Reproductive System Essays (Examples)

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Reproductive Health of Bass in the Potomac USA Drainage

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16019406


Assessing Research on Bass in the Potomac River

What problem were the researchers investigating?

The research was undertaken to assess whether the location of fish, specifically smallmouth bass and largemouth bass, downstream from wastewater treatment plants, is influencing the biological development of the fish with reference to the presence of cells associated with female reproductive systems developing on the testis of male fish.

Give the background of the problem

In 2003 a study was undertaken which identified that between 33% and 80% of the smallmouth bass in the South Branch of the Potomac river had some developmental abnormalities, with the presence of oocytes on the male fish testis. Oocytes are he cells which will develop into ovum for reproduction in females, and are usually absent in males. With the testicular oocytes observed on fish collected across different areas of the South Branch of the river it would appear that…… [Read More]

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Tissue Maturation Body System Effects

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40406059

e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]


Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. Guide. Retrieved from

Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from

Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.

Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
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Endocrine System in the Human

Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57127349

Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)


Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to equire Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic…… [Read More]


Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to Require Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic Substances Control Act? Environmental Law, 30(2), 413.
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Reproductive Risk Prenatal Diagnosis Selective Abortion

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79077541

CVS available?

Passing judgment on the reasons that women choose to have CVS is unwise under all circumstances. According to the belief systems of some individuals, all abortion is morally wrong and the use of CVS merely encourages sex-selective abortion or aborting fetuses because the resulting child is more likely to have genetic diseases associated with one gender (such as hemophilia in males). But once the principle is established that women have a right to choose to have an abortion, it is not the medical profession's right to decide what is a 'good' reason or a 'bad' reason to have an abortion, so long as the center is in compliance with the law regarding fetal viability.

The same is true regarding the availability of CVS, given that the center's view of abortion rights seems to be clearly tied to its policy. The center presumably does not take a position on…… [Read More]

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Health and Reproductive Rights the Issues at

Words: 1281 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87433122

health and reproductive rights, the issues at stake are women's physical health and their physical autonomy. One of the main arguments that the authors make is that women's health has been compromised because of their inability to exercise autonomy. For example, the debate over reproductive rights, whether access to safe and legal abortion or access to birth control, has endangered women's physical safety. However, the ability to exercise autonomy in health control decisions is not limited to reproductive decisions; approximately one in five women between the ages of 18 and 64 lack health insurance, which strips them of the financial ability to make important health decisions (Shaw & Lee, 2009). This leads to discussions of social factors surrounding health.

In chapter seven, which focuses on family systems and family lives, the issues at stake are how family is defined by society. There has been a significant change in society from…… [Read More]


Bruggink, H. (2009). Don't give up your day job: Leslie Bennetts on the feminine mistake. In Shaw, S. & Lee, J. (Eds.) Women's voices, feminist visions: Classic and contemporary readings (4th ed.). pp. 404-407, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Cooney, E. (2009). The way it was. In Shaw, S. & Lee, J. (Eds.) Women's voices, feminist visions: Classic and contemporary readings (4th ed.). pp. 369-375, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Goldman, E. (1910). Marriage and love. In Shaw, S. & Lee, J. (Eds.) Women's voices, feminist visions: Classic and contemporary readings (4th ed.). pp. 396-397, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gomes, C. (2009). Partners as parents challenges faced by gays denied marriage. In Shaw, S. & Lee, J. (Eds.) Women's voices, feminist visions: Classic and contemporary readings (4th ed.). pp. 408-413, New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Psychology - Reproductive Choice Human

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2601880

Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:

Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).

Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated…… [Read More]


Ackerman, D. (1995) a Natural History of Love.

New York: Vintage

Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy.

New York: Henry Holt.
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Science Marches Forward Reproductive Cloning of Humans

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74748313

science marches forward, reproductive cloning of humans will likely become a reality. It has already been accomplished with dogs, cats, cows and monkeys. This means that one day a person will be able to have a child with his/her own cells. hat do you think some of the family law issues will be as this form of alternative reproduction becomes a reality?

As soon as Dr. Ian ilmut made a breakthrough announcement that he, and his team, had successfully cloned an adult sheep in 1997, the salience of the controversy about cloning humans and genetic modifications in the human genome virtually erupted (Rose, 1999). It became clear at this point that it was feasibly possible to conduct a range of scientifically assisted reproduction such as human cloning for example. There could also be a mix of genetic information bestowed on a child. For example, family planning could resemble something along…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, L. (2010). New York's One Judge-One Family Response to Family Violence. Juvenille Family Court, 77-86.

Berman, D., & Alfini, J. (2012). Lawyer Colonization of Family Mediation: Consequences and Implications. Marquette Law Review, 95-887.

Edwards, L. (2008). Child Protection Mediation: A 25-Year Perspective. Family Court Review, 69-80.

MacDowell, E. (2011). When Courts Collide: Integrated Domestic Violence Courts and Court Pluralism. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 95.
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Analgesic Systems Roles of Stress

Words: 1726 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99036369

Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.


Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Islam, Anita K., Madeline L. Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.
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Magnetic Resonance System on Patients Magnetic Resonance

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80574645

Magnetic esonance System on patients

Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.

MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…… [Read More]


Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New

York. McGraw-Hill.

Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.

Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
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China's Reproductive Behavior and Culture

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54209113

This is called "reproduction worship." According to this belief the world originated from Yin and Yang life force. This has had a great impact on Chinese culture and its view of reproduction. Yin is considered a male life force with many powerful positive attributes while Yang is assigned mainly weaker attributes. eproduction is given much importance because of its power to move the universe ahead and to expand the same. The forces of Yin and Yang are both needed for actions to have impact. There are other beliefs that seem to have an impact on reproductive behavior among Chinese couples. (Tang, 1995)

Since Confucianism advocates sexual restraint and asceticism, marriage is seen as a vehicle for reproduction rather than a means of enjoying sex. Secondly families are considered very significant because of ancestor worship. Since ancestors are revered in Chinese culture, having a family is always the motivating force behind…… [Read More]


Tang Z. Confucianism, Chinese culture, and reproductive behavior

Journal Population & Environment Issue Volume 16, Number 3 / January, 1995
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English Legal System the Law

Words: 2141 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96673053

For example, the Parliament passed the "Year and a Day ule" Act in 1996 that changed the previous murder and manslaughter law that specified that a person could be charged with murder or manslaughter if the victim died within a year and a day of receiving his injuries. The change was made to reflect modern development in medical science, which enabled injured people to remain alive for longer periods.

