment of the cancer.
This needle or wire is introduced into the body near the source of the cancer, and the method in which it is generally administered is governed by the stage that the cancer is in, and the type of cancer that it is. Another method of radiation is that of 'intraperitoneal radiation therapy' where the radiation material is poured directly into the patient's abdomen through a catheter. (Radiation Therapy) Another method of treatment for ovarian cancer is that of 'chemotherapy' wherein certain drugs are used in order to stop the progress of the cancer within the body. This works by either completely killing the cancerous cells, or by arresting their growth for a certain period of time, and this would prevent them from growing and dividing further. (Radiation Therapy)
The magazine article entitled 'should you eat soy, the Green Guide investigates', talks about the ways and means with which to prevent ovarian cancer. Soya or soy as it is popularly known is the staple diet of the Chinese people and the incidence of cancer among these people is quite rare. Therefore, the conclusion that can be drawn is that consuming soya can prevent cancer. (Ascribe Magazine article) It is also seen that persons in industrialized areas are more often prone to ovarian cancer than those who reside in non-industrialized nations. This may be because of the dietary factor involved; whereas in industrialized nations there is more consumption of meat and animal fats, in the non-industrialized nations there is more consumption of vegetables and fruits, and this may be related to the higher incidence of ovarian cancer among these people. (Prevention of…