Pigmentation the Problems Relating to Skin Pigment Term Paper

  • Length: 5 pages
  • Subject: Disease
  • Type: Term Paper
  • Paper: #60854652

Excerpt from Term Paper :


The problems relating to skin pigment are associated with symptoms of the skin appearing faded or deeper than the usual or often spotted and blemished. (Skin pigmentation disorders) The unusual skin development and unusual pigmentation of the skin is seen to present at the time of birth or develop at the later stages. (Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders) The skin pigmentation disorders seem to arise over a large number of races and conditions. (Nacinamide Helps to Lighten Skin) Some problems like albinism are considered exceptional phenomenon about a single case arises in every 17000 people. Other cases like age spots are very common. (Skin pigmentation disorders) Irrespective of the fact that it is quite harmless in its effects in most of the cases, however, the growth and pigmentation disorders warrant thorough watching for any other variations that may mark a development of cancerous skin cells. There are several types of skin developments and pigmentation disorders that necessitate clinical care by the doctors or the healthcare professionals. The presence of the pigment known as melanin determines the skin color. The melanin is formulated with the specialized cells in the skin. The skin color of a person is determined by the amount and type of melanin determines. The Melanin presents color to the skin, hair and iris of the eyes. (Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders)

The pigment in the skin that safeguards it from the sunlight is referred to as melanin. This causes the black people looking younger than the white skinned people. The melanin pigment in the skin safeguards the skin from sunlight and lingers the aging process. The skin of black people some times appears to be irregularly pigmented. This appears as dark patches on the skin. Inflammations also results in irregular pigmentation. (African or Black Skin - Irregular Pigmentation) There are two types of the pigment melanin: eumelanin granules, that appears to be round and smooth and generates black and brown colored skin pigmentation, and the other one is phaeomelanin granules, those are considered more asymmetrical in shape and size. These are more apparent in case of the lighter skins more particularly in combination of red hair and freckles. Such type of melanin is considered to exist in combination and occur in varying proportions. (The World of Skin Care)

The melanocytes, those found in the basal layer of the epidermis are regarded as the most significant of these cells. This produces a special pigment known as the melanin that assists in determining the hair and skin pigmentation. The pigment is created with small structures known as melanosomes, those are consolidated as particles and are delivered in small packages to each basal cell by slender fibers known as dendrites. Each melanocyte is seen to have generated about 36 keratinocytes with melanin granules. Such small groups of pigments settle over the nucleus of the cells in the outer skin and safeguard it from the injurious effects of the sun rays. (The World of Skin Care) The type of race and magnitude of exposure to sunlight determines the level of melanin. The exposure to sun rays enhances the production of melanin that safeguards the skin against injurious ultraviolet rays. Additionally, the melanin production is also influenced by hormonal variations. (Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders)

The role of cutaneous melanin pigment in camouflage, mimicry, social communication and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation is considered very crucial. The melanogenesis appears to be under complicated regulations by the multiple factors with their interactions through pathways activated by receptor dependent and -- independent mechanisms in hormonal, auto-, para-, or intracrine styles. With the multidirectional nature and heterogeneous character of the melanogenesis modifying agents, the regulatory factors are not organized into simple linear sequences and rather they interphase in a multidimensional network with extensive functional intersections arranged in both series and parallel. The MC1 receptor with its ligands melanocortins and ACTH is considered as the most significant controller of melanogenesis, contrary to the negative regulators agouti protein that stands out, in determining intensity of melanogenesis and also determining the form of synthesized melanin. In the perspective of skin as a stress organ, the melanogenic activity appears to serve as an exclusive molecular sensor and transducer of harmful signals and as a controller of local homeostasis. Adhering to such multiple roles, the melanogenesis is regulated by a highly structured system being active ever since the early embryogenesis and is capable of superselective functional control that may come down to the level of cells represented by single melanocytes. The role of melanogensis is actually more than the mere assignment of a color trait. (Pigmentation in Mammalian Skin and Its Hormonal Regulation)

The body is not capable of producing the melanin under hypo-pigmentation. Albinism, to illustrate, is an inherited environment that results in the deficiency of pigment. Under hyper-pigmentation, the body creates too much melanin leading to become darker than as usual. The research on the occurrence of the skin pigmentation disorders are still going on by the scientists. The disorders are evident in some cases due to some physical reasons like exposure to the sun rays, reactions of drugs or genetic inheritance. However, in some other cases it is not so transparent. The Albinism is considered to be an inherited recessive trait. Albinism is of many different types. However, most of the people under the influence of this element exhibit pale skin, hair and eyes. Melanin also effects eye color, and acts as a filter that protects the eyes from too much light. Visual injury among some of the people results from deficiency of melanin with presence of albinism. Sunburn easily occurs as a result of deficiency of skin pigmentation and is therefore, vulnerable to the skin cancer. The hypo-pigmentation spots also often are combined with vitlilgo where a person has been cut or injured. (Skin pigmentation disorders)

The studies have revealed that the light scraps combined with vitilgo appear to have not contained melanocytes, the type of skin cells that creates melanin. Some scientists consider the occurrence of vitilgo is the result of autoimmune disorder. It has also been associated with other conditions like hyperthyroidism and the disease of Addison that affects the adrenal gland. The hyper-pigmentation is resulted from many elements like too much sunbathing to drug reactions or poor nutrition. Deeper patches on the skin may also be caused due to wounds and scars. Dark and leathery skin also results from the psychological syndrome that of the people with lichen simplex chronicus gives rise to a compulsive need to scratch. A permanent scarring and infection results from this if left untreated. Scientists think the lamellar ichthyosis is resulting from genetics. The pregnancy hormone some times give rise to the melasma and normally vanish after a woman gives birth. The signs as a result of birthmarks, moles and aging spots are normally considered harmless. Some moles, however, differ in size, color, texture or bleed symbolizing the possibility of skin cancer. (Skin pigmentation disorders)

The patient administered with large doses for prolonged periods of treatment for various kinds of psychiatric illness may exhibit pigmentation rarely and if any occur may be localized to the skin those are exposed to the sunlight. Most are amenorrheic, irrespective of the fact that they are not yet menopausal. The variations in skin are sometimes associated with corneal variations and lens opacities. The pigment spots on the nasal and temporal areas of the bulbar conjunctivae also seems to occur which is resembled to the Gaucher's Disease. This therapy assists only a fraction of mental patients for improving the pigmentation complications. The variations in color are evident from the tan to a slate gray color and sometimes to a distinct purple color leading to the unique conceptualization of 'purple people syndrome'. The pigment is considered as the result of the purplish colored metabolite of this medication that localizes along with melanin in the dermis of the skin. The diffusion property supposed to have represented bluish color. Sometimes the skin color appears surprisingly argyria. (ARGYRIA: Selected References and Annotations Comments on Differential Diagnosis of the Skin Discoloration of Argyria) The variations in pigmentation evidently exist with any process of skin resurfacing. Such variations are due to several effects including removal of pigment cells and change in pigment cell metabolism. (Pigmentation change after skin resurfacing)

The investigative analysis of skin pigmentation disorders differs from different types of skin pigmentation disorders. Investigation of albinism begins with watching the hair, skin and eyes of the patients. It may necessitate blood tests and examination of eyes also. Simply an eye examination is considered sufficient to detect vitilgo. With regard to most of the hyper-pigmentation disorders, doctors can make a diagnosis by looking at the appearance of the persons. To identify the conditions like lichen simplex chronicus or lamellar ichthyosis, or skin cancer, the biopsy is also done to prevent some of the affected skin for further study under a microscope. A Wood's Lamp is also utilized by some physicians to detect the skin…

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