Changes in the UK laws have also reflected the growing strength of the egalitarian ideal over the last two centuries. It has led to changes in laws that have encouraged the gradual emancipation of married women and the prohibition of discrimination based on race or sex. For instance, an old law applicable until recently did not allow married women to refuse sex with her husband. However, in . v (1991), the House of Lords decided that if a wife did not…… [Read More]


Atiyah, P.S. (1995). Law and Modern Society (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Harris, P. (2007). An Introduction to Law (7th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Martin, J (2005). The English Legal System (4th ed.). London, UK: Hodder Arnold

Lord Justice Coke described customs as "one of the main triangles of the laws of England" (Martin, 14). Others dispute this theory and contend most of the "customs" were in fact invented by the judges themselves.
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Social Organization & Social Systems

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65542814

Fischer entitled: "Representing Anthropological Knowledge: Calculating Kinship: Analyzing and Understanding Cultural Codes" states that:

Kinship is one of the more important, pervasive and complex systems of culture. All human groups have a kinship terminology, a set of terms used to refer to kin. The study of kinship is the greatest common denominator across the different fractions of social anthropology. The first scientific study of kinship was conducted by Lewis Henry Morgan and reported in the work entitled: "Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family" (1870) (Fischer, 2001)

The work entitled: "The Anthropology of Kinship" states that social groups based upon matrifiliation are social groups in which membership is: "recruited through mothers" (Parkin, 2004) with the rationalization being a model of conception that appoints the father little if any role in the conception of a child. Filiation and descent groups are stated to: "...continue to play an important role…… [Read More]


Kittelson, a. And Stafford, a. (nd) Yanomamo. MSU. Online available at

Schwimmer, B. (1998) Intergroup Relations and Social Distance among the Yanomamo. Online available at .

Schwimmer, B. (1998) Marriage Systems. Online available at .

Sexual Relations among Young People in Developing Countries (2001) World Health Organization. Online available at
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Human Reproductive Health and Sexuality

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94387018

Ideally, the diaphragm is used with contraceptive agents to increase effectiveness. The male condom covers the entire penis to prevent any sperm from entering the female after ejaculation. The female condom works on the same principle, only instead of fitting around the penis, it is designed to line the inside of the vagina where it is intended to perform the same function (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2005).

Chemical contraception includes oral birth control pills, most of which contain various combinations of estrogen-based hormones designed to inhibit ovulation. Other forms of chemical contraception include skin patches and subcutaneous implants that perform the same essential function as oral contraception except directly through the circulatory system. Similarly, injectable contraceptives such as Depo-Provera eliminate the need for oral pills as well as for estrogen because Depo-Provera uses progestin instead of estrogen, which is safer for many women and associated with fewer side effects. Generally,…… [Read More]


Taylor, C., Lillis, C., LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science

of Nursing Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
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Homeostatis a Term Which Refers to the

Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26236364

Homeostatis, a term which refers to the maintenance of the internal state of a given body that is quite distinct from the external environment in an effort of defending it against perturbation is an important element of every male and female on the planet. In this paper we attempt to explain how homeostatic mechanisms affect the homeostasis of the eproductive system.

How homeostatic mechanisms affect the male reproductive system

The hypothalamus produces the hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnH) which controls the anterior pituitary gonadotropins. The anterior pituitary gonadotropins then releases Folicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH).The Folicle stimulating hormone (FSH) then indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis by simulating sustentacular cells to effectively release andogen-binding protein (ABP).The andogen-binding protein (ABP)

then prompts the spermatogenic cells to effectively bind while also concentrating testosterone which then stimulates spermatogenesis.

The Luteinizing hormone (LH) effectively binds to the interstitial cells which then secretes testosterone and a…… [Read More]


Atkins, JA (2006). GNRH-induced Ovulation and Gonadotropin Surge in Beef Heifers: Effect of Day of the Cycle. University of Missouri - Columbia

Chrousos, GP. Stress and disorders of the stress system. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 5, 374 -- 381 (2009); published online 2 June 2009; doi:10.1038/nrendo.2009.106

Sherwood, L (2012). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Cengage Learning

Figure 1.
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Showy or Pink and White Lady Slipper Orchid

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44221243


Cypripedium eginae




Additional Interest

Cypripedium reginae is more commonly known as Pink and White Lady's Slipper, Queens Lady's Slipper or Showy Lady's Slipper (Kartesz, 1994). Coming from the plantae kingdom, it is of the order asparagales, and Orchidaceae, and the subfamily Cypripedioideae, of the genus cypripedium (Kartesz, 1994). This herbaceous perennial flower, which is a terrestrial temperate orchid, is the largest orchid native to North America. The plant may be found across a most of the eastern states in North America, including Atlanta, Arkansas and Tennessee, in the south to North Dakota in the west, and up to Canada where it is found in the eastern areas of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland (Nature Serve, 2014; Kartesz, 1994). In Minnesota, where it has been the state flow since 1902, it is one of the rarest wild flowers in state (Minnesota Department of Natural esources, 2014).…… [Read More]


Gray, Asa, (2010), The elements of botany for beginners and for schools, Nabu Press

Guignard, J. A, (1887), Beginning an acquaintance with wild bees, Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 17, 51-53

Felbaum, Mitchell, (1995), Endangered and Threatened Species of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, PA: Wild Resource Conservation Fund

Kartesz, J.T. (1994), A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland, Portland, OR., Timber Press
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]


1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from
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Fault An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based

Words: 30263 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86754711

Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales

The United Kingdom

statistics regarding claims
























Works Cited



At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More]

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Unfair Treatment of Women in the Muslim World

