Such parent is expected to show higher degree of neglect and rejection.
Research conducted by Jackson et al. (1997) have shown that parenting styles that are not balanced are expected to enhance the chances of alcoholism in the child. Where authoritative style of parenting is highly balanced, it not only fulfills the needs of a child but also exerts the demand for the right behavior in a positive manner. The children who were made to receive a positive feedback and shared cordial, friendly and supporting relationship from their parents are expected to show lower degree of inclination towards alcoholism (Jackson et al., 1997). There is a considerable chance that hereditary factors also play decisive role in deciding the alcohol consumption patterns of these children. Involvement of a similar genetic pattern is a considerable factor in this regard.
However, generally speaking, the teenagers are more likely to adopt the behavior borne by their families, the work environment, general ethics and morals and level of commitment and self-control that they have witnessed in their families. However, many teenagers also tend to reject the inherent family setting that they have been operating in and develop an opposite set of values. This is most likely the case when the child was raised through authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parenting styles. Where the teenagers come from homes with high strict values, the most obvious inclination is to develop a behavior which is opposite to what they have been forced to maintain. On the other hand, permissive parenting style forces children to lose self-control and develop low-degree of self-esteem which is also one of the major causative agents behind alcoholism.
However, families having a balanced culture of autonomy and independence are more likely to have strong ties with the adolescent members of their families. Although in college life especially in freshman year, the students are most likely to show diversion from their standard behaviors due to peer pressure. However, such attitude is most likely to develop when the parent-adolescent share a low-quality relationship. Children of authoritative parents are less likely to develop emotional problems since they are taught to gain self-control and have been given reasonable autonomy and independence. However, children with considerable emotional requirements being ignored by their parents are most likely to develop a certain type of addiction in the college years when an enhanced relationship with other students coming from various backgrounds and family systems is developed (Deky, Levy & Wells, 1986)
Research regularly Conducted on Parenting Styles & Adolescents' Alcohol Intake
Alcoholism & Its Relation to Parenting Styles
There have been several studies conducted in order to prove a relationship between parenting styles and the pattern of alcoholism in freshman college students. One of these studies was conducted by Peckham and Lopez in 2007, which was intended to establish a relationship between these two variables. During this study, a sample of 441 college students out of which 216 were female subjects and 225 were males, was taken. Although the study was gender driven with a 2-group model used for sample division, the outcomes derived indicated that the parenting styles and the bonds of the subjects with their parents had an impact on the overall behavioral health of these subjects and also their alcohol consumption as a result. In addition to that, the study focused more on relationships of these subjects with their fathers only instead of both parents. However, both the genders showed that in a presence of permissive or authoritarian father, the subject was inclined to develop alcoholism as a result of depression and stress.
The findings of this research further suggested that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders). The correlation was performed with the help of multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model (MIMIC). The study lead to a conclusion that father's personality and parenting style has more influence on personality of a child.
A similar study was conducted by Changalwa et al. In 2012. The intention was to develop a correlation between the parenting styles and the alcohol intake by the students of Kaimosi Teachers Training College, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used which is best suited for surveys involving larger populations. A purposive sample of 32 randomly selected subjects was taken and a self-completed questionnaire was used as an assessment tool. This tool was suitable for acquiring first hand information from the subjects. To determine the content validity of the research instrument, the researcher identified the different types of parenting styles and their influence on alcohol abuse from review of literature. Test-retest method of estimating reliability was used to determine the reliability. This method administers the same instrument twice to the same group of subjects at different times. Data was analyzed by use of frequency distribution tables and Chi-square. Individual questions and the respective answers were analyzed with the help of chi-square test (Changalwa et al., 2012).
The findings of the study conducted by Changalwa et al. (2012) illustrated that there is a concrete relationship between the parenting styles and the alcohol intake which further affects the behavior of drug addicts and persuades them to get involved in activities which may fall under the category of disciplinary violation. However, a distinguished fact related to this study is its conclusion. Where permissive and authoritarian parenting styles have similar outcomes as the above mentioned study, the students who were raised under authoritative parenting styles showed more alcohol addiction as compared to students under uninvolved parenting style.
Another important and extensive study was conducted by Bahr and Hoffmann (2010). In this research, a major sample of 4983 adolescents was taken and it was established through the direct survey that Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, might help deter adolescents from heavy alcohol use, even when adolescents have friends who drink. However, peer pressure was determined as an important factor having its impact on the overall negative relation between authoritative parenting style and the subject's alcohol intake.
Above studies (Changalwa et al., 2012; Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007) were more concerned with the view of adolescents themselves, but there are researches such as the one conducted by Beck et al. (2004) in which the views of parents have also been incorporated. In these researches, factors like behavior, alcohol intakes and depression levels of the parents were observed. Furthermore, some of these studies also developed a relationship between parent monitoring and alcohol intake of the teenagers and adolescents. It was established through these researches that in the given settings, parental monitoring has a diminishing relationship with the child's alcohol intake (Beck et al., 2004).
There were other researches conducted by Peiponen et al. (2006) and Choquet et al. (2007) where association between the disturbing behavior of adolescents and parents overall alcohol intake and general behavior was examined, it was concluded that where parents tend to have depression and other behavioral problems along with alcoholism; similar pattern of disturbing behavior and a tendency to develop alcoholism in future was also found their children.
Cumulatively speaking, these studies (Changalwa et al., 2012; Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007; Peiponen et al., 2006; Choquet et al., 2007) helped in reaching a conclusion that parenting styles and parents' monitoring level had a considerable impact on the alcoholism in adolescents who are undergraduates especially freshman students.
Even if the factors like peer pressure are considered in evaluating this relation, it can be determined that a tendency of a college student to alter his/her behavior is also dominated by the parenting styles that he/she has experinecd during childhood. This is so because parenting styles have a direct impact on personality development of a child. Where the parents are willing to give reasonable independence to a child with a freedom of expression along with reasonable monitoring, such child is likely to develop a desirable behavior exhibiting confidence, higher self-esteem and self-control. These factors keep the child away from the control of peer pressure resisting any such attraction and need through family principals and values. A student may decline an invitation to take a drink by saying, Sorry I don't drink but the main motivator behind such resistance is usually the family values that are prioritized higher than anything else.
Frequency & Beginning of Alcoholism
In order to establish estimation about the frequency of Alcohol intake by teenagers and adolescents, there are various researches which have been conducted in the last decade. One of them is the research paper compiled by Lucy Holmes and Susan McVie in 2005. The research itself was constituted of the findings based on self report questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, school, social work, children's hearings records; teacher questionnaires, police juvenile liaison officer and Scottish criminal records, Parent survey and…