Words: 3320 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14258050

oman and Islam

Islamic religion has its established guiding teachings and principles that ensure its followers submit totally to the will of Allah for all the adherents. In effect, Islamic religion recognizes the fact that people and things around them affect their survival irrespective of their age, community, families, and the nation. The quality of life of the Muslims invariably affects the existence of the Islamic nations and religion as a whole. Muslim women are highly vulnerable to various health problems due to the strict religious ideation of most of the conditions that affect them. Islamic women as most of the women from other contemporary communities face numerous health challenges, including reproductive health problems such as increased cases of maternal death, destitution, poor access to maternal health services, and social violation of their human rights. As such, the health challenges make it necessary for the adoption of policies that recognize…… [Read More]

Works cited

Agnew, Vijay. Racialized Migrant Women in Canada: Essays on Health, Violence, and Equity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Print

Aswad, Barbara C, and Bilge? Barbara. Family and Gender among American Muslims: Issues Facing Middle Eastern Immigrants and Their Descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. Print

Atighetchi, Dariusch. Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives. New York? Springer, 2007. Internet resource.

Cortese, Delia, and Calderini Simonetta. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006. Print.
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Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in

Words: 4208 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81902786

Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).

Dissetation Pat

Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.

The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…… [Read More]

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Phylum Annelida

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44160429

Phylum Annelida

Annelids are members of the Superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The division of the Phylum is in three classes Hirudineans (leeches), Oligochaetes (earthworms) and Hirudinean (Polychaetes and leeches). They inhibit marine aquatic with Parapodia, like nereis Meglitsch P, 1972()

They are worm like animals that have muscular body walls that elongate. They are also circular in cross section. The major difference between Phylum Annelida and other worm like creatures is that, they have segmented bodies (also known as metameric). Each segment has its own particular function. Phylum Annelida include different types of earthworms, leeches and marine polychaetes. There are those that live in fresh water, marine also terrestrial. Some of them live as parasites. Annelids are skilled in swimming, creeping and burrowing Badea, Gagyi-Palffy, Stoian, & Stan, 2010


Meglitsch P (1972)

, said that Annelids are connected to Molluscs and seem to have arisen from flatworms. Given…… [Read More]


Badea, A.B., Gagyi-Palffy, A., Stoian, L.C., & Stan, G. (2010). Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators. [Article]. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society (AACL Bioflux), 3(1), 35-41.

Meglitsch P. (1972). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press.
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Color Doppler the Role of

Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60424441

Other signs of manifestation may include irregular bleeding not associated with a woman's normal menstrual cycle, pressure or pain during or after intercourse and abdominal pain of unknown origin (NIC, 2003).


Ultrasound, endovaginal ultrasound and transvaginal sonography have all been used to help identify malignancies within the reproductive organs including the uterus. Of these, the more effective of tools is Color Doppler Sonography, because it allows physicians to distinguish benign masses from malignant masses more easily than do traditional U/S, EVU and TVS techniques. The advantages of U/S, EVU and TVS include the relatively low risk of complications and exposure to radiation which may prove more dangerous than beneficial. In times of old CT scans were often used in an attempt to try to identify malignancies of the uterus and endometrium (oss & Goplerud, 1982). Today, by combining techniques, many doctors find it is much easier to exclude cancer…… [Read More]


Birnbaum, LS. (1991). Pharmacokinetic basis of age-related changes in sensitivity to toxicants. Ann Rev Pharmacol 31(1):101-28.

Charnley, G. & Putzrath, R.M. (2001). Children's health, susceptibility and regulatory approaches to reducing risks from chemical carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(2):187.

Fleischer, MD, Shappell, HW, Parker, LP, & Hanemann, MD. (2006) Color Doppler sonography of endometrial masses. Nashville: Departments of Radiology, OB/GYN, and Pathology: Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

NCI (2002 Oct). What is endometrial cancer, National Cancer Institute, UConn Health
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Clarkia Unguiculata Onagraceae Evolutionary Pollination Ecology This

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90790979

Clarkia Unguiculata: Onagraceae

Evolutionary (Pollination Ecology))

This study conducted by the department of ecology and marine biology of the University of California analyses the factors that contribute to the reproductive success of the plant CLARKIA UNGUICULATA. The purpose of the study was to research the possibility of the allelic variations affecting the male and female reproductive functions. For the study the researchers took pollen donors homozygous for C. And . alleles. The researchers used both selfed and out- crossed pollination using different homozygous pollen donors.

The tests were performed under both competitive (more pollen) and non-competitive conditions with mixed pollination. The amount of pollen used was also varied (high, medium and low) so as to discern the pre-fertilization performance of the pollens from their post fertilization performance. (Viability, abortion). All the plants used in the study were selected from the same place and the seedlings were germinated under same conditions.…… [Read More]


The following article was used as the source.


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Children's Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9884120

Children's Functional Health Pattern Assessment

Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)


Erickson's Developmental Stage:


Erickson's Developmental Stage:


Erickson's Developmental Stage:

Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.

Can formulate words with meaning

Feeds self

Climbs by themselves

Uses crayons and scissors

Runs, jumps and climbs

Reads at appropriate level

Not talking

Can't sit alone

Not toilet trained

Speech problems

Unable to tie shoes

Small vocabulary

Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.

Eating proper amounts

Eating on a regular basis

Trying new foods

Eating regularly

Eating proper amounts

Eating regularly

Lack of weight gain

Excessive…… [Read More]

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Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 475283

Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and Breast: Puberty, Pregnancy and Puerperium Including Molecular Actions and Functionally Important Tissue Level Effects

Estrogen and progesterone are essential to cyclical changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy and peurperium. Complex molecular activity influences tissue changes in multiple reproductive organs including the uterus, endometrium, ovaries, breasts and more (Kimbrell & McDonnell, 2003).During a woman's reproductive cycle the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone or luteinizing releasing hormone which stimulates the release of luteneizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (Merck, 2005). This in turns promotes maturation of female ovum and stimulates the body's release of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone during a woman's cycle. Estrogen and progesterone contain carbon atoms and other polycyclic compounds that are created from cholesterol and circulate within the bloodstream via plasma proteins (Merck, 2005).

Unbound estrogen and progesterone compounds stimulate the reproductive system including the endometrium, uterus and breasts to mature…… [Read More]


"Hormones of the Reproductive System of Females." Available: 

Kimbrell, E.A. & McDonnell, D.P. (2003). "Function and mode of action of nuclear receptors: Estrogen, progesterone and vitamin D" Pure Appl Chem, 75(11-12): 1671. Available: 

Merck & Co., Inc. (2005). Reproductive Endocrinology. The Merck Manual, Sec. 18, Ch.
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Women in Jails Women in

Words: 1873 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24797269

Not only was it cost effective but the study also reported that offenders who were treated in the community setting were 43% less likely to reoffend compared to the prison population clearly suggesting the effectiveness of community-based sentences. [Amanda Noblet, 2008, pg 27]


The criminal justice system is clearly unprepared and ill equipped to manage the unique needs of women in prison. There is clearly a need for a specific focus on Mental illness, sexual violence and drug abuse, reproductive health and other issues that are very relevant to the incarcerated female population. Clearly our female correctional facilities are under resourced and over crowded and overcrowded prisons are not ideal for reformation but instead create more problems. Since majority of women prisoners are incarcerated for minor drug related offenses and property crimes, a more liberal and effective reformative approach should be pursued. Community based alternative sentencing programs should be…… [Read More]


1) the Sentencing Project, (2007), 'Women in the Criminal Justice System: Briefing Sheets', retrieved April 25th 2010, from, 

2) Amanda Noblet, (2008), ' Women in Prison: A Review of Current Female Prison System: Future Directions and Alternatives',, retrieved April 25th 2010, from 

3) Nancy Kurshan, 'Women and imprisonment in U.S.', retrieved April 25th 2010, from,

4) Barbara Owen, 2010, ' Women in Prison', retrieved April 25th 2010
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Timing and Principle Characteristics of Developing Female

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41992603

Timing and Principle Characteristics of Developing Female and Male Germ Cells From Differentiation in Early Embryo to Point of Fertilization

Principle Characteristics Male and Female Germ Cells

The female and male germ cells are reproductive cells that fuse with one another during fertilization (Encarta, 2005; Burfoot, 1999). Each possesses unique characteristics and molecular structure during the prefertilization phase of development and post fertilization. These characteristics are influenced by the production of various hormones in the male and female body.

Fertilization occurs when the materials from two gametes come together to form an embryo. The female gamete is often referred to as the egg or female germ cell whereas the male gamete is often referred to as sperm or the male germ cells (Encarta, 2005; Burfoot, 1999). Developing female germ cells are generally large and contain nutrient reserves including what is referred to as the egg 'yolk' or sometimes white and…… [Read More]


AUA. (2005). "Management of male infertility." American Urology Association,

Available: topic=129

Burfoot, Annette. (1999). Encycolopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder:

Westview Press.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Conduct a

Words: 4252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80809171, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at

Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.

The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.

3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:

Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;

Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;

Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.

Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.

Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.

Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
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Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity

Words: 4404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11291106

Mold Spore Trapping

Current Scientific Knowledge

People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]


Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.

Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.

CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.

CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
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Puberty in Boys - Male

Words: 2012 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64098022


Sexual Implications of Puberty

We already know that puberty is the name given to the physical and emotional changes which take place in most boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 14. ut the implications, or possible consequences of that fact is that puberty occurs so that one day the boy or girl will be able to make a baby.

It isn't just the body that changes during puberty. Feelings can change too, and like the changes to the sexual organs, these feelings prepare us to have sex and make babies.

A person can have sexual feelings any time in their life, but these change around puberty. A guy might find some sexual feelings just seem to happen to him. ut sexual feelings mostly come about from things he chooses to do, either on his own or with someone else (Puberty, pregnancy and sex, 2009).

After puberty,…… [Read More]


Dautaj, J. (n.d.). Boy puberty. Retrieved March 03, 2009, from love to know:

Life after puberty. (2006, September 05). Retrieved March 03, 2009, from Sexuality and u:
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Chimerism in Humans Chimerism Comes

Words: 2116 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51529394

The medical term assigned to this phenomenon is called 'microchimerism'. In the case of more children being born, this can lead to some of the older child's DNA to be transferred from the mother to the younger child's fetus.

In an attempt to study microchimerism, J. Lee Nelson, an immunologist from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer esearch Center in Seattle conducted an experiment with assistance from his colleague Natalie. Blood samples from 32 healthy women revealed over 20% of them to bear white blood cells which belonged to their mother. It is hard to understand how these cells reside there instead of being rejected immediately by the host body. One assumption stated by Nelson indicates this to be a way to enhance the mother's immunity to prepare for the development of the fetus which can be deemed as a foreign organ on its own. They might even actively participate in the…… [Read More]


Halder Ashutosh " Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy." Original Communication 11.2(2005): 84-88 Web. Web 8 Apr.2010

Nicholas, J.W.,Jenkins W.J. And Marsh W.L "Human Blood Chimeras -- A study of surviving twins" The British Medical Journal 1.5033(1957): 1458-1460 Web 8 Apr.2010

"What is Chimerism ?" Wisegeek. Web. 8 Apr.2010.

"The Stranger Within." Katewerk. Web. 8 Apr.2010
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Infertility the Inability to Naturally

Words: 2812 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40383504

However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.

Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…… [Read More]


Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.

Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at

General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at

Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at
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International Union United Automobile Aerospace

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51585911

The safety exception to the BFOQ is limited to instances in which sex or pregnancy actually interferes with the employee's ability to perform, and the employer must direct its concerns in this regard to those aspects of the woman's job-related activities that fall within the essence of the particular business. This was determined in the case of Western Air Lines, Inc. v. Criswell, 472 U.S. 400, 413 and Trans World Airlines, Inc. v. Thurston, 469 U.S. 111, 122-125 (1985).

The Court thought that a word about tort liability and the increased cost of fertile women in the workplace was perhaps necessary. One of the dissenting judges in this case had concern about an employer's tort liability and concluded that liability for a potential injury to a fetus is a social cost that Title VII does not require a company to ignore. The court felt that it correct to say that…… [Read More]


Case Law. (2009). Retrieved October 19, 2009, from V/lex Web site:

International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace & Agriculture Implement Workers of America, UAW, et al., Petitioners v. Johnson Controls, Inc. 499 U.S. 187 (1991).

Supreme Court Collection. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2009, from Cornell University Law
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Genitourinary Disorders Healthcare Plan and Management

Words: 2366 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41801097

Healthcare Plan for the Management of Genitourinary Disorders

Objective of this paper is to carry out a care plan for the patient, aged 60 years, who is suffering from genitourinary disorder. The study carries out the case evaluation and identifies the symptoms of the patient complication. The study also provides a comprehensive healthcare plan used for the treatment of the patients.

Case Study Evaluation

HPI (History of Present Illness).

Evaluation of the case study reveals that the patient is a Hispanic male, aged 60 years of age and complains of a decline of urinary flow. While the patient has experienced the symptom for more than two years, however, the symptom has increased significantly for the past two weeks. Although, the patient has not been diagnosed in the past, however, he faces difficulties in achieving a free flow of urine that interferes in his daily activities. The gradual worsening of the…… [Read More]


Benedetti, F. (2008). Placebo Effects: Understanding the Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Oxford Scholarship Online.

Bluie, T. Campbell, D.B. Fuchs, G.J. et al. (2010). Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report. Pediatrics. 125( 1): S1-S18;

Finnegan-John, J. & Thomas, V.J. (2013). The Psychosocial Experience of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease and Its Impact on Quality of Life: Findings from a Needs Assessment to Shape a Service. Journal of Renal Care. 40(1): 74-81.

Jaarsma. T. (2005). Inter-professional team approach to Patients with Heart Failure. Heart. 91(6): 832-838.
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Women Struggles in EL the Rights of

Words: 1287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55195335

omen struggles in EL

The rights of women in society have always been a topic shrouded in a great deal of discussion. In many ways women are still struggling for equality within society and will likely continue to struggle for some years to come. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on how this theme of women's rights has informed English Literature and the manner in which it has been expressed including those thing that have changed and those things that have remained constant. More specifically the research will focus on women's rights in English literature from the Romantic Age until the 21st century.

The Romantic Age

In the real of English literature the Romantic age (1789-1830) was an extremely important time because it marked a new birth in the type literature that was written and the manner in which readers were exposed to the literature. As it pertains…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. (1847) Jane Eyre. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co

Rich, A. (1995) Of Woman Born - Motherhood As Experience And Institution

Showalter, E. (1982). A literature of their own. Princeton University Press

Woolf. V. (1989) A Room of Ones Own.
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Pesticides on Birds Are Seriously

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61069719

These pesticides are cholinesterase-inhibiting organophosphates and carbamates. The reason for their popularity is their low cost and their ability to work against a wide variety of insects. However when those very insects are consumed by birds, the result is fatal as birds either die or develop abnormalities in their reproductive system. Some target specific pesticides are less toxic and may not harm the bird population but still caution must be applied. Diazinon is the most lethal insecticide and some recent cases have shown their detrimental impact on birds. Insects and vegetation under pesticide treatment are the biggest cause of lethal poisoning of birds. It must also be pointed out that birds may not immediately die after consuming pesticides. There are instances when birds after having tasted pesticides would start losing weight. Their health suffers and they become more vulnerable to other predators such as bad weather or scavengers such as…… [Read More]


TINA PHILLIPS, Pesticides and Birds SUMMER 2001/VOLUME 15, NUMBER: Retrieved online 7th Feb 2005:

Caroline Cox, Pesticides and Birds: From DDT to Today's Poisons. JOURNAL OF PESTICIDE REFORM / WINTER 1991 / VOL. 11, NO. 4
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Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds as Indoor Air Pollutants

Words: 4019 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24251196

Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.

Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…… [Read More]


1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?

Medical Information

2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?

Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
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Organism Monkey Classification and Common Features Monkeys

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83593699

Organism: Monkey

Classification and common features

Monkeys are classified under the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates, superfamilies Cercopithecoidea and Ceboidea. (Classification: Infoplease) More specifically the term monkey "includes all primates that do not belong to the categories human, ape, or prosimian." (Monkey: Encyclopedia Com) There are two main groupings under which monkeys fall. These are New World and Old World monkeys. (Monkey: Wikipedia.)

The common characteristics of moneys include the following. They are all excellent climbers and are arboreal. They mostly live and can be found in subtropical and tropical climates. They are almost exclusively day-active animals. Their physiognomy is similar to humans, with flat faces and eyes pointed forward. They also have stereoscopic vision. Another distinguishing characteristic is that their hands and feet are highly developed for grasping and climbing. Many species have big toes and thumbs which are opposable. (Monkey: Encyclopedia Com)

Monkeys have characteristics…… [Read More]


Bergman J. 2004)

Why Mammal Body Hair Is an Evolutionary Enigma. CRS Quarterly. [Online] Available from: . December 26, 2004.

Classification: Infoplease. [Online] Available from: December 26, 2004
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Anti-Abortion Any Country That Accepts

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26449332

Abortions, in addition to being moral and religious wrong, are wrong for the damage that they can cause the woman physically and the emotional scars. Emotionally at the time of the abortion, the feeling may be of relief from the unwanted child but later the feelings can change to depression or guilt. In later life, the abortion can haunt the person especially if she has more children and she has to think about the one she aborted. The feelings are there regarding would my child have had a brother or a sister. Ask any woman who has lost a child during or after childbirth and they will tell you. YOU NEVER FORGET.

A woman considering abortion should take a good long look at the medical complications that can be faced by an abortion. They can affect the health of a woman at the time of the abortion as well as…… [Read More]

Bibliography (2010). "Anti-abortion arguments - Reasons against abortion." Retrieved on April

20, 2010 from (2010). "Reasons against abortion." Retrieved on April

20, 2010 from
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Chemical Mediators in the Brain

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8760485

Phenylethylamine naturally occurs as a trace amine in the brain. It releases dopamine in the mesolimbic pleasure-centers and peaks during orgasm. In the laboratory, and in unnaturally high doses it can produce stereotyped behavior more prominently than even than amphetamine (ibid).

Phenylethylamine has very distinct binding sites but not specific neurons. It helps mediate feelings of attraction, excitement, giddiness, apprehension and euphoria; but it has also been described as an endogenous anxiogen. One of its metabolites is high in subjects with paranoid schizophrenia (ibid).

Phenylethylamine has been theorized to cause depression. Monoamine oxidase type-b is equated as phenylethylaminase. The use of a selective MAO-b inhibitor, such as selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl) or rasagiline (Azilect) can accentuate the effects of chocolate (ibid).

In not just sex, but in all addictive behaviors, dopamine is released . Dopamine is released following high levels of addictive activity. e are not really addicted to the activity,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Caston, John. (2010). Before you buy oxytocin nasal sprays are you aware of the effects and mechanism of oxytocin?. Retrieved from

Chocalate. (n.d.). Retrieved from .

The molecular biology of paradise. (n.d.). Retrieved from 

Oxytocin . (2010, July 12). Retrieved from .
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Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury Exposure

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29326897

Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury

Exposure Effects of Mercury and Arsenic

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Mercury is considered as toxic metal causing neurological disorders while Arsenic is considered as a human carcinogen. Mercury mainly affects areas which are associated with the sensory, visual and auditory functions and those concerned with co-ordination. On the other hand, Arsenic exposure results in chronic diseases pertaining to skin tumors, hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis of palms. This paper revolves around the explanation of symptoms pertaining to the harmful exposure effects of mercury and arsenic, and also highlights how the symptoms of both differ from each other.

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Elevated levels of exposure to Mercury and Arsenic cause harmful effects to human health, deteriorating human reproductive and nervous systems. Coal burning power plants emit mercury; home thermometers, "button" batteries, the new energy-saving fluorescent…… [Read More]


Keil, D., E., Ritchie, B., J. & McMillin, G., A. (2011). Testing for Toxic Elements: A Focus on Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Lab Medicine, 42, Pp. 735-742, Retrieved

December 21, 2012, from

WHO (2010), Exposure to Arsenic: A Major Public Health Concern, WHO Document

Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland, Pp. 1-5, Retrieved December 21, 2011, from
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Words: 1939 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1303447


Chemical Formula: C12H18Br6

Molecular eight: 641.70

3D Rendering using Chemitorium:

Functional Groups: bromo, cyclo

Shape and Geometric Features: The atom is always a 12-sided figure with six Br vertices. It takes the shape of an octagon that is connected to a hexagon on one side. In a three-dimensional rendering, the molecule takes on a more oval shape rather than the stricter appearance of the two-dimensional rendering.

Chiral Properties and Isomers:


Isomers are the addition or subtraction of electrons in the molecule. The below are the most common isomers of Hexabromocyclododecane. These are coded as alphahexabromocyclododecane, betabromocyclododecane, and gammabromocyclododecane. These indicate which portion of the Bromine in the molecule has been affected by the electron changes.

Chiral Diastereomers: -, ?-, and ?- HBCD

Chirality, by definition is a type of molecule that lacks an internal plane of symmetry. The chirality of Hexabromocyclododecane yields many pollutants which have an adverse…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Arnot, John. "An Evaluation of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) for Persistent Organic

Pollutant (POP) Properties and the Potential for Adverse Effects in the Environment." European Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel (EBFRIP). 2009. Print.

"Chemical Book: Hexabromocyclododecane." Web. Apr. 30, 2011.
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Beauty and Life of the Monarch Butterfly

Words: 2888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83935617

Beauty and Life of the Monarch Butterfly

This is a paper about the Monarch Butterfly. What animal kingdom is it from? Listed is the life cycle of the butterfly. What are the adaptations of the Monarch Butterfly?


Many people think butterflies live in a carefree environment, but they are wrong. They seem so peaceful visiting flowers, but they are bound by social conventions and instincts of their own. Although their lives appear to be so simple, yet their lives are quite demanding (Farrand 1990). The beauty of the Monarch is found delighting in most butterfly lovers. The life of a Monarch Butterfly is quite complicated as it meets the instincts that it is bound with. A butterfly's life depends on finding enough food, where to lay its eggs safely, the intricate demands of courtships, and on finding the right spot of transformation from a…… [Read More]


Butterflies and Moths" Encarta Encyclopedia Article.

Butterflies The World of Nature" 1990. New York: Gallery Books

Carson, Shawn. "Unraveling the Secrets of Monarchs" Scientific American Sep. 1997 Vol. 277 Issue 3 p. 90

Darrach, Brad. "Millions of Monarchs" Life. Aug 93. Vol. 16. Issue 9. p. 50
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Human Suffering in the Midst of Progress

Words: 1142 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15839051

Human Suffering in the Midst of Progress in the orks of EE Cummings & Mark Rothko

At the turn of the 20th century, American culture has flourished significantly, especially with the emergence of important fields of discipline that evoke individualism and free expression in works of art created by American artists. This phenomenon is especially evident after orld ar II, where the conflict among the world's nations had affected the psyche of American society and nation, one of the major players in the recently concluded war. After II, different lifestyles have emerged in the American society: consumerism, urbanism, and hedonism. These lifestyles gave birth to individualism and freedom of expression among people, especially now that the mass media made it possible for the society to exchange and extend messages and information to people located in different areas. However, despite these developments in American life, people have initially become disillusioned and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rothko, M. "Gethsemane" (painting). National Gallery of Art. Available at

A cummings, e. e. "pity this monster, manunkind." Available at
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Abortion Debate Social Work

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99748225

Social Work: he Abortion Debate

he controversy surrounding the issue of abortion rights has been in existence since the early decades of the 19th century. Like is the case in many other countries, the pro-life and pro-choice movements are the two opposing sides in the abortion debate in the UK. Members of the pro-life movement hold the view that abortion is not justifiable under any circumstances, particularly because it amounts to murder, and only God has the right to give and take life. he pro-choice profile, however, refutes this claim, arguing that fetuses are not recognized as persons on the legal front, and hence, they are not subject to enjoyment of constitutional rights like other legal persons. his text reviews the evolution of the abortion debate and abortion policies in the UK, and explores the fundamental issues at conflict from the perspective of both sides before giving a set of…… [Read More]

The Implications of Existing Laws

Abortion Statistics

The UK, contrary to other developed countries such as the U.S. And Canada, has reported increasing rates of both legal and illegal abortions. A 2013 study by the European Life Network, which sought to assess the prevalence of abortion in England and Wales found that the number of reported abortions rose by 0.1 percentage points and 2.1 percentage points respectively between 2012 and 2013, and
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Women and Rape the Main

Words: 3530 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60300142

The overall literature available on this theory is more or less mixed as some studies claim that there is nor relation between the two concepts (Pelletier & Herold, 1988), whereas others state that rape fantasies are high where women are sexually suppressed (Hariton & Singer, 1974), yet another study concluded that the women who had higher ratio of rape fantasy were mentally more healthy towards the concept of sex (Gold et al., 1991; Shulman & Horne, 2006) and experienced lower levels of shame (Shulman & Horne, 2006; Strassberg & Lockerd, 1998). Hence, it is important to analyze whether there is actual link between rape fantasies and the sexual guilt phenomenon.

Openness to Sexual Experience

The philosophy of the openness to sexual experience is in direct opposition to the sexual blame avoidance phenomenon. Here the idea is that having rape fantasies is part of the sexual identity and need of a…… [Read More]


Allgeier, E.R. & Allgeier, a.R. (2000). Sexual interactions (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Barlow, DH, Sakheim, D.K., & Beck, J.G. (1983). Anxiety increases sexual arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 49-54.

Baumeister, R.F. & Twenge, J.M. (2002). Cultural suppression of female sexuality. Review of General Psychology, 6, 166-203.

Bond, S.B. & Mosher, D.L. (1986). Guided images of rape: Fantasy, reality, and the willing victim myth. Journal of Sex Research, 22, 162-183.
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Abortion to Poverty and Abortion the Relation

Words: 2244 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29034723

Abortion to Poverty

Poverty and Abortion

The elation of Poverty to Abortion

Advancements in globalization in the current century, and the technological advancements, the globe has experienced drastic changes in terms of the culture and social related issues. People in both developed and developing states are changing their conservativeness and embracing new ideas. Awareness is being realized and the levels of literacy are gradually increasing. Information on life and its importance are clearer compared to the past, where people where not exposed. Due to this, there are heated debates on the issues of abortion in the society. This paper will analyze the situation in which poverty is affecting abortion, and how poor women's lives are implicated. Policies that assist to counter these issues are also discussed critically.


Scientific researches and innovation has been highest in the 21st century. Scientists are aiming at bettering the human life. However, the proposals…… [Read More]


Djerassi, C. (1986). Abortion in the United States: Political or Policy? Bulleting of the Atomic Scientists, 42(4), 38-41.

Kimport, K., Foster, K. & Weitz, T.A. (2011). Social Sources of Women's Emotional Difficulty after Abortion: Lessons from Women's Abortion Narrative. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43(2), 103-109.

Levine, B.P. (2004). Abortion Policies and the Economics of Fertility. Society, 41(4), 79-85.

MacNair, R. (2012 June 6). Poverty and Abortion. Retrieved from
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Lower Abdominal Pain

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93977226

Lower Abdominal Pain

Patient: Patient is a 30-year-old female presenting with lower abdominal pain, beginning approximately 48-hour previous to her exam. Over the last few days, her pain has increased, and she reports vaginal bleeding that is scanty. She did have a normal menstrual period that ending two-weeks prior, and she indicates this was normal and lasted about 4 days. She is Gravida 2, Para -0, Miscarriage -- 2, and has been attempting to conceive with her husband. In addition, she denies dysuria or urinary frequency.

Vaginal bleeding after sex; inflammation of cervix from friction during sex, usually harmless and clear up quickly. It is possible that the issue could be something more serious (cervical dysplasia or cancer), but more likely inadequate lubrication or foreplay, possibly injury to the uterine lining. Vaginitis is another possible cause, all of which require a vaginal examination (Mayo Clinic, 2014).

Pseydocyesis (False pregnancy). This…… [Read More]


Adams, P.J. (2002). Menstruation in Young Girls: A Clinical Perspective. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 99(4), 655-662

Boston Children's Hospital (2011). Amenorrhea. Retrieved from:

Dains, J.E., Baumann, L.C., & Scheibel, P. (2012). Amenorrhea. In J.E. Dains, L.C. Baumann. & P. Scheibel, Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care (4th ed., pp. 46- 60). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Master-Hunter, T. & Heiman, D. (2006) Amenorrhea: Evaluation and Management. American Family
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How Gloria Steinem Established Fashion in the 1970s

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30473411

History Of Fashion: Gloria Steinem -- Feminist Chic

The fashion style of Gloria Steinem is perfectly reflected in the photograph by Yale Joel as well as in the ideology which she promoted throughout the early days of the Feminist Movement.

Steinem's fashion style mirrored her Feminist advocacy history, when in the 1960s, she started Ms. Magazine, which addressed such topics as the problematic nature of the word "male" being in "female." "[footnoteRef:1] In Yale Joel's photograh, Steinem sits, Indian style (cross-legged), and holds a placard that reads "We Shall Overcome."[footnoteRef:2] The emphatic nature of this prophecy is apparent in the underscored verb and the clothing that Steinem wears indicates a kind of militaristic "chic" -- a fashionably elegant, streamlined radical femininity that a leader like Steinem could use advocate change. She would use this image to advocate abortions, as she did in a 2006 article entitled "We Had Abortions," which…… [Read More]


Cooke, R. "Gloria Steinem: I Think We Need to Get Much Angrier," The Guardian.

Web. 31 Oct 2015

Horowitz, David. Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique.

Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.
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Home Energy Audit Energy Sources

Words: 855 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24767353

All other sources of energy used within my home: Apart from the electricity which is used in the home for most appliances, gas is also used in the kitchen to power the stove and the hot water boiler system for the house. This is also then used in the heating system in the house. Water is the other main source of energy which is used in the house, for washing dishes such as in the dishwasher, washing clothes, having showers, washing the car and watering the lawn. Gas is used for an emergency generator in the case of a power cut to the house, and also for some of the tools such as the lawnmower. Logs are also burned on the fire in the winter.

Areas in the home where energy efficiency could be improved: Energy efficiency could be improved by making sure that all electrical items are turned off…… [Read More]


African-American Environmentalist Association (2000). Our Unfair Share III. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, from

ATSDR (1999) ToxFAQs: Sulfur dioxide. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, at .

Pepco (2009). Retrieved on January 21, 2009, at .

Tunbridge Wells Borough Council (No date) Common Pollutants and Health Effects. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, at
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Stress Definition of Stress Researchers Define Stress

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5991786


Definition of stress

esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.

Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…… [Read More]


AIS (NDI). Stress, definition of stress, stressor, what is stress?, Eustress?" The American institute of stress. Retrieved October10, 2011, from

Barr, N. (2008, August 14) What stress does to your body. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from

Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. American psychological association's "Stress in America report." Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from

Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. (1993). Stress: The different kinds of stress. American psychlolgical association. In The Stress Solution. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from
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Atrazine Banned in Europe Atrazine

Words: 2570 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78388114

And for good reason: it's still one of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.


The company points out that this herbicide is 'safe' and that it is essential for increased crop production at a time of critical demand in the United States and the world. Syngenta also refers to the fact that in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "…re-registered atrazine in 2006, based on the overwhelming evidence of safety from nearly 6,000 studies" (Syngenta).

While the main reason for the EU ban on this product was the indication of contaminated drinking water supplies, Syngenta denies this claim. It supports this view by referring to a 2008 study in which 122 Community Water Systems monitored in 10 states were monitored. This study found that the federal standards set for Atrazine were not exceeded in any of the states.

One should however bear in mind that…… [Read More]


Ackerman F. ( 2007)the Economics of Atrazin. Retrieved from 

Ackerman F. ( 2010) With weed killer atrazine, the benefits are small, the risks are huge. Retrieved from

A Field of Nightmares Updated: Atrazine, Corn, and Frogs. Retrieved from

Atrazine. Retrieved from
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Androstenedione in the Major League Baseball Season

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928160


In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.

There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…… [Read More]


Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.

Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.

Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.

Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
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Progression of American Women Throughout

Words: 2545 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20061100

"Their activities emphasized the sensual, pleasure-seeking dimensions of the new century's culture and brought sexuality out from behind the euphemisms of the nineteenth century (1997). This was seen in the dances of the era (e.g., the slow rag, the bunny hug, etc.) as well as the dress styles of American women. Women's appearance changed. They no longer were buried under petticoats and big skirts, restricted by their corsets. The silhouette was now slender and smaller, allowing a greater freedom of movement as well as more exposure of arms and legs. Women who worked were now considered "bachelor girls" as opposed to "homeless women" or "spinsters" (1997). By 1920, the image of the flapper girl was everywhere; this can be viewed as an example of just how far women had come.

Unit III: 1921 -- 1945:

Zelda Fitzgerald, wife of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, said in 1924: "I like the jazz…… [Read More]


Collins, G. (2009). When everything changed: the amazing journey of American women

from 1960 to the present. Little, Brown & Company; 1st edition.

Evans, S. (1997). Born for liberty: a history of women in America. Free Press.
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Biology Life Is Great A

Words: 2505 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61345251

In fact, I think I'll just keep eating for a while, I'm not feeling quite full yet. There, that did it.

Did I mention there's a whole bunch of us hanging out in here? Well, it seems there were quite a few of us in that fish our human ate, and we've all taken up residence here. Some of us are in the intestines, but most of us are just hanging out here, enjoying the company. After breakfast, I just take a little time to digest my meal, and then it's time for my own morning cleansing. I'll excrete my nasty stuff, right into my human's bile, and then it will travel out along with my human's excretions. I spend some time shifting around and making sure I'm securely attached, so I don't head outside along with the morning meal, and then, I'm ready to do my favorite thing for…… [Read More]


Editors. "Clonorchiasis." Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 2007. 17 Nov. 2007.

Fan, P.C. "Viability of metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Frozen or Salted Freshwater Fish." International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1998, April. 603-605.

Lin, Rui Lin, and Xueming Li, Chungeng Lan, Senhai Yu, Kawanaka Masanori. "Investigation on the Epidemiological Factors of Clonorchis sinensis Infection in an Area of South China." Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. Vol. 36, No 5, 2005. 1114-1117.

Shin, Hai-Rim, and Chae-Un Lee, Hyung-Jong Park, Sang-Young Seol, Jung-Myeong Chung, Ha-Chin Choi, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Takao Shigemastu. "Hepatitis B and C Virus, Clonorchis sinensis for the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Pusan, Korea." International Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 25, No. 5, 1996. 933-940.
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Vitamin E Can Be Useful

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11279613

These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)

However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Health-Prostate Cancer. Retrieved at . Accessed 5 November, 2006

Heaney, John A; Ellsworth, Pamela; Gill, Oliver. 100 Questions and Answers about Prostate

Cancer. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003.
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Words: 2619 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17061104


It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.

Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates.…… [Read More]

References Cited

Clack, J.A. "An Early Tetrapod from Romer's Gap." Nature (2002) 418: 72-76. [electronic version]

Clack, J.A. "From Fins to Fingers." Science 304.5667 (2004): 57-59. [electronic version]

Coates, M.I, and J.A. Clack. "Polydactyly in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Limbs"

Nature. (1990) 347: 66-69. [electronic version]
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Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760721

Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]


Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site:

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.